The unicorn is a legendary creature, described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead. The unicorn was depicted in ancient seals of the Indus Valley Civilization and was mentioned by the ancient Greeks in accounts of natural history by various writers, including Ctesias, Pliny the Younger and Cosmas Indicopleustes; the Bible describes an animal, the re'em, which some versions translate as unicorn. In European folklore, the unicorn is depicted as a white horse-like or goat-like animal with a long horn and cloven hooves. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, it was described as an wild woodland creature, a symbol of purity and grace, which could be captured only by a virgin. In the encyclopedias, its horn was said to have the power to render poisoned water potable and to heal sickness. In medieval and Renaissance times, the tusk of the narwhal was sometimes sold as unicorn horn. In the twenty-first century, the unicorn holds a place in popular culture.
It is used as a symbol of fantasy or rarity. A number of seals depicting unicorns have been found from the Indus Valley Civilisation; these have been interpreted as representations of aurochs—a type of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe and North Africa—or derivatives of aurochs, because the animal is always shown in profile, indicating there may have supposed to have been another horn, not seen. Unicorns are not found in Greek mythology, but rather in the accounts of natural history, for Greek writers of natural history were convinced of the reality of unicorns, which they believed lived in India, a distant and fabulous realm for them; the earliest description is from Ctesias, who in his book Indika described them as wild asses, fleet of foot, having a horn a cubit and a half in length, colored white and black. Ctesias got his information while living in Persia. Unicorns on a relief sculpture have been found at the ancient Persian capital of Persepolis in Iran. Aristotle must be following Ctesias when he mentions two one-horned animals, the oryx and the so-called "Indian ass".
Strabo says. Pliny the Elder mentions the oryx and an Indian ox as one-horned beasts, as well as "a fierce animal called the monoceros which has the head of the stag, the feet of the elephant, the tail of the boar, while the rest of the body is like that of the horse. In On the Nature of Animals, quoting Ctesias, adds that India produces a one-horned horse, says that the monoceros was sometimes called cartazonos, which may be a form of the Arabic karkadann, meaning "rhinoceros". Cosmas Indicopleustes, a merchant of Alexandria who lived in the 6th century, made a voyage to India and subsequently wrote works on cosmography, he gives a description of a unicorn based on four brass figures in the palace of the King of Ethiopia. He states, from report; when it finds itself pursued and in danger of capture, it throws itself from a precipice, turns so aptly in falling, that it receives all the shock upon the horn, so escapes safe and sound". A one-horned animal is found on some seals from the Indus Valley Civilisation.
Seals with such a design are thought to be a mark of high social rank. Medieval knowledge of the fabulous beast stemmed from biblical and ancient sources, the creature was variously represented as a kind of wild ass, goat, or horse; the predecessor of the medieval bestiary, compiled in Late Antiquity and known as Physiologus, popularized an elaborate allegory in which a unicorn, trapped by a maiden, stood for the Incarnation. As soon as the unicorn sees her, it falls asleep; this became a basic emblematic tag that underlies medieval notions of the unicorn, justifying its appearance in every form of religious art. Interpretations of the unicorn myth focus on the medieval lore of beguiled lovers, whereas some religious writers interpret the unicorn and its death as the Passion of Christ; the myths refer to a beast with one horn. The unicorn figured in courtly terms: for some 13th-century French authors such as Thibaut of Champagne and Richard de Fournival, the lover is attracted to his lady as the unicorn is to the virgin.
With the rise of humanism, the unicorn acquired more orthodox secular meanings, emblematic of chaste love and faithful marriage. It plays this role in Petrarch's Triumph of Chastity, on the reverse of Piero della Francesca's portrait of Battista Strozzi, paired with that of her husband Federico da Montefeltro, Bianca's triumphal car is drawn by a pair of unicorns; the Throne Chair of Denmark is made of "unicorn horns" – certainly narwhal tusks. The same material was used for ceremonial cups because the unicorn's horn continued to be believed to neutralize poison, following classical authors; the unicorn, tamable only by a virgin woman, was well established in medieval lore by the time Marco Polo described them as "scarcely smaller than elephants. They have the hair of feet like an elephant's, they ha
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
The Bohemian Forest, known in Czech as Šumava and in German as Böhmerwald, is a low mountain range in Central Europe. Geographically, the mountains extend from Plzeň Region and South Bohemia in the Czech Republic to Austria and Bavaria in Germany, form the highest truncated uplands of the Bohemian Massif, up to 50 km wide, they create a natural border between the Czech Republic on one side and Germany and Austria on the other. For political reasons, the Bohemian and German sides have different names in their languages: in Czech, the Bohemian side is called Šumava and the Bavarian side Zadní Bavorský les, while in German, the Bohemian side is called Böhmerwald, the Bavarian side Bayerischer Wald. In Czech, Šumava is used as a name for the entire adjacent region in Bohemia; the Bohemian Forest comprises forested mountains with average heights of 800–1,400 metres. The highest peak is Großer Arber on the Bavarian side; the most eastern peak is the Sternstein. The range is one of the oldest in Europe, its mountains are eroded into round forms with few rocky parts.
Typical for the Bohemian Forest are plateaux at about 1,000–1,200 m with harsh climates and many peat bogs. The Bohemian Forest is the dividing range between the watersheds of the Black Sea and the North Sea, where water collected by the Vltava, Otava and Úhlava rivers flows; these rivers all spring from the Bohemian Forest. Owing to heavy precipitation, the peat bogs and the Lipno Dam, the Šumava region is an important water reservoir for Central Europe. More important for their aesthetic value than for holding water are several lakes of glacial origin; as a border region, the Bohemian Forest has had a complicated history. In the 20th century it was part of the Iron Curtain, large areas were stripped of human settlement. Before that, settlement was sparse and for centuries forests dominated over human dwellings and pathways; these unique circumstances led to the preservation of unspoilt nature and forest ecosystems unaffected by human activity. On the other hand, many habitats dependent on farming activity are turning into forest.
In the Czech Republic, the most valuable area is protected in the Šumava National Park and Protected Landscape and the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Part of the German section is protected as the Bavarian Forest National Park; the Bohemian Forest is a popular holiday destination. Most interesting natural and cultural sights are connected with more than 500 km of summer marked trails and many bike trails. However, park administration is not always successful in its task, many believe the rapid growth of tourist accommodation and services is destroying the former calm of the Šumava region. Šumava National Park is suffering problems connected with bark beetles, there is heated debate about how to deal with it. The origin of the current name Bohemian Forest goes back to 400 BC; the Boii people spread across Europe between 400 BC and 8 BC. Boii is the Roman name of three ancient Celtic tribes, living in Transalpine Gaul, Cisalpine Gaul, Bohemia and western Slovakia; the European region of Bohemia owes its name to the Boii, who lived there until they were replaced by the Germanic Marcomanni.
The Romans called it Boiohaemum, a Latinization of the Germanic name of the region, meaning "the home of the Boii". The mountain range has been traditionally identified with Γαβρήτα Ὕλη, mentioned in Strabo's Geographica and Ptolemy's Geographia. In the 1st century AD, the forest was inhabited by Gallo-Romans as well as by Germanic tribes in its northern part. In the 6th century AD, the forefathers of the Czech people emigrated to the area. From the 13th century AD until 1945–1946, most of the region was inhabited by Bohemian Germans, many of them woodcutters; the mountains are regionally known just as the Forest. The usage of its current Czech name Šumava has been attested in Antonio Bonfini's late 15th-century work Rerum unganicarum decades; the origin of the name is not clear. Folk etymology connects it with Czech words šum, šumění, šumět denoting a noise of trees in the wind; the most accepted opinion among linguists derives Šumava from a theorized Proto-Slavic word *šuma = "dense forest", cf. Serbo-Croatian šuma.
Karel Klostermann, author Adalbert Stifter, author Towns in the Bohemian Forest Grafenau Kašperské Hory Prachatice Regen Vimperk Volary Vyšší Brod Železná Ruda Zwiesel Regions Bavarian Forest South Bohemia Mühlviertel Plzeň Region Waldviertel National Park administration Šumava Info Šumava webcam Šumava
The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia. The name Harz derives from Hart, Latinized as Hercynia; the Brocken is the highest summit in the Harz with an elevation of 1,141.1 metres above sea level. The Wurmberg is the highest peak located within the state of Lower Saxony; the Harz has a length of 110 kilometres, stretching from the town of Seesen in the northwest to Eisleben in the east, a width of 35 kilometres. It occupies an area of 2,226 square kilometres, is divided into the Upper Harz in the northwest, up to 800 m high, apart from the 1,100 m high Brocken massif, the Lower Harz in the east, up to around 400 m high and whose plateaus are capable of supporting arable farming; the following districts fall wholly or within the Harz: Goslar and Göttingen in the west and Mansfeld-Südharz in the north and east, Nordhausen in the south. The districts of the Upper Harz are Goslar and Göttingen, whilst the Lower Harz is on the territory of Harz and Mansfeld-Südharz districts.
The Upper Harz is higher and features fir forests, whilst the Lower Harz descends into the surrounding area and has deciduous forests interspersed with meadows. The dividing line between Upper and Lower Harz follows a line from Ilsenburg to Bad Lauterberg, which separates the catchment areas for the Weser and Elbe. Only on the southeastern perimeter of the Upper Harz, called the High Harz, does the mountain range exceed 1,000 m above NN on the Brocken massif, its highest peak is the Brocken, its subsidiary peaks are the Heinrichshöhe to the southeast and the Königsberg to the southwest. Other prominent hills in the Harz are the Acker-Bruchberg ridge, the Achtermannshöhe and the Wurmberg near Braunlage. In the far east, the mountains merge into the East Harz foothills, which are dominated by the Selke Valley. Part of the south Harz lies in the Thuringian district of Nordhausen; the Harz National Park is located in the Harz. 600,000 people live in towns and villages of the Harz Mountains. Because of the heavy rainfall in the region the rivers of the Harz Mountains were dammed from an early date.
Examples of such masonry dams are the two largest: the Rappbode Dam. The clear, cool water of the mountain streams was dammed by early mountain folk to form the various mountain ponds of the Upper Harz waterways, such as the Oderteich; the 17 dams in the Harz block a total of twelve rivers. Because the Harz is one of the regions of Germany that experiences the most rainfall, its water power was used from early times. Today the dams are used to generate electricity, to provide drinking water, to prevent flooding and to supply water in times of scarcity. Modern dam-building began in the Harz with the construction of the Söse Valley Dam, built between 1928 and 1931; the dams of the Upper Harz lakes are some of the oldest dams in Germany. → See List of dams in the Harz The largest rivers in the Harz are the Innerste, the Oker and the Bode in the north. The Innerste merges into the Leine and its tributaries are the Nette and the Grane; the rivers Radau and Ilse all discharge into the Oker. The Hassel, the Selke and the Holtemme flow into the Bode.
The Wipper is fed by the Eine. The Rhume is joined by the Oder; the Zorge, the Wieda and the Uffe all flow into the Helme. → See List of hills in the Harz → See List of rock formations in the Harz Climatically a hill range has lower temperatures and higher levels of precipitation than the surrounding land. The Harz is characterised by regular precipitation throughout the year. Exposed to westerly winds from the Atlantic, heavy with rain, the windward side of the mountains has up to 1,600 mm of rain annually; the Harz is the most geologically diverse of the German Mittelgebirge, although it is overwhelmingly dominated by base-poor rocks. The most common rocks lying on the surface are argillaceous shales, slaty greywackes and granite intrusions in the shape of two large igneous rock masses or plutons; the Gießen-Harz surface layer of the Rhenohercynian zone, widespread in the Harz, consists of flysch. Well-known and economically important are the limestone deposits around Elbingerode and the Gabbro of Bad Harzburg.
The landscapes of the Harz are characterised by steep mountain ridges, stone runs flat plateaus with many raised bogs and long, narrow V-shaped valleys, of which the Bode Gorge, the Oker and Selke valleys are the best known. A representative cross-section of all the Harz rocks is displayed on the Jordanshöhe near Sankt Andreasberg near the car park; the formation and geological folding of the Harz hills began during a prominent phase of the Palaeozoic era, in the course of the Hercynian mountain building of the Carboniferous period, about 350 to 250 million years ago. At that time in the history of the Earth, numerous high mountains appeared in Western Euro
Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
The Odenwald is a low mountain range in the German states of Hesse and Baden-Württemberg. The Odenwald is located between the Upper Rhine Plain with the Bergstraße and the Hessisches Ried to the west, the Main and the Bauland to the east, the Hanau-Seligenstadt Basin – a subbasin of the Upper Rhine Rift Valley in the Rhine-Main Lowlands – to the north and the Kraichgau to the south; the part south of the Neckar valley is sometimes called the Kleiner Odenwald. The northern and western Odenwald belong with the south stretching into Baden. In the northeast, a small part lies in Lower Franconia in Bavaria; the Odenwald, along with other parts of the Central German Uplands, belongs to the Variscan, which more than 300 million years ago in the Carboniferous period ran through great parts of Europe. The cause of this orogeny was Europe's forerunner continents. In the Triassic, about 200 million years ago, the land sank again, forming the Germanic Basin in which the metre-thick layers of red sandstone could build up.
These were covered over with layers of muschelkalk from a broad inland sea followed by sediments from the Late Triassic. The South German Cuesta Land thus formed; when the land in the Odenwald was uplifted again about 180 million years ago, more than 100 m of the sedimentary layering, in parts, was eroded away down to the bedrock, as can still be seen in the western Odenwald. The bedrock here is composed of a number of different rocks, among them gneiss, diorite, gabbro in the Frankenstein pluton, so on. In the eastern Odenwald, the red sandstone is all, left of the sedimentary mixture. Farther east in the Bauland, the muschelkalk deposits still overlie the Early Triassic layers. Furthermore, in the south near Heidelberg, there is still Zechstein under the Early Triassic deposits. 50 to 60 million years ago, volcanoes formed along the great geological faults. Still bearing witness to this time are the Otzberg, the Daumberg and the Katzenbuckel, all extinct volcanoes in the Odenwald. Furthermore, volcanism with acidic rocks has left a legacy of rhyolites near Dossenheim.
At the same time, the Central European plate began to tear apart so that the Upper Rhine Rift developed. As the Upper Rhine Rift valley still sinks today by just under a millimetre each year, the Odenwald to that, was uplifted to the height it has today. Along the faults, the small rivers Gersprenz and Weschnitz have, in part, carved their courses; the Upper Rhine Rift is part of a fracture zone reaching from the Mediterranean Sea to Norway. Right on the edge of the Odenwald, it is 2 500 m deep, but has been filled in to its current height by river and sea sediment, for until about 20 million years ago, the North Sea reached far inland, across the Wetterau Depression into the Rhine Valley. About 2500 BC, there is evidence that the Linear Pottery culture settled along the northern and southern edges of the Odenwald. About 400 BC, Celts settled throughout southern Germany. All of the Odenwald was covered with virgin forest, the outer edges were not settled. Germanic peoples drove the Celts westwards across the Rhine to.
About AD 100, the older Odenwald line of the Neckar-Odenwald Limes was built under Roman Emperor Trajan. This stretch of the Empire’s border ran from Fort Wimpfen in the Valley northwards by way of the Forts of Neckarburken, the lesser forts of Trienz and Robern near Fahrenbach, Fort Oberscheidental, Fort Schloßau, Fort Hesselbach, Fort Würzberg, Fort Eulbach, Fort Hainhaus and Fort Hesselbach to Fort Wörth on the Main. Parts of the Odenwald now lay in Roman-ruled Germania Superior. About 159, the Limes was shifted about 30 kilometres eastwards to the Miltenberg–Walldürn–Buchen-Osterburken line. In 260, Roman hegemony fell; the Alamanni were thrusting into the Odenwald and settling the land between the Main and Neckar, after whom came the Franks. In the 5th century, the Franks, under Clovis I, divided the land up into districts. In the 7th and 8th centuries came Christianization by Anglo-Saxon monks. On the muschelkalk lands of today’s Bauland, which favoured agriculture, a broad mesh of settlements arose.
The parts of the Odenwald farther in from the rivers, with their scant New Red Sandstone soils remained uninhabited. Four Benedictine monasteries were assigned the job of opening the empty woods up by the central Frankish power, Lorsch Abbey from the west, Fulda Monastery from the east and Mosbach Monastery from the south. Amorbach Monastery had the greatest importance for ecclesiastical and economic development in the eastern Odenwald. In the 9th century in the southeastern Odenwald near the now more thickly settled Bauland, settlements were established; the muschelkalk-new red sandstone mineral boundary was crossed. Where the name Odenwald came from is an open question and still causes controversy today. Following are some theories about the name’s origin: Some have claimed that the toponym comes from Odins Wald; the main problem here is that the god Wodanaz was worshipped in southern Germany under the name Wotan. A further theory holds that there is a link between the name Odenwald and the Roman administrative unit Civitas Auderiensium, which among other things included the range’s northern reaches and might have been named after a tribe called the Auderienses.
There could be some kinship with the word öde, not in the und
The moose or elk, Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males. Moose inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Hunting and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats. Most moose are found in Canada, New England, Baltic states, Russia, their diet consists of both aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are the gray wolf along with humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose do not form herds and are solitary animals, aside from calves who remain with their mother until the cow begins estrus, at which point the cow chases away young bulls. Although slow-moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move if angered or startled, their mating season in the autumn features energetic fights between males competing for a female.
Alces alces is called an "elk" in British English. The word "elk" in North American English refers to a different species of deer, the Cervus canadensis called the wapiti. A mature male moose is called a bull, a mature female a cow, an immature moose of either sex a calf; the word "elk" originated in Proto-Germanic, from which Old English evolved and has cognates in other Indo-European languages, e.g. elg in Danish/Norwegian. In the continental-European languages, these forms of the word "elk" always refer to the Alces alces; the word "moose" had first entered English by 1606 and is borrowed from the Algonquian languages, involved forms from multiple languages mutually reinforcing one another. The Proto-Algonquian form was *mo·swa; the moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are 3,900 years old; the word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe but, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general.
Dictionaries of the 18th century described "elk" as a deer, "as large as a horse". Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti"; the British began colonizing America in the 17th century, found two common species of deer for which they had no names. The wapiti appeared similar to the red deer of Europe although it was much larger and was not red; the moose was a rather strange-looking deer to the colonists, they adopted local names for both. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was called a grey moose and the moose was called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion; the wapiti is superficially similar to the red deer of central and western Europe, although it is distinctly different behaviorally and genetically. Early European explorers in North America in Virginia where there were no moose, called the wapiti "elk" because of its size and resemblance to familiar-looking deer like the red deer.
The moose resembled the "German elk", less familiar to the British colonists. For a long time neither species were called a variety of things. In North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. In 1736, Samuel Dale wrote to the Royal Society of Great Britain: The common light-grey moose, called by the Indians and the large or black-moose, the beast whose horns I herewith present; as to the grey moose, I take it to be no larger than what Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia Quadrupeds, calls the Elke... was in all respects like those of our red-deer or stags, only larger... The black moose is accounted a large creature.... The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, more like that of the German elke. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants, cover from predators, protection from hot or cold weather. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements.
Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, heat-retaining coat, a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds; when heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also