Disco is a music genre and subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene. The music, the fashion, many song lyrics and other cultural phenomena associated with disco were focused on having a good time on the dance floor of a discotheque to the loud sounds of records being played by a DJ enhanced by coloured lighting effects. Disco started as a mixture of music from venues popular with African Americans and Latino Americans, Italian Americans, LGBT people, psychedelic hippies in Philadelphia and New York City during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Disco can be seen as a reaction to both the dominance of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music by the counterculture during this period. Several dance styles were developed during the period of disco's popularity in the United States, including the Bump and the Hustle; the disco sound is typified by "four-on-the-floor" beats, syncopated basslines, string sections, electric piano and electric rhythm guitars.
Lead guitar features less in disco than in rock. Well-known disco artists include Donna Summer, Gloria Gaynor, the Bee Gees, Chic, KC and the Sunshine Band, Thelma Houston and the Village People. While performers and singers garnered public attention, record producers working behind the scenes played an important role in developing the genre. Films such as Saturday Night Fever and Thank God It's Friday contributed to disco's mainstream popularity. By the late 1970s, most major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes, DJs would mix dance records at clubs such as Studio 54 in New York City, a venue popular among celebrities. Discothèque-goers wore expensive and sexy fashions. There was a thriving drug subculture in the disco scene for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter being so common in disco subculture that they were nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were associated with promiscuity as a reflection of the sexual revolution of this era in popular history.
Disco was the last popular music movement driven by the baby boom generation. It began to decline in the United States during 1979-80, by 1982 it had lost nearly all popularity there. Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco protest held in Chicago on July 12, 1979, remains the most well-known of several "backlash" incidents across the country that symbolized disco's declining fortune. Disco was a key influence in the development of electronic dance house music, it has had several revivals, such as Madonna's successful 2005 album Confessions on a Dance Floor, again in the 2010s, entering the pop charts in the US and the UK. The term "disco" is shorthand for the word discothèque, a French word for "library of phonograph records" derived from "bibliothèque"; the word "discothèque" was current in the same meaning in English in the 1950s."Discothèque" became in use in French as a term for a type of nightclubs in Paris after these had resorted to playing records during the Nazi occupation in the early 1940s.
Some clubs used it as their proper name. In 1960 it was used to describe a Parisian nightclub in an English magazine. In the summer of 1964 a short sleeveless dress called "discotheque dress" was popular in the United States for a short time; the earliest known use for the abbreviated form "disco" described this dress and has been found in the Salt Lake Tribune of 12 July 1964, but Playboy magazine used it soon after to describe Los Angeles nightclubs in September of the same year. Vince Aletti was one of the first to describe disco as a music genre, he wrote the feature article "Discoteque Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared in Rolling Stone magazine in September 1973. The music layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals doubled by horns, over a background "pad" of electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played on an electric guitar. "The'chicken scratch' sound is achieved by pressing the strings against the fretboard and quickly releasing them just enough to get a muted scratching while strumming close to the bridge."
Other backing keyboard instruments include the piano, electric organ, string synth, electromechanical keyboards such as the Fender Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers are fairly common in disco in the late 1970s; the rhythm is laid down by prominent, syncopated basslines played on the bass guitar and by drummers using a drum kit, African/Latin percussion, electronic drums such as Simmons and Roland drum modules. The sound was enriched with solo lines and harmony parts played by a variety of orchestral instruments, such as harp, viola, trumpet, trombone, flugelhorn, French horn, English horn, flute, piccolo and synth strings, string section or a full string orchestra. Most disco songs have a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, a heavy, syncopated bass line. Other Latin rhythms such as the rhumba, the samba and the cha-cha-cha are found in disco recordings, Latin polyrhythms, such as a rhumba beat layered over a merengue, are commonplace.
The quaver pattern is supported by other instruments such as the rhythm guitar and may be implied rather than explicitly present. Songs use syncopation, the accenting of unexpected beats. In general, the d
1970s in music
For music from a year in the 1970s, go to 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79This article includes an overview of the major events and trends in popular music in the 1970s. In North America and Oceania, the decade saw the rise of disco, which became one of the biggest genres of the decade in the mid-to-late 1970s. In Europe, a variant known as Euro disco rose in popularity towards the end of the 1970s. Aside from disco, smooth jazz, jazz fusion, soul remained popular throughout the decade, it is this influx of popular music that soon transformed into roll during the Early 1970s. Rock music played an important part in the Western musical scene, with punk rock thriving throughout the mid to late 1970s. Other subgenres of rock glam rock, hard rock, art rock and heavy metal achieved various amounts of success. Other genres such as reggae grew a significant following. Hip hop emerged during this decade, but was slow to start and did not become significant until the late 1980s. Classical began losing a little momentum.
A subgenre of classical, film scores, remained popular with movie-goers. Alongside the popularity of experimental music, the decade was notable for its contributions to electronic music, which rose in popularity with the continued development of synthesizers and harmonizers, its rising popularity, mixed with the popular music of the period, led to the creation of synthpop. Pop had a popularity role in the 1970s. In Asia, music continued to follow varying trends. In Japan, the decade saw several musical phases, including the popular folk-influenced fōku, as well as greater experimentation with electronic music, ranging from developments in synthpop and Electronic Dance Music, created through different Japanese artists and bands such as Yellow Magic Orchestra. In Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula, the Nueva canción movement peaked in popularity and was adopted as the music of the hippie, Liberation Theology, New Left movements. Cumbia music began its internationalization. Merengue experienced mainstream exposure across the southern US border states.
In Africa Nigeria, the genre known as Afrobeat gained a following throughout the 1970s. In an essay published in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, Robert Christgau wrote: "The decade is of course an arbitrary schema itself—time doesn't just execute a neat turn toward the future every ten years, but like a lot of artificial concepts—money, say—the category does take on a reality of its own once people figure out how to put it to work.'The'60s are over,' a slogan one only began to hear in 1972 or so, mobilized all those eager to believe that idealism had become passe, once they were mobilized, it had. In popular music, embracing the'70s meant both an elitist withdrawal from the messy concert and counterculture scene and a profiteering pursuit of the lowest common denominator in FM radio and album rock." According to Christgau, the decade saw greater fragmentation along stylistic lines because of the rise of semipopular music: "It goes back to whenever arty types began to find'the best' rock worthy of attention in the'60s, but in the'60s tolerance was the rule.
Not until 1968 or 1969, when it became a hippie commonplace to dismiss soul as'commercial' and when bubblegum and'white blues' developed into clear categories, did the breakdown begin. And only in the'70s did genres start asserting themselves: singer-songwriter and interpreter, art-rock and heavy metal and country-rock and boogie and funk and disco and black MOR, punk and new wave, somehow straddling them all the monolith of pop-rock." The 1970s saw the emergence of hard rock as one of the most prominent subgenres of rock music. During the first half of the decade, British acts such as Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, Nazareth, Black Sabbath were at the height of their international fame in the United States. By the second half of the decade, many other acts had achieved stardom, Alice Cooper, AC/DC, Blue Öyster Cult, Aerosmith, Van Halen and Ted Nugent. Arena rock grew in popularity through rock acts such as Boston, Styx and The Who. Psychedelic rock declined in popularity after the deaths of Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison of The Doors, the self-imposed seclusion of Syd Barrett from Pink Floyd, the break-up of The Beatles in 1970.
Country rock, formed from the fusion of rock music with country music, gained its greatest commercial success in the 1970s, beginning with non-country artists such as Bob Dylan, Gram Parsons, The Byrds. By the mid-1970s, Linda Ronstadt, along with other newer artists such as Emmylou Harris and The Eagles, were enjoying mainstream success and popularity that continues to this day; the Eagles themselves emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time, producing albums that included Hotel California. During the 1970s, a similar style of country rock called southern rock was enjoying popularity with country audiences, thanks to such non-country acts as The Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Lynyrd Skynyrd, The Allman Brothers Band
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
That Sound (Pump Friction song)
That Sound is a 1997 funky disco house single by British electronic act Pump Friction. The song samples the 1979 disco song "Here Comes That Sound Again" by Love De-Luxe with Hawkshaw's Discophonia, but features additional vocals from Stacy Selsdon and Willy P. on this updated track. The single reached number one on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play chart on May 11, 1997 for a one-week run. CD Maxi That Sound 3:39 That Sound 6:28 That Sound 7:53 That Sound 9:14 That Sound 6:10 That Sound 7:14 That Sound 6:58 That Sound 6:24 List of number-one dance singles of 1997 club mix of "That Sound" at YouTube Single release information from Discogs
The Sugarhill Gang
The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop group. Their 1979 hit "Rapper's Delight" was the first rap single to become a Top 40 hit on the Billboard Hot 100; the members, all from Englewood, New Jersey, consisted of Michael "Wonder Mike" Wright, Henry "Big Bank Hank" Jackson, Guy "Master Gee" O'Brien. The three were assembled into a group by producer Sylvia Robinson, who founded Sugar Hill Records with her husband, record producer Joe Robinson; the group and the record company were named after the Sugar Hill, neighborhood. The Sugarhill Gang never had another U. S. hit, though it had multiple European hits, such as "Apache", "8th Wonder", "Rapper's Reprise", "Showdown". In 1999, the trio reunited and recorded Jump on It! A hip hop children's album. After Wonder Mike and Hendogg left Sugarhill Records in 2005, the original members of Sugarhill Gang besides Jackson have performed as the Original Sugar and as Rapper's Delight Featuring Wonder Mike and Master Gee; this is due to a string of legal cases against them regarding the use'Sugarhill Gang' as their name.
On November 11, 2014, Big Bank Hank died at the age of 58 after a long battle with cancer. In 2016, the remaining living members of the original Sugarhill Gang, including Wonder Mike and Master Gee embarked on their first world tour in over a decade under the name The Sugarhill Gang. During this, they performed as the Sugarhill Gang for the Art of Rap festival tour in 2016, at V Festival in Hylands Park and Weston Park in the UK as part of their world tour in 2016. Other places included, the Clockenflap Festival in Hong Kong on November 27, 2016, they headlined at the Depot in the Park Festival in Cardiff, United Kingdom on August 5, 2017. Coming up, in July 2019 they will play the North Nibley Festival in Gloucestershire; the discography of The Sugarhill Gang includes five studio albums, nine compilations and fifteen singles. Sugarhill Gang Greatest Hits Rapper's Delight: The Best of Sugarhill Gang Ain't Nothin' but a Party Back to the Old School 2 - Rapper's Delights Sugarhill Gang, The* Vs. Grandmaster Flash - The Greatest Hits The Greatest Hits of Sugarhill Gang The Story of Sugarhill Records Hip Hop Anniversary Europe Tour: Sugarhill Gang Live Rhythm & Rhymes: The Definitive Collection Sugarhill Gang playlist on WaveCat "I Want My Name Back" documentary on the Sugar Hill Gang, Featuring Master Gee and Wonder Mike Master Gee interview
"Rapper's Delight" is a 1979 hip hop track by the Sugarhill Gang and produced by Sylvia Robinson. While it was not the first single to include rapping, "Rapper's Delight" is credited for introducing hip hop music to a wide audience, it was a prototype for various types of rap music, incorporating themes such as boasting, dance and sex, with the charisma and enthusiasm of James Brown. The track interpolates Chic's "Good Times", resulting in Chic’s Nile Rodgers and Bernard Edwards suing Sugar Hill Records for copyright infringement. "Rapper's Delight" is number 251 on the Rolling Stone magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time and number 2 on VH1's 100 Greatest Hip-Hop Songs. It is included in NPR's list of the 100 most important American musical works of the 20th century, it was preserved into the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress in 2011. Songs on the National Recording Registry are "culturally or aesthetically significant."The song was recorded in one single take.
There are three versions of the original version of the song: 14:35, 6:30, 3:55. In late 1978, Debbie Harry suggested that Chic's Nile Rodgers join her and Chris Stein at a hip hop event, which at the time was a communal space taken over by teenagers with boombox stereos playing various pieces of music that performers would break dance to. Rodgers experienced this event the first time himself at a high school in the Bronx. On September 20 and 21, 1978, Blondie and Chic were playing concerts with The Clash in New York at The Palladium; when Chic started playing "Good Times", rapper Fab Five Freddy and the members of the Sugarhill Gang, jumped up on stage and started freestyling with the band. A few weeks Rodgers was on the dance floor of New York club Leviticus and heard the DJ play a song which opened with Bernard Edwards's bass line from Chic's "Good Times". Rodgers approached the DJ; the song turned out to be an early version of "Rapper's Delight", which included a scratched version of the song's string section.
Rodgers and Edwards threatened legal action over copyright, which resulted in a settlement and their being credited as co-writers. Rodgers admitted that he was upset with the song, but declared it to be "one of his favorite songs of all time" and his favorite of all the tracks that sampled Chic, he stated: "As innovative and important as'Good Times' was,'Rapper's Delight' was just as much, if not more so."A substantial portion of the early stanzas of the song's lyrics was borrowed by Jackson from Grandmaster Caz who had loaned his'book' to him—these include a namecheck for "Casanova Fly", Caz's full stage name. According to Wonder Mike, he had heard the phrase "hip-hop" from a cousin, leading to the opening line of "Hip-hop, hippie to the hippie, to the hip-hip-hop and you don't stop", whilst he described "To the bang-bang boogie, say up jump the boogie to the rhythm of the boogie, the beat" as "basically a spoken drum roll. I liked the percussive sound of the letter B"; the line "Now what you hear is not a test, I'm rappin' to the beat", was inspired by the introduction to The Outer Limits.
Before the "Good Times" background starts, the intro to the recording is an interpolation of "Here Comes That Sound Again" by British studio group Love De-Luxe, a dance hit in 1979. According to Oliver Wang, author of the 2003 Classic Material: The Hip-Hop Album Guide, recording artist and studio owner Sylvia Robinson had trouble finding anyone willing to record a rap song. Most of the rappers who performed in clubs did not want to record, as many practitioners believed the style was for live performances only, it is said. According to Master Gee, Hank auditioned for Robinson in front of the pizza parlour where he worked, whilst Gee himself auditioned in Robinson's car. A live band was used to record most of the backing track, including members of the group "Positive Force": Albert Pittman, Bernard Roland, Moncy Smith, Bryan Horton. Chip Shearin claimed during a 2010 interview. At the age of 17, he had visited a friend in New Jersey; the friend knew Robinson, who needed some musicians for various recordings, including "Rapper's Delight".
Shearin's job on the song was to play the bass for 15 minutes straight, with no mistakes. He was paid $70 but went on to perform with Sugarhill Gang in concert. Shearin described the session this way: The drummer and I were sweating bullets because that's a long time, and this was in the days before samplers and drum machines, when real humans had to play things.... Sylvia said, ` I've got these kids. Wang said: There's this idea that hip-hop has to have street credibility, yet the first big hip-hop song was an inauthentic fabrication. It's not like the guys involved were the'real' hip-hop icons of the era, like Grandmaster Flash or Lovebug Starski. So it's lightning in a bottle. Michael "Wonder Mike" Wright - Vocals Henry "Big Bank Hank" Jackson - Vocals Guy "Master Gee" O'Brien - Vocals Unknown - turntables Bernard Roland or Chip Shearin - electric bass Albert Pittman or Brian Morgan - electric guitar Moncy Smith - piano Bryan Horton - drums Sylvia Robinson - additional vocals and production Billy Jones - engineer Phil Austin
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular