Tartaro, Tartalo, or Torto in Basque mythology, is an enormously strong one-eyed giant similar to the Greek Cyclops that Ulysses faced in Homer's Odyssey. He catches young people in order to eat them. Alarabi is another name for the creature. Anxo may be equivalent, but some sources say this is another name for the Basajaun. Tartaro is the form given in some translated tales and commentary in French and EnglishTorto and Alarabi were the forms listed in Jose Migel Barandiaran's Basque Mythology, with "Tartalo" described as a local variant particular to the Zegama region. Tartalo being a proper name was an idea floated by Barandiaran. Anxo or Ancho is however explained as an alternate name for Basajaun by some sources. Webster ventured that "Ancho" derived from "Sancho". Tartaro has been described as the Basque equivalent to the cyclops Polyphemus, similarity to this cyclops in Homer's Odyssey is compelling, however direct derivation from Homeric sources may not be involved, since parallels to these can be found worldwide.
Cerquand suggested that name "Tartaro" derived from the Tartar people, just as the word "ogre" derived from "Hungarians", but Wentworth Webster agreed, though he expressed some doubt. Tartaro according to folktale tradition is a huge, one-eyed being, are cave-dwelling, capturing young folk or those who sought shelter in his cave, devouring them. In one oral account, the Tartaro ate one whole sheep each day. A mystical ring is a common theme in the Tartalo/Tartaro tales. In one version, the Tartaro makes a gift of a ring to a girl, it turns out to be a "talking ring". Webster noted this ring motif had its parallel in the Celtic Conall Cra Bhuidhe, published by John Francis Campbell, but none to be found in classical sources; the motif of the hero blinding Tartaro has both a classical and Celtic parallel: Oddyseus blinding the cyclops Polyphemus in Homer's Odyssey and Lug hurling a spear or projectile into the eye of Balor. One day, while two brothers of the Antimuño baserri were hunting, a storm broke, so they decided to take refuge from the rain in a cave, Tartalo's cave.
Soon after, Tartalo appeared with his flock of sheep. He saw the two brothers and said: "one for today and the other for tomorrow"; that same day he cooked and ate the eldest one, he went to sleep. While he was sleeping, the youngest brother stole Tartalo's ring and he stuck the roasting spit in his only eye. Tartalo was not dead yet, he started to look for the boy among his sheep, but he put on a sheep's skin and escaped from Tartalo. But, when he got out of the flock of sheep, the accuser ring started to shout: "Here I am, here I am!". Tartalo got out of his cave and he started to run after the ring, hearing its shouts; the young one wasn't able to take off the ring, so, when he arrived to the edge of a cliff, he cut off his finger, since Tartalo was near, he decided to throw it down the cliff. Tartalo, following the ring's shouting, fell off the cliff. Citations BibliographyVinson, Julien, "XI. Le Tartaro, XII. Le Fou et le Tartaro", Le Folk-lore du Pays Basque, Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, pp. 46, 46–53 bnf Barandiaran, Jose Migel, Eusko-Mitologia, Obras completas II, Bilbao: Editorial La Gran Encïclopedia Vasca Barandiaran, Jose Migel.
Mitología vasca. Madrid: Minotauro. P. 92. Barandiaran, Jose Migel, Jesús, ed. "Basque Mythology", Selected writings of José Miguel de Barandiarán: Basque prehistory and ethnography, Madrid: Center for Basque Studies, University of Nevada, Reno, ISBN 9781877802706 Webster, Wentworth, "I. Legends of the Tartaro", Basque Legends and Farran, pp. 1–16 Barbier, Jean: Légendes du Pays basque d'après la tradition, illustrations de Pablo Tillac, 1931, Paris. Republished by Elkar, San Sebastián, Bayonne. Lezama Perier, Patxi Xabier, Basque-Mythology, Euskadi Public Reading Network
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
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Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live. According to the beliefs of some religions, heavenly beings can descend to earth or incarnate, earthly beings can ascend to heaven in the afterlife, or in exceptional cases enter heaven alive. Heaven is described as a "higher place", the holiest place, a Paradise, in contrast to hell or the Underworld or the "low places", universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, piety, faith, or other virtues or right beliefs or the will of God; some believe in the possibility of a heaven on Earth in a World to Come. Another belief is in an axis mundi or world tree which connects the heavens, the terrestrial world, the underworld. In Indian religions, heaven is considered as Svarga loka, the soul is again subjected to rebirth in different living forms according to its karma.
This cycle can be broken after a soul achieves Nirvana. Any place of existence, either of humans, souls or deities, outside the tangible world is referred to as otherworld; the modern English word heaven is derived from the earlier heven. By about 1000, heofon was being used in reference to the Christianized "place where God dwells", but it had signified "sky, firmament"; the English term has cognates in the other Germanic languages: Old Saxon heƀan "sky, heaven", Old Icelandic himinn, Gothic himins. All of these have been derived from a reconstructed Proto-Germanic form *hemina-. or *hemō. The further derivation of this form is uncertain. A connection to Proto-Indo-European *ḱem- "cover, shroud", via a reconstructed *k̑emen- or *k̑ōmen- "stone, heaven", has been proposed. Others endorse the derivation from a Proto-Indo-European root *h₂éḱmō "stone" and "heavenly vault" at the origin of this word, which would have as cognates Ancient Greek ἄκμων, Persian آسمان and Sanskrit अश्मन्. In the latter case English hammer would be another cognate to the word.
The ancient Mesopotamians regarded the sky as a series of domes covering the flat earth. Each dome was made of a different kind of precious stone; the lowest dome of heaven was the home of the stars. The middle dome of heaven was the abode of the Igigi; the highest and outermost dome of heaven was made of luludānītu stone and was personified as An, the god of the sky. The celestial bodies were equated with specific deities as well; the planet Venus was believed to be Inanna, the goddess of love and war. The sun was her brother Utu, the god of justice, the moon was their father Nanna. In ancient Near Eastern cultures in general and in Mesopotamia in particular, humans had little to no access to the divine realm. Heaven and earth were separated by their nature. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh says to Enkidu, "Who can go up to heaven, my friend? Only the gods dwell with Shamash forever." Instead, after a person died, his or her soul went to Kur, a dark shadowy underworld, located deep below the surface of the earth.
All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no impact on how he would be treated in the world to come. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that Inanna had the power to bestow special favors upon her devotees in the afterlife. Despite the separation between heaven and earth, humans sought access to the gods through oracles and omens; the gods were believed to live in heaven, but in their temples, which were seen as the channels of communication between earth and heaven, which allowed mortal access to the gods. The Ekur temple in Nippur was known as the "mooring-rope" of heaven and earth, it was thought to have been built and established by Enlil himself. Nothing is known of Bronze Age Canaanite views of heaven, the archaeological findings at Ugarit have not provided information; the 1st century Greek author Philo of Byblos may preserve elements of Iron Age Phoenician religion in his Sanchuniathon. The ancient Hittites believed that some deities lived in Heaven, while others lived in remote places on earth, such as mountains, where humans had little access.
In the Middle Hittite myths, heaven is the abode of the gods. In the Song of Kumarbi, Alalu was king in heaven for nine years before giving birth to Anu. Anu was himself overthrown by Kumarbi; as in other ancient Near Eastern cultures, in the Hebrew Bible, the universe is divided into two realms: heaven and earth. Sometimes a third realm is added: either "sea", "water under the earth", or sometimes a vague "land of the dead", never described in depth; the structure of heaven itself is never described in the Hebrew Bible, but the fact that the Hebrew word š
The mythology of the ancient Basques did not survive the arrival of Christianity in the Basque Country between the 4th and 12th century AD. Most of what is known about elements of this original belief system is based on the analysis of legends, the study of place names and scant historical references to pagan rituals practised by the Basques. One main figure of this belief system was the female goddess Mari. According to legends collected in the area of Ataun, the other main figure was her consort Sugaar. However, due to the scarcity of the material it is difficult to say if this would have been the "central pair" of the Basque pantheon. Based on the attributes ascribed to these mythological creatures, this would be considered a chthonic religion as all its characters dwell on earth or below it, with the sky seen as an empty corridor through which the divinities pass; the Christianization of the Basque Country has been the topic of some discussion. Broadly speaking there are two views: either Christianity arrived in the Basque Country during the 4th and 5th century, or this did not occur until the 12th and 13th century.
The main issue lies in the different interpretations of. Early traces of Christianity can be found in the major urban areas from the 4th century onwards, a bishopric from 589 in Pamplona and three hermit cave concentrations were in use from the 6th century onwards. In this sense, Christianity arrived "early". At the same time, various historical sources and research directly or indirectly bear witness to the fact that large-scale conversion did not begin to take place until the 10th and 11th century: the bishops of Pamplona were absent from the Synods of Toledo during the Visigoth period reports of a failed mission by Bishop Amandus around 640 AD Arab authors from the time of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania labeled the Basques as being mağūs or "wizards, pagans" the famous cemetery of Argiñeta in Biscay from around 880 AD with Basque gravestones devoid of any Christian symbols the comparatively low density of religious centers in the Atlantic Basque Country until the 15th centuryMost Vasconists broadly agree that Christianity thus arrived some time in the 4th/5th century.
Serious missionary and religious activity only began in the 9th century from the kingdom of Asturias and Franks, continued after the Reconquista with famous monastic foundations and the diocese of Bayonne in the 11th century. Thus Christian and non-Christian beliefs lived side by side past the 11th century. Various traditions connected to this ancient belief system have survived by adapting a Christian veneer or by turning into folk traditions, as happened elsewhere in Europe. However, in spite of the process of Christianization being completed late, the process was thorough and little direct evidence remains of pre-Christian beliefs. For this reason research into the matter tends to be putative as it has to rely on the analysis of folklore, folk traditions, sketchy references and place-name evidence; the main sources for information about non-Christian Basque beliefs are: Strabo who mentions the sacrifice of male goats and humans. Arab writers from the time of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania The 12th century diary of the pilgrim Aymeric Picaud Various medieval sources making references to pagan rituals, including the records of the Inquisition 19th and 20th century collections of myths and folk-tales, for example by José Miguel Barandiaran.
This is by far the largest body of material relating to non-Christian beliefs and practices Basque Mythology: History of the myths and deities of the Basque mythological universe by Patxi Xabier Lezama Perier. This is an Ebook; the modern study of place-names in the Basque Country Urtzi may or may not have been a Basque mythological figure. There is evidence that can be read as either supporting or contradicting the existence of such a deity. To date neither theory has been able to convince fully; the Iberian Peninsula's Indo-European cultures like the Lusitanians and Celtiberians seem to have a significant Basque substrate in their mythologies. This includes the concept of the Enchanted Mouras, which may be based on the Mairu, the god Endovelicus, whose name may come from proto-Basque words. After Christianization, the Basques kept importing myths. Jaun Zuria is the mythical first Lord of Biscay, said to be born of a Scottish princess who had an encounter with the god Sugaar in the village of Mundaka.
The battle of Roncesvalles was mythified in the cycle of the Matter of France. In the Aralar Range, Saint Michael was said to appear to assist a local noble turned hermit; the coat of arms of Navarre was said to come from a feat in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The battle of Amaiur was the battle. Ortíz-Osés, A. Antropología simbólica vasca Anthropos, 1985. El matriarcalismo vasco Universidad de Deusto, 1988. El inconsciente colectivo vasco, 1982. Barandiaran, J. M. Mitologia Vasca Txertoa, 1996 Patxi Xabier Lezama Perier. Basque Mythology: History of the myths and deities of the Basque mythological universe. /Euskadi Public Reading Network / Bilbao-Mediateka BBK Library of Azkuna Zentroa. 2018 Hartsuaga, J. I. Euskal Mitologia Konparatua, Kriseilu, 1987. La Paglia, Antonio. Beyond Greece and Rome: Faith and Worship in Ancient Europe, Black Mountain Press, 2004. Everson, M. Tenacity in religion and folklore: the Neolithic Goddess of Old Europe preserved in a non-Indo-European setting, Journal of Indo-European Studies 17, 277.
Satrústegi, J. "Haitzuloetako euskal mitologia". Euskal Mitologia. 68: 165–174. Arriaga, J.. "Euskal mitologia"
In Basque mythology, Sugaar is the male half of a pre-Christian Basque deity associated with storms and thunder. He is imagined as a dragon or serpent. Unlike his female consort, there are few remaining legends about Sugaar; the basic purpose of his existence is to periodically join with Mari in the mountains to generate the storms. In one myth Sugaar seduces a Scottish princess in the village of Mundaka to father the mythical first Lord of Biscay, Jaun Zuria; this legend is believed to be a fabrication made to legitimize the Lordship of Biscay as a separate state from Navarre, because there is no historical account of such a lord. Only the fact that the delegates of Mundaka were attributed with the formal privilege of being the first to vote in the Biltzar of the province may look as unlikely indication of the partial veracity of this legend; the name Sugar is derived from suge and -ar, thus "male serpent". The suggestions of a formation based on su and gar, thus yielding "flame of fire" are considered folk etymology.
Sugoi, another name of the same deity, has two possible interpretations, either a suge + oi or su + goi. There is no etymology for the third name of this god, Maju. In Ataun he is said to have two homes: in the caves of Atarreta, he is said to have been witnessed crossing the sky in form of fire-sickle, what is considered presage of storms. In this area is said that Sugaar punishes the children that disobey their parents. In Azkoitia Sugaar is identified with Maju, he meets Mari on Fridays, conceiving the storms. In Betelu Sugaar is considered a demon. There they say that he travels through the sky in the shape of a fireball, between the mountains Balerdi and Elortalde. Herensuge La primitiva religión de los vascos, José Dueso, Orain S. A. 1996. ISBN 84-89077-56-8
The Aralar Range is a mountain range in the Basque Mountains of Southern Basque Country. The part of the range lying in Gipuzkoa was established as a conservation area called Aralar Natural Park in 1994. In addition to its natural features, scenic beauty, recreational use and habitation, the range is home to a rich corpus of Basque mythology milestones and legends; the Basque word,'Aralar' may stem from the words'aran', meaning'valley' and'larre', meaning'graze-land'. In Spanish, the range is called Sierra de Aralar; the range covers 20,800 hectares. 10,971 hectares is conservation area. The range is located in the Basque Country of northern Spain, straddling the boundaries of south-eastern Gipuzkoa and north-western Navarre; the range separates the two provinces. Pamplona lies 40 kilometres to the south east; the Spanish coastline at the Cantabrian Sea and the town of San Sebastian are the same distance to the north north-east. The border between Spain and France is 50 kilometres to the north-east.
Villages located at the foot of the range include Beasain and Ataun. At Lizarrusti, a visitor centre marks the park's main entrance, it operates in the former miquelete barracks. The Aia hamlet nestles on the southern slopes of the range; the range is mountainous with large limestone massifs. This is typical of the Basque region; the range has a karstic lithological appearance, i.e. parts of the calcareous rock outcrops have been dissolved away in water. Left behind are limestone pavements—areas where the limestone has formed etched, pitted or fluted rock pinnacles and ridges between which are deep grooves, sinkholes or dolinas, underground rivers, gullies. An example, now open to the public, is the cavern of Mendukillo in the village of Astitz; this cracked, permeable geologic milieu has provided the perfect grounds for a wide range of mythological accounts and characters. The materials that dominate are clay, marl and limestone. Except for quaternary period coatings, all the materials are from the Cretaceous eras.
The original limestone reefs create the element of ruggedness of the range. Two examples are the Ataun dome structure. Sandstone is found to the south of the range. Glaciated areas with small frontal moraines at one to two km from the cirque have been found. Many streams originate in the range. Between the peaks, there are four large basins: Agauntza, Zaldibia and Amezketa in which streams can form. Due to the Karst geological forms, some waterways are underground; the waterways contribute to the economy of the region, for example, in the production of hydroelectric power. The Basque region has a temperate oceanic climate; the climate of the Aralar range transitions between the Eastern Cantabrian climate of Gipuzkoa and the Continental-Mediterranean climate of the Barranca corridor. The mountains, however, do create their own micro-climate with more intense rainfall and greater cloud cover. Mists can make hiking in the park more dangerous. Megalithic monuments indicate prehistoric habitation of the range.
These monuments include stone circles and menhirs. There are 44 on the Navarrese side of the range. Archaeological evidence suggests Neolithic pastoralism. For example, primary forests, now restricted to the fringes of the range have been replaced by pastures. A local mythology of legends, folk beliefs and tales, dependent on the nature of the landscape has emerged; the ethnographer and historian, José Miguel de Barandiarán, was born in Ataun. Called'Aralarko San Migel Santutegia' and'Santuario de San Miguel de Aralar' in Spanish, San Miguel is a Romanesque church located in the southern part of the range near the town of Uharte-Arakil and Mount Altxueta. Records about the church date from the 11th century and it contributes to the history of Christianity in northern Spain—San Miguel is an iconic and one of the oldest saints of the Basques; the chapel was built by the lord of Goñi and consecrated 1098. However, there was an earlier 9th century structure on the same site in the Carolingian style.
After a fire in the 10th century, the church was rebuilt with two aisles. The pillars are cruciform. There is no capitals; the church has three apses at three barrel vaulted naves and a central polygonal dome. The altar front, featuring Our Lady, is enamelled. Nearby, in a grotto, there is a 12th-century shrine to San Miguel. Legend holds that in a case of mistaken identity a crusader knight, the lord Teodosio of Goni, accidentally killed his own parents. In penance, he chained himself alone on Mount Aralar. An apparition dedicated to the archangel Michael released him; the apparition left a figure with a glass head and face and a helmet adorned with a cross. The image was disfigured by the French in 1797. In the park there is the Our Lady of Remedios Hermitage. There are a number of trails and unique destinations in the ranges; the karst features are suitable for caving. Between May and November, livestock latxa sheep which provide the milk for Idiazabal cheese, dairy cattle and a herd of wild horses, graze in the park's public pastures.
Although the ranges are uninhabited, some people of Aralar follow a nomadic life, tending their animals. Through the summer months, the sheep graze in the higher terrain. Pastoral huts have been built in these ar
An archangel is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions; the English word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος. It appears only twice in the New Testament in the phrase "with the voice of the archangel, with the trump of God" and in relation to'the archangel Michael'; the corresponding but different Hebrew word in the Hebrew Scripture is found in two places as in "Michael, one of the chief princes" and in "Michael, the great prince". Michael and Gabriel are recognized as archangels in Judaism, the Baha'i Faith, by most Christians; some Protestants consider Michael to be the only archangel. Raphael—mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit—is recognized as an archangel in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Gabriel and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on September 29, in the Eastern Orthodox Church on November 8.
The named archangels in Islam are Jibrael, Mikael and Azrael. Jewish literature, such as the Book of Enoch mentions Metatron as an archangel, called the "highest of the angels", though the acceptance of this angel is not canonical in all branches of the faith; some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the named angels vary, depending on the source. Gabriel and Raphael are always mentioned. In Zoroastrianism, sacred texts allude to the six great Amesha Spenta of Ahura Mazda. An increasing number of experts in anthropology and philosophy, believe that Zoroastrianism contains the earliest distillation of prehistoric belief in angels; the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism are likened to archangels. They individually inhabit immortal bodies that operate in the physical world to protect and inspire humanity and the spirit world; the Avesta explains the nature of archangels or Amesha Spentas. To maintain equilibrium, Ahura Mazda engaged in the first act of creation, distinguishing his Holy Spirit Spenta Mainyu, the Archangel of righteousness.
Ahura Mazda distinguished from himself six more Amesha Spentas, along with Spenta Mainyu, aided in the creation of the physical universe. He oversaw the development of sixteen lands, each imbued with a unique cultural catalyst calculated to encourage the formation of distinct human populations; the Amesha Spentas were charged with protecting these holy lands and through their emanation believed to align each respective population in service to God. The Amesha Spentas as attributes of God are: Spenta Mainyu: lit.'Bountiful Spirit' Asha Vahishta: lit.'Highest Truth' Vohu Mano: lit.'Righteous Mind' Khshathra Vairya: lit.'Desirable Dominion' Spenta Armaiti: lit.'Holy Devotion' Haurvatat: lit.'Perfection or Health' Ameretat: lit.'Immortality' The Hebrew Bible uses the term מלאכי אלוהים, The Hebrew word for angel is "malach," which means messenger, for the angels מלאכי יי are God's messengers to perform various missions - e.g.'angel of death'. Other terms are used in texts, such as העליונים. References to angels are uncommon in Jewish literature except in works such as the Book of Daniel, though they are mentioned in the stories of Jacob and Lot.
Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name. It is therefore speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity. According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon. There are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to have ranked amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkavah and Kabbalist mysticism and serves as a scribe, he is mentioned in the Talmud, figures prominently in Merkavah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel, is looked upon fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel and in the Talmud, as well as many Merkavah mystical texts.
The earliest references to archangels are in the literature of the intertestamental periods. In the Kabbalah there are ten archangels, each assigned to one sephira: Metatron, Tzaphkiel, Khamael, Haniel, Michael and Sandalphon. Chapter 20 of the Book of Enoch mentions seven holy angels who watch, that are considered the seven archangels: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Sa