Edge is a multi-format video game magazine published by Future plc in the United Kingdom, which publishes 13 issues of the magazine per year. The magazine was launched in October 1993 by Steve Jarratt, a long-time video games journalist who has launched several other magazines for Future; the artwork for the cover of the magazine's 100th issue was specially provided by Shigeru Miyamoto. The 200th issue was released in March 2009 with 200 different covers, each commemorating a single game. Only 200 magazines were printed with each cover, sufficient to more than satisfy Edge's circulation of 28,898. In October 2003, the then-editor of Edge, João Diniz-Sanches, left the magazine along with deputy editor David McCarthy and other staff writers. After the walkout, the editorship of Edge passed back to Tony Mott, editor prior to Diniz-Sanches; the only team member to remain was Margaret Robertson. In May 2007, Robertson stepped down as editor and was replaced by Tony Mott, taking over as editor for the third time.
Between 1995 and 2002, some of the content from the UK edition of Edge was published in the United States as Next Generation. In 2007, Future's US subsidiary, Future US began re-publishing selected recent Edge features on the Next Generation website. In July 2008, the whole site was rebranded under the Edge title, as, the senior of the two brands. In May 2014 it was reported that Future intended to close the websites of Edge and Video Games and their other videogame publications. Edge has been redesigned three times; the first redesign occurred in 1999. The first redesign altered the magazine's dimensions to be wider than the original shape; the latest design changes the magazine's physical dimensions for the second time, introduces a higher quality of paper stock than was used. Each issue includes a "Making-of" article on a particular game including an interview with one of the original developers. Issue 143 introduced the "Time Extend" series of retrospective articles. Like the "making-of" series, each focuses on a single game and, with the benefit of hindsight, gives an in-depth examination of its most interesting or innovative attributes."Codeshop" examines more technical subjects such as 3D modelling programs or physics middleware, while "Studio Profile" and "University Profile" are single-page summaries of particular developers or publishers, game-related courses at higher education institutions.
Although an overall list of contributors is printed in each issue's indicia, the magazine has not used bylines to credit individual writers to specific reviews and articles, instead only referring to the anonymous Edge as a whole. Since 2014, some contributed; the magazine's regular columnists have been credited throughout the magazine's run. The current columnists are Clint Hocking and Tadhg Kelly. In addition, several columnists appear toward the beginning of the magazine to talk about the game industry as a whole, rather than focusing on specific game design topics, they are Trigger Happy author Steven Poole, Leigh Alexander, Brian Howe, whose parody article section "You're Playing It Wrong" began with the new redesign. Previous columnists have included Paul Rose, Toshihiro Nagoshi of Sega's Amusement Vision, author Tim Guest, N'Gai Croal, game developer Jeff Minter. In addition, numerous columns were published anonymously under the pseudonym "RedEye", several Japanese writers contributed to a regular feature called "Something About Japan".
James Hutchinson's comic strip Crashlander was featured in Edge between issues 143 and 193. Edge scores games on a ten-point scale, from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 10, with five as ostensibly the average rating. For much of the magazine's run, the magazine's review policy stated that the scores broadly correspond to one of the following "sentiments": 1 – disastrous 2 – appalling 3 – flawed 4 – disappointing 5 – average 6 – competent 7 – distinguished 8 – excellent 9 – astounding 10 – revolutionary However, with issue 143 the scoring system was changed to a simple list of "10 = ten, 9 = nine..." and so on, a tongue-in-cheek reference to people who read too much into review scores. It was three years before Edge gave a game a rating of ten out of ten, to date the score has been given to twenty-one games: In contrast, only two titles have received a one-out-of-ten rating, Kabuki Warriors and FlatOut 3: Chaos & Destruction. In a December 2002 retro gaming special, Edge retrospectively awarded ten-out-of-ten ratings to two titles released before the magazine's launch: Elite Exile Edge awarded a 10/10 score in one of the regular retrospective reviews in the magazine's normal run: Super Mario Bros.
In Edge's 10th anniversary issue in 2003, GoldenEye 007 was included as one of the magazine's top ten shooters, along with a note that it was "the only other game" that should have received a ten out of ten rating. The game had been awarded a nine out of ten, with the magazine stating that "a ten was considered, but rejected". Resident Evil 4, whi
Dark fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy literary and cinematic works that incorporate darker and frightening themes of fantasy. It often combines fantasy with elements of horror or has a gloomy, dark atmosphere, or a sense of horror and dread. A strict definition for dark fantasy is difficult to pin down. Gertrude Barrows Bennett has been called "the woman who invented dark fantasy". Both Charles L. Grant and Karl Edward Wagner are credited with having coined the term "dark fantasy"—although both authors were describing different styles of fiction. Brian Stableford argues "dark fantasy" can be usefully defined as subgenre of stories that attempt to "incorporate elements of horror fiction" into the standard formulae of fantasy stories. Stableford suggests that supernatural horror set in the real world is a form of "contemporary fantasy", whereas supernatural horror set or wholly in "secondary worlds" should be described as "dark fantasy". Additionally, other authors and publishers have adopted dark fantasy to describe various other works.
However, these stories share universal similarities beyond supernatural occurrences and a dark brooding, tone. As a result, dark fantasy cannot be solidly connected to a defining set of tropes; the term itself may refer collectively to tales that are either fantasy-based. Some writers use "dark fantasy" as an alternative description to "horror", because they feel the latter term is too lurid or vivid. Charles L. Grant is cited as having coined the term "dark fantasy". Grant defined his brand of dark fantasy as "a type of horror story in which humanity is threatened by forces beyond human understanding", he used dark fantasy as an alternative to horror, as horror was associated with more visceral works. Dark fantasy is sometimes used to describe stories told from a monster's point of view, or that present a more sympathetic view of supernatural beings associated with horror. Anne Rice's The Vampire Chronicles, Chelsea Quinn Yarbro's Saint-Germain, Neil Gaiman's The Sandman are early examples of this style of dark fantasy.
This is in contrast to the traditional horror model, which focuses more on the victims and survivors. In a more general sense, dark fantasy is used as a synonym for supernatural horror, to distinguish horror stories that contain elements of the supernatural from those that do not. For example, a story about a werewolf or vampire could be described as dark fantasy, while a story about a serial killer would be horror. Stableford suggests that the type of horror conveyed by fantasy stories such as William Beckford's Vathek and Edgar Allan Poe's The Masque of the Red Death "is more aesthetic than visceral or existential", that such stories should be considered "dark fantasies" rather than the "supernaturalized thrillers" of conventional horror fiction. Karl Edward Wagner is credited for creating the term "dark fantasy" when used in a more fantasy-based context. Wagner used it to describe his fiction about the Gothic warrior Kane. Since "dark fantasy" has sometimes been applied to sword and sorcery and high fantasy fiction that features anti-heroic or morally ambiguous protagonists.
Another good example under this definition of dark fantasy is Michael Moorcock's saga of the albino swordsman Elric. The fantasy work of H. P. Lovecraft, Clark Ashton Smith and their emulators have been specified as "dark fantasy", since the imaginary worlds they depicted contain a large number of horror elements. Dark fantasy is used to describe fantasy works by authors that the public associates with the horror genre. Examples of this would be Stephen King's The Dark Tower series, Peter Straub's Shadowland and Clive Barker's Weaveworld. Alternatively, dark fantasy is sometimes used for "darker" fiction written by authors best known for other styles of fantasy. Key would fit here. On Dark Fantasy — author Lucy Snyder's essay on the differences between "pure" horror and dark fantasy
Id Software LLC is an American video game developer based in Dallas, Texas. The company was founded on February 1, 1991, by four members of the computer company Softdisk, programmers John Carmack and John Romero, game designer Tom Hall, artist Adrian Carmack. Business manager Jay Wilbur was involved.id Software made important technological developments in video game technologies for the PC, including work done for the Wolfenstein and Quake franchises. Id's work was important in 3D computer graphics technology and in game engines that are used throughout the video game industry; the company was involved in the creation of the first-person shooter genre. Wolfenstein 3D is considered as the first true FPS, Doom was a game that popularized the genre and PC gaming in general, Quake was id's first true 3D FPS. On June 24, 2009, ZeniMax Media acquired the company. In 2015, they opened a second studio in Germany; the founders of id Software met in the offices of Softdisk developing multiple games for Softdisk's monthly publishing, including Dangerous Dave.
In September 1990, John Carmack developed an efficient way to side-scroll graphics on the PC. Upon making this breakthrough and Tom Hall stayed up late into the night making a replica of the first level of the popular 1988 NES game Super Mario Bros. 3, inserting stock graphics of John Romero's Dangerous Dave character in lieu of Mario. When Romero saw the demo, entitled "Dangerous Dave in Copyright Infringement", he realized that Carmack's breakthrough could have potential; the team that would form id Software began moonlighting, going so far as to "borrow" company computers that were not being used over the weekends and at nights while they designed their own remake of Super Mario Bros. 3. Despite their work, Nintendo turned them down, saying they had no interest in expanding to the PC market, that Mario games were to remain exclusive to Nintendo consoles. Around this time, Scott Miller of Apogee Software learned of the group and their exceptional talent, having played one of Romero's Softdisk games, Dangerous Dave, contacted Romero under the guise of multiple fan letters that Romero came to realize all originated from the same address.
When he confronted Miller, Miller explained that the deception was necessary since Softdisk screened letters it received. Although disappointed by not having received mail from multiple fans and other Softdisk developers began proposing ideas to Miller, including Commander Keen in December 1990, which became a successful shareware game. After their first royalty check Romero and Adrian Carmack decided to start their own company. After hiring Hall, the group finished the Commander Keen series hired Jay Wilbur and Kevin Cloud and began working on Wolfenstein 3D; the shareware distribution method was employed by id Software through Apogee Software to sell their products, such as the Commander Keen and Doom games. They would release the first part of their trilogy as shareware sell the other two installments by mail order. Only did id Software release their games via more traditional shrink-wrapped boxes in stores. After Wolfenstein 3D's great success, id began working on Doom. After Hall left the company it hired Sandy Petersen and Dave Taylor before the release of Doom in December 1993.
On June 24, 2009, it was announced. The deal would affect publishing deals id Software had before the acquisition, namely Rage, being published through Electronic Arts. Id Software moved from the "cube-shaped" Mesquite office to a newly built location in Richardson, Texas in January 2011. On June 26, 2013, id Software president Todd Hollenshead quit after 17 years of service. On November 22, 2013, it was announced id Software co-founder and Technical Director John Carmack had resigned from the company to work full-time at Oculus VR which he joined as CTO in August 2013, he was the last of the original founders to leave the company. The company writes its name with a lowercase id, pronounced as in "did" or "kid", according to the book Masters of Doom, the group identified itself as "Ideas from the Deep" in the early days of Softdisk but that, in the end, the name'id' came from the phrase "in demand". Disliking "in demand" as "lame", someone suggested a connection with Sigmund Freud's psychological concept of id, which the others accepted.
Evidence of the reference can be found as early as Wolfenstein 3D with the statement "that's id, as in the id, superego in the psyche" appearing in the game's documentation. Prior to an update to the website, id's History page made a direct reference to Freud. Kevin Cloud — Executive producer Tim Willits — Studio director Marty Stratton — Executive producer Robert Duffy — Chief Technology Officer Donna Jackson — Office manager Arranged in chronological order: John Carmack — Co-founder, technical director, he joined Oculus VR on August 7, 2013, as a side project, but unable to handle two companies at the same time, Carmack resigned from id Software on November 22, 2013, to pursue Oculus full-time, making him the last founding member to leave the company. Tom Hall — Co-founder, game designer, level designer, creative director. After a dispute with John Carmack over the designs of Doom, Hall was forced to resign from id Software in August 1993, he joined 3D Realms soon afterwards. Bobby Prince — Music composer.
A freelance musician who we
IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
Autodesk Softimage, or Softimage is a discontinued 3D computer graphics application, for producing 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling, computer animation. Now owned by Autodesk and titled Softimage|XSI, the software has been predominantly used in the film, video game, advertising industries for creating computer generated characters and environments. Released in 2000 as the successor to Softimage|3D, Softimage|XSI was developed by its eponymous company a subsidiary of Avid Technology. On October 23, 2008, Autodesk acquired the Softimage brand and 3D animation assets from Avid for $35 million, thereby ending Softimage Co. as a distinct entity. In February 2009, Softimage|XSI was rebranded Autodesk Softimage. A free version of the software, called Softimage Mod Tool, was developed for the game modding community to create games using the Microsoft XNA toolset for PC and Xbox 360, or to create mods for games using Valve Corporation's Source engine, Epic Games's Unreal Engine and others, it was discontinued with the release of Softimage 2014.
On March 4, 2014, it was announced that Autodesk Softimage would be discontinued after the release of the 2015 version, providing product support until April 30, 2016. Autodesk Softimage is a 3D animation application comprising a suite of computer graphics tools. Modeling tools allow the generation of polygonal or NURBS models. Subdivision modeling works directly on the polygonal geometry; each modeling operation is tracked by a construction history stack, which enables artists to work non-destructively. Operators in history stacks can be re-ordered, removed or changed at any time, all adjustments propagate to the final model. Control rigs are created using bones with automatic IK, constraints and specialized solvers like spine or tail. Optionally, the ICE system can be used to create light-weight rigs in a node-based environment; the rigging process can be sped up through the use of adaptable biped and quadruped rigs, FaceRobot for facial rigs and automatic lip syncing. Animation features include a mixer, which allows combining animation clips non-linearly.
Animation operators are tracked in a construction history stack, separate from the modeling stack, enabling users to change the underlying geometry of animated characters and objects. MOTOR is a feature that transfers animation between characters, regardless of their size or proportions. GATOR can transfer attributes such as textures, UVs, weight maps or envelopes between different models. Softimage contains tools to simulate particles, particle strands, rigid body dynamics, soft body dynamics, cloth and fluids; the default and integrated rendering engine in Softimage is mental ray. Materials and shaders are built in a node-based fashion; when users activate a so-called render region in a camera view, it will render this section of the scene using the specified rendering engine and update interactively. A secondary rendering mode is available for rendering real-time GPU shaders written in either the Cg or HLSL languages. Included is the FX Tree, a built-in node-based compositor that has direct access to image clips used in the scene.
It can thus not only be used to finalize and composite rendered frames, but as an integral part of scene creation. The FX Tree can be used to apply compositing effects to image clips being used in the rendered scene, allowing Softimage to render scenes using textures authored or modified in various ways within the same scene. In addition to the node-based ICE platform described below, Softimage has an extensive API and scripting environment that can be used to extend the software; the available scripting languages include Python, VBScript and JScript. A C++ SDK is available for plug-in developers, with online documentation available to the public. On July 7, 2008 the Softimage, Co. announced Softimage | XSI 7. ICE is a visual programming platform that allows users to extend the capabilities of Softimage and intuitively using a node-based dataflow diagram; this enables artists to create complex 3D tools without scripting. Among the main uses for ICE are procedural modeling, deformation and particle simulation.
It can be used to control scene attributes without the need to write expressions, for example to add camera wiggle or make a light pulsate. ICE is a parallel processing engine that takes advantage of multi-core CPUs, giving users scalable performance. ICE represents Softimage functionality using a collection of nodes, each with its own specific capabilities. Users can connect nodes together, visually representing the data flow, to create powerful tools and effects. Softimage ships with several hundred nodes. Compounds serve as "wrapper nodes" to collapse ICE graphs into a single node. Softimage allows users to add custom compounds to its main menu system for easy reusability; the screenshot on the right shows an example of a simple geometry deformation ICE graph. In a practical scenario, one would collapse the graph into a compound and expose important parameters, for instance the deformation intensity. After adding the tool to the user interface it can be applied to other objects. Compounds can be shared between installations because their entire functionality is stored in XML files.
The graph-based approach of ICE allows for the creation of effects attainable only through the use of scripting and/or compiled code. Due to its visual nature and interactivity, it is accessible for users with no programming experience. Man
Third-person shooter is a subgenre of 3D shooter games in which the player character is visible on-screen during gaming, the gameplay consists of shooting. A third-person shooter is a game structured around shooting, in which the player can see the avatar on-screen in a third-person view. Third-person shooter is a game where instead of seeing the games through the main character’s eyes, you see the main character moving and shooting in the game and the game is focused on shooting, it is a 3D genre, that has grown to prominence in recent years on consoles. It combines the shooting elements of the first-person shooter with the jumping and climbing elements of puzzle-based games and brawlers. Third-person shooter games always incorporate an aim-assist feature, since aiming from a third-person camera is difficult. Most have a first-person view, which allows precise shooting and looking around at environment features that are otherwise hidden from the default camera. In most cases, the player must stand still to use first-person view, but newer titles allow the player to play like a FPS.
These games are related to first-person shooters, which tie the perspective of the player to an avatar, but the two genres are distinct. While the first-person perspective allows players to aim and shoot without their avatar blocking their view, the third-person shooter shows the protagonist from an "over the shoulder shot" or "behind the back" perspective. Thus, the third-person perspective allows the game designer to create a more characterized avatar and directs the player's attention as in watching a film. In contrast, a first-person perspective provides the player with greater immersion into the game universe; this difference in perspective affects gameplay. Third-person shooters allow players to see the area surrounding the avatar more clearly; this viewpoint facilitates more interaction between the character and their surrounding environment, such as the use of tactical cover in Gears of War, or navigating tight quarters. As such, the third-person perspective is better for interacting with objects in the game world, such as jumping on platforms, engaging in close combat, or driving a vehicle.
However, the third-person perspective can interfere with tasks. Third-person shooters sometimes compensate for their distinct perspective by designing larger, more spacious environments than first-person shooters; the boundaries between third-person and first-person shooters are not always clear. For example, many third-person shooters allow the player to use a first-person viewpoint for challenges that require precise aiming; the first-person shooter Halo: Combat Evolved was designed as a third-person shooter, but added a first-person perspective to improve the interface for aiming and shooting. The game switches to a third-person viewpoint when the avatar is piloting a vehicle, this combination of first-person for aiming and third-person for driving has since been used in other games. Metroid Prime is another first-person shooter that switches to a third-person perspective when rolling around the environment using the morph ball. Alexander R. Galloway writes that the "real-time, over-the-shoulder tracking shots of Gus Van Sant's Elephant evoke third-person shooter games like Max Payne, a close cousin of the FPS".
2D third-person shooters have existed since the earliest days of video games, dating back to Spacewar!. Arcade shooters with a 3D third-person perspective include Nintendo's Radar Scope, Atari's Tempest, Nihon Bussan's Tube Panic, Sega's Space Harrier, Atari's Xybots, Square's 3-D WorldRunner. and JJ Third-person shooters for home computers include Dan Gorlin's Airheart and Paul Norman's Beyond Forbidden Forest. Konami's run & gun shooter Contra featured several third-person shooter levels where the player trudges through indoor enemy bases. Konami's Devastators is a third-person shooter where, rather than moving forward automatically, the player walks forward by holding the Up direction, as the background scales toward the screen. Devastators featured various obstacles that could be used to take cover from enemy fire, as well as two-player cooperative gameplay. A similar shooter released that same year was Cabal, which inspired many of its own "Cabal clones," such as NAM-1975 and Wild Guns.
Kurt Kalata of Hardcore Gaming 101 cites Sega's Last Survivor, released for arcades and ported to the FM Towns and FM Towns Marty, featuring eight-player deathmatch. He notes that it has a perspective and split-screen similar to Xybots, but with different gameplay and controls. In 1993, Namco released a two-player competitive 3D third-person shooter vehicle combat game, Cyber Sled. A year Elite Systems Ltd. released Virtuoso on the 3DO. This was an early example of a home console third-person shooter which featured a human protagonist on-foot, as opposed to controlling a vehicle, made use of polygonal 3D graphics along with sprites in a 3D environment. Fade to Black was a 3D third-person shooter released around this time, but as well as featuring an on-foot protagonist rather than a vehicle, utilised polygonal 3D graphics. Tomb Raider by Eidos Interactive is claimed by some commentators as a third-person shooter, Jonathan S. Harbour of the University of Advancing Technology argues that it's "largely responsible for the popularity of th
Loki Entertainment Software, Inc. was a video game developer based in Tustin, United States, that ported several video games from Microsoft Windows to Linux. It took its name from the Norse deity Loki. Although successful in its goal of bringing games to the Linux platform, the company closed due to financial troubles, with it declaring Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection in August 2001, being disbanded in January 2002. Loki Software was founded on November 9, 1998 by Scott Draeker, a former lawyer who became interested in porting games to Linux after being introduced to the system through his work as a software licensing attorney. By December of that year Loki had gained the rights to produce a port of Activision's upcoming strategy game Civilization: Call to Power for Linux; this was to become Loki's first actual product, with the game hitting stores in May 1999. From there they gained contracts to port many other titles, such as Myth II: Soulblighter, Railroad Tycoon II, Eric's Ultimate Solitaire.
Throughout the next two years up until its eventual closure the company would continue to bring more games to Linux. Loki Software, although a commercial failure, is credited with the birth of the modern Linux game industry. Loki developed several free software tools, such as the Loki installer, supported the development of the Simple DirectMedia Layer, they started the OpenAL audio library project and with id Software wrote GtkRadiant. These are still credited as being the cornerstones of Linux game development, they worked on and extended several developed tools, such as GCC and GDB. The book Programming Linux Games written in the early 2000s by Loki intern John R. Hall explains the major APIs Loki used to produce Linux games. Loki offered a start to many figures still in the Linux and gaming industries. Ryan C. Gordon, a former employee of Loki, has been responsible for the Linux and Mac OS X ports of many commercial games after the demise of the company. Mike Phillips would help start Linux Game Publishing, itself founded in response to Loki's closure.
Nicholas Vining would go on to do some porting work and is the lead programmer at Gaslamp Games, which would release their game Dungeons of Dredmor for Linux. Sam Lantinga would later join Blizzard Entertainment and found Galaxy Gameworks to commercially support the Simple DirectMedia Layer. Although many Loki ports are unsupported since Loki's closure, Linux Game Publishing managed to pick up the rights to MindRover and offer a supported and updated version of the game's Linux port. Id Software picked up the support for the Linux release of Quake III Arena, hiring Timothee Besset to maintain it. Running With Scissors, to celebrate the release of the movie Postal in 2007 published a multiplayer only version of Postal 2, without the single player campaign. In 2004 the source header files for Rune were released by Human Head Studios, but so far no one has updated the Linux version of Rune, though the company stated that a game sequel is in the making, delayed the development of Prey 2. Software contractor Frank C.
Earl claimed in 2010 to hold the porting rights for the entire Myth series and says he will port it to Linux. Kevin Bentley worked in 2009 on a Descent 3 patch for Linux, re-released in 2014 on Steam by Rebecca Heineman, who got blessed source code access. In October 16, 2011, Project Magma released a new version of Myth II: Soulblighter for Linux. In addition to the published titles, there is an unfinished port of Deus Ex; the update of Deus Ex for Microsoft Windows features the OpenGL driver for the Unreal engine from Loki Software's Linux port. This makes the title more compatible with Wine. Linux Game Publishing Ryan C. Gordon Official website Icculus.org Ryan Gordon's site, hosting many Loki projects as well as other Linux gaming resources Activision and Loki Partner to Bring Games to Linux Linux PR, October 11, 1999 Linux.com - Loki: In The Trenches