Constitution of Mexico
The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is the current constitution of Mexico. It was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, by a constitutional convention, during the Mexican Revolution, it was approved by the Constitutional Congress on 5 February 1917. It is the successor to the Constitution of 1857, earlier Mexican constitutions; the current Constitution of 1917 is the first such document in the world to set out social rights, serving as a model for the Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Russian Constitution of 1918. Some of the most important provisions are Articles 3, 27, 123. Aimed at restricting the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, Article 3 established the basis for a free and secular education. Articles 3, 5, 24, 27, 130 restricted the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, attempts to enforce the articles by President Plutarco Calles in 1926 led to the violent conflict known as the Cristero War. In 1992, under the administration of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, there were significant revisions of the constitution, modifying Article 27 to strengthen private property rights, allow privatization of ejidos and end redistribution of land — and the articles restricting the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico were repealed.
Constitution Day is one of Mexico's annual Fiestas Patrias, commemorating the promulgation of the Constitution on 5 February 1917. Although the official anniversary is on 5 February, the holiday takes place on the first Monday of February regardless of the date; the constitution was founded on seven fundamental ideals: A declaration of rights Sovereignty of the nation Separation of powers Representative government A federal system Constitutional remedy Supremacy of the State over the Church The Constitution is divided into "Titles" which are series of articles related to the same overall theme. The Titles, of variable length, are: First Title: Chapter I: Of Human Rights and their Guarantees Chapter II: On Mexicans Chapter III, On Foreigners Chapter IV: On Mexican Citizens Second Title: Chapter I: On National Sovereignty and Form of Government Chapter II: On the Parts That Make Up the Federation and the National Territory Third Title: Chapter I: On the Separation of Powers Chapter II: On the Legislative Power Chapter III: On the Executive Power Chapter IV: On the Judicial Power Fourth Title: About the responsibilities of the public service and the patrimony of the State Fifth Title: About the States of the Federation and the Federal District Sixth Title: About Work and Social Welfare Seventh Title: General Provisions Eighth Title About Reforms to the Constitution Ninth Title: About the Inviolability of the Constitution The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is one of the outcomes of the Mexican Revolution of 1910 won by the Constitutionalist faction led by Venustiano Carranza.
Carranza convoked a congress to draft the new constitution. Carranza excluded the zapatista factions from this congress, it replaced the liberal Constitution of 1857, extending that constitution's restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. Its innovations were in expanding the Mexican state's power into the realms of economic nationalism, political nationalism, protection of workers' rights. Unlike the congresses that produced the 1824 Mexican Constitution and the 1857 Constitution over a lengthy period, the Constituent Congress produced the final draft in a matter of a few months, between November 1916 and February 1917; the constitution was "a means to confer legitimacy on a shaky regime." One interpretation of the speed with which the document was drafted and Carranza's acceptance of some provisions that were radical "suggests that what Carranza and his colleagues chiefly wanted was a Constitution, the hypothetical contents of which could be reviewed and ignored." The Liberal Party of Mexico's 1906 political program proposed a number of reforms that were incorporated into the 1917 Constitution.
Article 123 incorporated its demands for the 8-hour day, minimum wage, hygienic working conditions, prohibitions on abuse of sharecroppers, payment of wages in cash, not scrip, banning of company stores, Sunday as an obligatory day of rest. Article 27 of the Constitution incorporated some of the PLM's d
Pedro María de Anaya
Pedro Bernardino María de Anaya y de Álvarez was a military officer who served twice as interim president of Mexico from 1847 to 1848. He played an important role during the Mexican–American War, he was born on 20 May 1795 in San Mateo de Huichapan, a town located in the modern-day state of Hidalgo. His parents were María Antonia de Álvarez, both Spaniards, he started his military career in the Royal Army as a cadet in the company of Tres Villas. In June 1821 he joined the rebel army fighting for independence. In 1847, after the victory of the invading U. S. Army in the Battle of Padierna, the Mexican battalions of Independencia and Bravo were attacked in the convent of Santa María de Churubusco; this confrontation is known as the Battle of Churubusco, the Mexican army was bravely commanded by Pedro María Anaya. When General Anaya was asked by General Twiggs to surrender his ammunition after the end of the battle, he replied, "If I had any ammunition, you would not be here"; the battle was important not only because the American victory made it possible for them to win the Mexican–American War, but because of the historical participation of the Saint Patrick's Battalion.
Today the nearest metro station from the Santa María de Churubusco convent in Mexico City is called "Metro General Anaya". The General Anaya metro station in Monterrey is named after Pedro María Anaya. List of heads of state of Mexico Rivera Marín, Guadalupe. "Si hubiera parque!: Pedro María Anaya." Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Estudios Históricos de la Revolución Mexicana, Secretaría de Gobernación, 1993. Sanchez, Javier Ernesto. "Valor Wrought Asunder: The Mexican General Officer Corps in the U. S.-Mexican War, 1846-1847.". Http://digitalrepository.unm.edu/ltam_etds/3
Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz was a Mexican soldier and politician. From August to December 1832, he was president of Mexico. Múzquiz was born on 5 January 1790 or sometime in March, depending on the source, in Santa Rosa, Nueva Extremadura, New Spain, he studied at the Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City. While still a student, he enlisted in the forces of General Ignacio López Rayón in 1810 in Coahuila to fight for Mexican independence from Spain, he took part in many engagements. In 1812, he was a lieutenant. In 1813, he led the infantry in the defense of Zacapu. In November 1816, now a colonel, he was taken prisoner near Córdoba, Veracruz, he was freed under a general amnesty though he refused to give his word that he would not fight again against the viceregal government of New Spain. In 1821, after Mexican independence, he supported the Plan de Iguala, which resulted in Agustín de Iturbide ascending the throne as Mexico's first emperor. However, as a congressional deputy he did not support this result.
He and other deputies proposed. During the rebellion against the emperor, he joined the Plan de Casa Mata, but he did not have the confidence of the leaders, who considered him a radical. In 1823 to 1824, he was supreme political chief of the Province of Mexico. On 2 March 1824, the new Mexican Congress changed his title to governor of the State of Mexico, he returned for a second period as governor of the state from 26 April to 1 October 1830. He was general of a division under President Guadalupe Victoria and military commandant of Puebla. In Puebla, together with General Filisola, he rose against President Vicente Guerrero on 10 December 1828. Múzquiz was defeated by José Joaquín de Herrera, but the rebellion was successful, he was one of the individuals. In 1832, when Antonio López de Santa Anna revolted, President Bustamante left the capital to fight the rebels, leaving Múzquiz as acting president. Neither Bustamante nor Santa Anna could prevail. Manuel Gómez Pedraza assumed the presidency on 24 December as the result of an agreement between the warring factions and a congressional resolution, after 11 months of fighting.
Múzquiz was the first president to collect taxes on windows. In 1836, he was president of the Supremo Poder Conservador, an institution of five members established under the Seven Laws with the power to dissolve Congress or the Supreme Court, he was a candidate for president in 1843. He died in December 1844, in poverty, remembered for his scrupulous honesty in the management of public funds, he was buried with full honors in the Cemetery of Santa Paula. Múzquiz was benemérito de la patria en grado heroico, an honor bestowed by Congress. List of heads of state of Mexico "Múzquiz, Melchor", Enciclopedia de México, vol. 10. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7. García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrúa, 1984. Orozco Linares, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from February 17, 1877 to December 1, 1880 and from December 1, 1884 to May 25, 1911. A veteran of the War of the Reform and the French intervention in Mexico, Díaz rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against the French-imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian. Seizing power in a coup in 1876, Díaz and his allies, a group of technocrats known as "Científicos", ruled Mexico for the next thirty-five years, a period known as the Porfiriato. Díaz has always been a controversial figure in Mexican history, his economic policies benefited his circle of allies as well as foreign investors, helped a few wealthy estate-owning hacendados acquire huge areas of land, leaving rural campesinos unable to make a living. These estates were deadly, resulting in the deaths of 600,000 workers in 1900 through the end of Diaz's rule. Despite public statements favoring a return to democracy and not running for office, Díaz reversed himself and ran again in 1910.
His failure to institutionalize presidential succession, as he was by 80 years old, triggered a political crisis between the Científicos and the followers of General Bernardo Reyes, allied with the military and with peripheral regions of Mexico. After Díaz declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office in 1910, his electoral opponent, Francisco I. Madero, issued a call for armed rebellion against Díaz, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution. After the Federal Army suffered a number of military defeats against Madero's forces, Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911 and went into exile in Paris, the capital city of France, where he died four years later. Porfirio Díaz was the sixth of seven children, baptized on 15 September 1830, in Oaxaca, but his actual date of birth is unknown. September 15 is an important date in Mexican history, the eve of the day when hero of independence Miguel Hidalgo issued his call for independence in 1810. Díaz was a castizo, his mother, Petrona Mori, was the daughter of a man whose father had immigrated from Spain and Tecla Cortés, an indigenous woman.
There is confusion about his father's name, listed on the baptismal certificate as José de la Cruz Díaz. Despite the family's difficult economic circumstances following Díaz's father's death in 1833, Díaz was sent to school at age 6. In the early independence period, the choice of professions was narrow: lawyer, physician, military; the Díaz family was devoutly religious, Díaz began training for the priesthood at the age of fifteen when his mother, María Petrona Mori Cortés, sent him to the Colegio Seminario Conciliar de Oaxaca. He was offered a post as a priest in 1846. Díaz joined with seminary students who volunteered as soldiers to repel the U. S. invasion during the Mexican–American War, despite not seeing action, decided his future was in the military, not the priesthood. In 1846, Díaz came into contact with a leading Oaxaca liberal, Marcos Pérez, who taught at the secular Institute of Arts and Sciences in Oaxaca; that same year, Díaz met Benito Juárez, who became governor of Oaxaca in 1847, a former student there.
In 1849, over the objections of his family, Díaz abandoned his ecclesiastical career and entered the Instituto de Ciencias and studied law. When Antonio López de Santa Anna was returned to power by a coup d'état in 1853, he suspended the 1824 constitution and began persecuting liberals. At this point, Díaz had aligned himself with radical liberals, such as Benito Juárez. Juárez was forced into exile in New Orleans. Díaz evaded an arrest warrant and fled to the mountains of northern Oaxaca, where he joined the rebellion of Juan Álvarez. In 1855, Díaz joined a band of liberal guerrillas. After the ousting and exile of Santa Anna, Díaz was rewarded with a post in Ixtlán, that gave him valuable practical experience as an administrator. Díaz's military career is most notable for his service in the Reform War and the struggle against the French. By the time of the Battle of Puebla, Mexico's great victory over the French when they first invaded, Díaz had advanced to the rank of general and was placed in command of an infantry brigade.
During the Battle of Puebla, his brigade was positioned centered between the forts of Loreto and Guadalupe. From there, he helped repel a French infantry attack meant as a diversion, to distract the Mexican commanders' attention from the forts that were the French army's main targets. In violation of General Ignacio Zaragoza's orders, after helping fight off the larger French force, General Díaz and his unit chased after them. Despite Díaz's inability to cede control, General Zaragoza commended his actions during the battle as "brave and notable". In 1863, Díaz was captured by the French Army, he escaped and President Benito Juárez offered him the positions of secretary of defense or army commander in chief. He took an appointment as commander of the Central Army; that same year, he was promoted to the position of Division General. In 1864, the cons
Valley of Mexico
The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico coterminous with present-day Mexico City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including Teotihuacan, the Toltec, the Aztec; the ancient Aztec term Anahuac and the phrase Basin of Mexico are both used at times to refer to the Valley of Mexico. The Basin of Mexico became a well known site that epitomized the scene of early Classic Mesoamerican cultural development as well; the Valley of Mexico is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The valley contains most of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, as well as parts of the State of Mexico, Hidalgo and Puebla; the Valley of Mexico can be subdivided into four basins, but the largest and most-studied is the area which contains Mexico City. This section of the valley in particular is colloquially referred to as the "Valley of Mexico"; the valley has a minimum elevation of 2,200 meters above sea level and is surrounded by mountains and volcanoes that reach elevations of over 5,000 meters.
It is an enclosed valley with no natural outlet for water to flow and a gap to the north where there is a high mesa but no high mountain peaks. Within this vulnerable watershed all the native fishes were extinct by the end of the 20th century. Hydrologically, the valley has three features; the first feature is the lakebeds of five now-extinct lakes, which are located in the southernmost and largest of the four sub-basins. The other two features are piedmont, the mountainsides that collect the precipitation that flows to the lake area; these last two are found in all four of the sub-basins of the valley. Today, the Valley drains through a series of artificial canals to the Tula River, the Pánuco River and the Gulf of Mexico. Seismic activity is frequent here, the valley is considered an earthquake prone zone; the valley has been inhabited for at least 12,000 years, attracting humans with its mild climate, abundant game and ability to support large-scale agriculture. Civilizations that have arisen in this area include the Teotihuacan the Toltec Empire and the Aztec Empire.
When the Spaniards arrived in the Valley of Mexico, it had one of the highest population concentrations in the world with about one million people. After the Conquest, the Spaniards rebuilt the largest and most dominant city here, renaming it Mexico City; the valley used to contain five lakes called Lake Zumpango, Lake Xaltocan, Lake Xochimilco, Lake Chalco, the largest, Texcoco covering about 1,500 square kilometers of the valley floor, but as the Spaniards expanded Mexico City, they began to drain the lakes' waters to control flooding. Although violence and disease lowered the population of the valley after the Conquest, by 1900 it was again over one million people; the 20th and 21st centuries have seen an explosion of population in the valley along with the growth of industry. Since 1900, the population has doubled every fifteen years. Today, around 21 million people live in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area which extends throughout all of the valley into the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.
The growth of a major urban, industrial centre in an enclosed basin has created significant air and water quality issues for the valley. Wind patterns and thermal inversions trap contaminants in the valley. Over-extraction of ground water has caused new flooding problems for the city as it sinks below the historic lake floor; this causes stress on the valley's drainage system, requiring new canals to be built. The Valley of Mexico attracted early humans because the region was rich in biodiversity and had the capacity of growing substantial crops. Speaking, humans in Mesoamerica, including central Mexico, began to leave a hunter-gatherer existence in favor of agriculture sometime between the end of the Pleistocene epoch and the beginning of the Holocene; the oldest known human settlement in the Valley of Mexico is located in Tlapacoya, located on what was the edge of Lake Chalco in the southeast corner of the valley in contemporary Mexico State. There is reliable archeological evidence to suggest that the site dates as far back as 12,000 BC.
After 10,000 BC, the number of artifacts found increases significantly. There are other early sites such as those in Tepexpan, Los Reyes Acozac, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Chimalhuacán and Los Reyes La Paz but they remain undated. Human remains and artifacts such as obsidian blades have been found at the Tlapacoya site that have been dated as far back as 20,000 BC, when the valley was semi-arid and contained species like camels and horses that could be hunted by man. However, the precise dating of these artifacts has been disputed. Giant Columbian mammoths once populated the area, the valley contains the most extensive mammoth kill sites in Mexico. Most of the sites are located on what were the shores of Lake Texcoco in the north of the Federal District and the adjacent municipalities of Mexico State such as in Santa Isabel Ixtapan, Los Reyes Acozac and Tlanepantla. Mammoth bones are still found in farmland here, they have been discovered in many parts of the Federal District itself during the construction of the city's Metro lines and in the neighborhoods of Del Valle in the center, Lindavista to the center-north and Coyoacán in the south of the city.
The symbol for Line 4's Talisman station of the Mexico City Metro is a mammoth, due to the fact that so many bones were uncover
History of Mexico
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. One of the important aspects of Mesoamerican civilizations was their development of a form of writing, so that Mexico's written history stretches back hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519; this era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became the Spanish capital Mexico City, remains the most populous city in Mexico. From 1521, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire incorporated the region into the Spanish Empire, with New Spain its colonial era name and Mexico City the center of colonial rule, it became the capital of New Spain. During the colonial era, Mexico's long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture.
Nothing better represents this hybrid background than Mexico's languages: the country is both the most populated Spanish-speaking country in the world and home to the largest number of Native American language speakers in North America. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking and Western culture. After a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. A brief period of monarchy, called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, established under a federal constitution in 1824. Legal racial categories were eliminated. Slavery was not abolished at independence in 1821 or with the constitution in 1824, but was eliminated in 1829. Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917; the Age of Santa Anna is the period of the late 1820s to the early 1850s, dominated by criollo military-man-turned-president Antonio López de Santa Anna.
In 1846, the Mexican–American War was provoked by the United States, ending two years with Mexico ceding half of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to the United States. Though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office; the Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, ushering in La Reforma beginning in 1854. The Mexican Constitution of 1857 codified the principles of liberalism in law separation of church and state, equality before the law, that included stripping corporate entities of special status; the Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The War of the Reform saw the defeat of the conservatives on the battlefield, but conservatives remained strong and took the opportunity to invite foreign intervention against the liberals in order to forward their own cause; the French Intervention is the period when France invaded Mexico, nominally to collect on defaulted loans to the liberal government of Benito Juárez, but it went further and at the invitation of Mexican conservatives seeking to restore monarchy in Mexico, to set Maximilian I on the Mexican throne.
The US was engaged in its own Civil War at that time, so did not attempt to block the French invasion. Curiously, the famous "Cinco de Mayo" celebrations in the USA refer to the victory of the Mexican army in 1862 over the French invaders; the French had planned to support the Southern Confederacy in the USA after conquering Mexico. The French were foiled in that effort by the Mexicans, so in this sense, Mexico inadvertently aided Abraham Lincoln. For that reason, Abraham Lincoln supported the Mexican liberals. At the end of the Civil War in the US and the triumph of the Union forces, the US aided Mexican liberals against Maximilian's regime. France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867 and his monarchist rule collapsed in 1867 and Maximilian was executed. With the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period called the Restored Republic brought back Benito Juárez as president. Following his death from a heart attack, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada succeed him, he was overthrown by liberal military man Porfirio Díaz, who after consolidating power ushered in a period of stability and economic growth.
The half-century of economic stagnation and political chaos following independence ended. The Porfiriato is the era when army hero Porfirio Díaz held power as president of Mexico continuously from 1876–1911, he promoted "order and progress" that saw the suppression of violence, modernization of the economy, the flow of foreign investment to the country. The period ended with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Under Díaz, Mexico's industry and infrastructure were modernized by a strong, stable but autocratic central government. Increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, mining, foreign trade, national finances; the Mexican Revolution is the chaotic period between 1910 and 1920 when Mexicans fought to determine their future after the end of the Díaz era. The uncertainty about presidential succession in 1910, when 80 year-old Díaz was re-elected in fraudulent elections, touched off violence in northern Mexico and in the state of Morelos, just south of Mexico City.
The sparking forces of the Mexican Revolution were elites outside Díaz's inn