Arroyo Seco (Los Angeles County)
The Arroyo Seco, meaning "dry stream" in Spanish, is a 24.9-mile-long seasonal river, canyon and cultural area in Los Angeles County, California. The area was explored by Gaspar de Portolà who named the stream Arroyo Seco as this canyon had the least water of any they had seen. During this exploration he met the Chief Hahamog-na of the Tongva Indians; the watershed begins at Red Box Saddle in the Angeles National Forest near Mount Wilson in the San Gabriel Mountains. As it enters the urbanized area of the watershed, the Arroyo Seco stream flows between La Cañada Flintridge on the west and Altadena on the east. Just below Devil's Gate Dam, the stream passes underneath the Foothill Freeway. At the north end of Brookside Golf Course the stream becomes channelized into a flood control channel and proceeds southward through the golf course; the Arroyo Seco goes through Pasadena, where it passes the Rose Bowl Stadium as it goes through Brookside Park. The Arroyo Seco stream, fed by a watershed of 46.7 square miles, helps to replenish the Raymond Basin, an aquifer underlying Pasadena that provides about half of the local water supply.
This arroyo is one of two major streams that capture rainfall and storm water in Pasadena, the other being Eaton Wash on the eastern side of the city, a tributary of the Rio Hondo watershed. The Arroyo Seco passes under the Ventura Freeway and the Colorado Street Bridge, it crosses the Raymond Fault at the southern boundary of Pasadena at the San Rafael Hills; the channel continues along the western boundary of South Pasadena into northeast Los Angeles flowing southeast of the Verdugo Mountains and Mount Washington. The Arroyo Seco proceeds through the Los Angeles neighborhoods of Highland Park, Montecito Heights, Cypress Park, it ends at the confluence with the Los Angeles River near Elysian Park, north of Dodger Stadium and Downtown Los Angeles. The Arroyo Seco Parkway, or Pasadena Freeway, runs parallel to the channelized Arroyo Seco from South Pasadena to the Los Angeles River. Above Devil's Gate, the rapids of the Arroyo Seco are positioned so that the falls make a beating, laughing sound.
In Tongva-Gabrieliño traditional narratives, this is attributed to a wager made between the river and the coyote spirit. The Arroyo Seco was one of the Los Angeles River tributaries explored by Gaspar de Portola in the late summer and fall of 1770, he named the stream Arroyo Seco, for of all the canyons he had seen, this one had the least water. During this exploration he met the Chief Hahamog-na near Millard Canyon, at the settlement known as Hahamongna - California; this band of the Tongva Indians would end up gathered into the fold of the San Gabriel Mission and with other bands and tribes collectively called "Gabrielenos." The Arroyo Seco region can be considered by historical accounts as the birthplace of Pasadena. After the 1820s secularization of the Missions, the broad area to the east of the Arroyo was the Mexican land grant of Rancho San Pascual, present-day Pasadena, California. Manuel Garfias was the grantee of its longest early resident, his adobe house was in present-day South Pasadena.
With the 1874 establishment of the community of the Indiana Colony, the new residents built their homes along today's Orange Grove Boulevard, the major north-south avenue paralleling the Arroyo on the east. However, the deep and seasonally flooded Arroyo presented a barrier to easy travel and transportation between renamed Pasadena and Los Angeles. Stories of four and five hours just crossing the chasm, whether exaggerated or not, abounded in Pasadena history; the first recorded American to live in the Upper Arroyo was known as "Old Man Brunk". Brunk's cabin stood at a large bend in the canyon where the Forest Service housing is today, it was said he left San Francisco "for that town's good". Dating back to the original Tongva residents of the area, the Arroyo Seco canyon has always served as a major transportation corridor. Today it links downtown Los Angeles with Pasadena, the west San Gabriel Valley and the San Gabriel Mountains. By 1886 the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad had been established from Downtown Los Angeles with a grand wooden trestle that cut a straight line crossing from the west side to the east.
The wooden trestle was replaced with the Santa Fe Arroyo Seco Railroad Bridge. This line would hook up with rail lines built from the east to create the cross-country course of the Santa Fe Railroad. For local commutes, an electric traction trolley was put in and operated by the Pacific Electric Railway, a Henry E. Huntington enterprise, which ran the "Red Cars" from the upper Arroyo and Pasadena through the San Gabriel Valley into Los Angeles and many points beyond; the lower Arroyo Seco was served by the Los Angeles Railway "Yellow Car" lines. In 1900 Horace Dobbins, Mayor of Pasadena, opened his innovative California Cycleway, an elevated wood structure with a flat planked surface that would allow bicyclers to travel from Pasadena to Los Angeles avoiding the uncertain schedules of the early trains. Dobbins was only able to build a two-mile portion of the cycleway from the Green Hotel to Raymond Hill before competition from the railroads and the growing popularity of the horseless carriage undermined the project.
Present day cycling activists are reviving a vision and plan for a dedicated bikeway from Pasadena to Los Angeles. The Arroyo Seco bicycle path now runs from Highland Park to South Pasadena. In 1913 the Colorado Street Bridge was dedicated; this structure curves across the Arroyo accessing Eagle Rock and the San Fernando Valley. During the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression of the 1930s, the bri
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order, the earliest, followed by the Ionic order; when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders; this architectural style is characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. There are many variations; the name Corinthian is derived from the ancient Greek city of Corinth, although the style had its own model in Roman practice, following precedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. It was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the "column of Phocas", the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek.
The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket, its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period. The earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. Proportion is a defining characteristic of the Corinthian order: the "coherent integration of dimensions and ratios in accordance with the principles of symmetria" are noted by Mark Wilson Jones, who finds that the ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio, so that, the full height of column with capital is a multiple of 6 Roman feet while the column height itself is a multiple of 5. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, stands apart by its distinctive carved capital; the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, it may have a rosette at the center of each side.
Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight, having the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Their height to width ratio is about 10:1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Tivoli; the Tivoli Order's Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops; the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette; the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, combine Hellenistic and Indian elements; these capitals are dated to the 1st centuries of our era, constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. The classical design was adapted taking a more elongated form, sometimes being combined with scrolls within the context of Buddhist stupas and temples.
Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas as central figures surrounded, in the shade, of the luxurious foliage of Corinthian designs. During the first flush of the Italian Renaissance, the Florentine architectural theorist Francesco di Giorgio expressed the human analogies that writers who followed Vitruvius associated with the human form, in squared drawings he made of the Corinthian capital overlaid with human heads, to show the proportions common to both; the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or may bear interesting proportional relationships, to one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be richly carved with a continuous design or left plain, as at the U. S. Capitol extension. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are 1:1. Above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions, which are ornamental brackets used in a series under a cornice.
The Corinthian column is always fluted, the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched. They may be filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted, with the rods rising a third of the way, to where the entasis begins. In French, these are called chandelles and sometimes terminate in carved wisps of flame, or with bellflowers. Alternatively, beading or chains of husks may take the place of the fillets in the fluting, Corinthian being the most flexible of the orders, with more opportunities for variation. Elaborating upon an offhand remark when Vitruvius accounted for the origin of its acanthus capital, it became a commonplace to identify the Corinthian column with the slender figure of a young girl. Sir William Chambers expressed the conventional comparison with the Doric order: The proportions of the orders were by the ancients formed on those of the human body, it could n
Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist and the founder of Stanford University. Migrating to California from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, continued to build his business empire, he spent one two-year term as Governor of California after his election in 1861, eight years as a United States Senator. As president of Southern Pacific Railroad and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California, he is considered a robber baron. Stanford was born in 1824 in what was Watervliet, New York, he was one of eight children of Elizabeth Phillips Stanford. Among his siblings were New York State Senator Charles Stanford and Australian businessman and spiritualist Thomas Welton Stanford, his immigrant ancestor, Thomas Stanford, settled in Massachusetts, in the 17th century. Ancestors settled in the eastern Mohawk Valley of central New York about 1720. Stanford's father was a farmer of some means.
Stanford was raised on family farms in the Lisha Roessleville areas of Watervliet. The family home in Roessleville was called Elm Grove; the Elm Grove home was razed in the 1940s. Stanford attended the common school until 1836 and was tutored at home until 1839, he attended Clinton Liberal Institute, in Clinton, New York, studied law at Cazenovia Seminary in Cazenovia, New York, in 1841–45. In 1845, he entered the law office of Wheaton and Hadley in Albany. After being admitted to the bar in 1848, Stanford moved with many other settlers to Port Washington, where he began law practice with Wesley Pierce, his father presented him with a law library said to be the finest north of Milwaukee. In 1850, Stanford was nominated by the Whig Party as Wisconsin district attorney. On September 30, 1850, Stanford married Jane Elizabeth Lathrop in New York, she was the daughter of Dyer Lathrop, a merchant of that city, Jane Anne Lathrop. The couple did not have any children for years, until their only child, a son, Leland DeWitt Stanford, was born in 1868 when his father was forty-four.
In 1852, having lost his law library and other property to a fire, Stanford followed his five brothers to California during the California Gold Rush. His wife, returned temporarily to Albany and her family, he went into business with his brothers and became the keeper of a general store for miners at Michigan City, California the name changed to Michigan Bluff in Placer County. He served as a justice of the peace and helped organize the Sacramento Library Association, which became the Sacramento Public Library. In 1855, he returned to Albany to join his wife but found the pace of Eastern life too slow after the excitement of developing California. In 1856, he and Jane moved to Sacramento. Stanford was one of the four merchants known popularly as "The Big Four" who were the key investors in Chief Engineer Theodore Dehone Judah's plan for the Central Pacific Railroad, which the five of them incorporated on June 28, 1861, of which Stanford was elected president; the other three associates were Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington.
The railroad's first locomotive, named "Gov. Stanford" in his honor, is on display today at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento. Stanford ran unsuccessfully for governor of California in 1859, he won the election. He served one term limited to two years. In May 1868, he joined Lloyd Tevis, Darius Ogden Mills, H. D. Bacon and Crocker in forming the Pacific Union Express Company, it merged in 1870 with Wells Company. Stanford was a director of Wells Fargo and Company from 1870 to January 1884. After a brief retirement from the board, he served again from February 1884 until his death in June 1893. In May 1868, he started the Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company and served as its first president from 1868 to 1876. While the Central Pacific was under construction and his associates in 1868 acquired control of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Stanford was elected president of the Southern Pacific, a post he held until 1890 when he was ousted by Collis Huntington; as head of the railroad company that built the western portion of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" over the Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Utah, Stanford presided at the ceremonial driving of "Last Spike" in Promontory, Utah on May 10, 1869.
The grade of the CPRR met that of the Union Pacific Railroad, built west from its western terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska. He was given the honor of driving the final spike. Stanford moved with his family from Sacramento to San Francisco in 1874, where he assumed presidency of the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company, the steamship line to Japan and China associated with the Central Pacific; the Southern Pacific Company was organized in 1884 as a holding company for the Central Pacific-Southern Pacific system. Stanford was president of the Southern Pacific Company from 1885 until 1890 when he was forced out of that post by Collis Huntington; this was thought to be retaliation for Stanford's election to the United States Senate in 1885 over Huntington's friend, A. A. Sargent. Stanford was elected chairman of the Southern Pacific Railroad's executive committee in 18
Montecito Heights, Los Angeles
Montecito Heights is a small district in Northeast Los Angeles. The population in 2000 was estimated at 16,768. Montecito Heights' boundaries are the Pasadena Freeway or the Arroyo Seco on the northwest, Pasadena Avenue on the west, Avenue 33 to the south, Huntington Drive to the southeast, Monterey Road to the east. Neighboring districts include Monterey Hills on the northeast, El Sereno on the southeast, Lincoln Heights on the southwest, Mount Washington on the northwest, Highland Park on the north. Owing to the rugged terrain, no major thoroughfares run through the area, besides Griffin Avenue; the district is in ZIP code 90031. Known by the residents as the'Wilderness in the City', Montecito Heights sits on the Monterey Hills that divide the Los Angeles Basin from the San Gabriel Valley. Montecito Heights is a isolated area of greenery and trendy resident home restorers. City views are available on the district's hills. Along with neighboring Highland Park and Pasadena, it is one of the historic centers of the Arts and Crafts movement.
Ernest E. Debs Regional Park Heritage Square Museum Audubon Center Alana Cordy-Collins and archaeologist Napoleon Cordy, Mayanist John Strother Griffin, the founder of East Los Angeles Jackson Pollock, artist Edward Rivera, journalist Arroyo Seco Neighborhood Council Montecito Heights Improvement Association Montecito Heights profile by the Los Angeles Times
Mount Pleasant House (California)
Mount Pleasant House is a residence built in 1876 by William Hayes Perry in Boyle Heights. It was designed by Mathews in the Italianate Victorian architecture style; the home was relocated to the Heritage Square Museum in the Montecito Heights section of Los Angeles, California. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
An open-air museum is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors. It is frequently known as a museum of buildings or a folk museum; the concept of an open-air museum originated in Scandinavia in the late 19th century and spread widely. A comprehensive history of the open-air museum as an idea and institution can be found in Swedish museologist Sten Rentzhog's 2007 book Open Air Museums: The History and Future of a Visionary Idea. Living-history museums, including living-farm museums and living museums, are open-air museums where costumed interpreters portray period life in an earlier era; the interpreters act as if they are living in a different time and place and perform everyday household tasks and occupations. The goal is to demonstrate older pursuits to modern audiences. Household tasks might include cooking on an open hearth, churning butter, spinning wool and weaving, farming without modern equipment. Many living museums feature traditional craftsmen at work, such as a blacksmith, silversmith, tanner, cooper, miller, cabinet-maker, printer and general storekeeper.
Open air is “the unconfined atmosphere…outside buildings…” In the loosest sense, an open-air museum is any institution that includes one or more buildings in its collections, including farm museums, historic house museums, archaeological open-air museums. Mostly,'open-air museum is applied to a museum that specializes in the collection and re-erection of multiple old buildings at large outdoor sites in settings of recreated landscapes of the past, include living history, they may, therefore, be described as building museums. European open-air museums tended to be sited in regions where wooden architecture prevailed, as wooden structures may be translocated without substantial loss of authenticity. Common to all open-air museums, including the earliest ones of the 19th century, is the teaching of the history of everyday living by people from all segments of society; the idea of the open-air museum dates to the 1790s. The first proponent of the idea was the Swiss thinker Charles de Bonstetten, was based on a visit to an exhibit of peasant costumes in the park of Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark.
He believed that traditional peasant houses should be preserved against modernity, but failed to attract support for the idea. The first major steps towards the creation of open-air museums was taken in Norway in 1867, when a private citizen transferred some historic farm buildings to a site near Oslo for public viewing. This, in turn, inspired King Oscar II in 1881 to establish his own collection nearby inherited by the Norwegian Folk Museum; the similar Nordic Museum was founded in Stockholm, soon afterwards. In 1891, the first major open-air museum was founded at Skansen, in Stockholm, as a part of the Nordic Museum; the Skansen museum included farm buildings from across Scandinavia, folk costumes, live animals, folk music, demonstrations of folk crafts. The success of Skansen ensured. Most open-air museums concentrate on rural culture. However, since the opening of the first town museum, The Old Town in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1914, town culture has become a scope of open-air museums. In many cases, new town quarters are being constructed in existing rural culture museums.
The North American open-air museum, more called a living-history museum, had a different later origin than the European, the visitor experience is different. The first was Henry Ford's Greenfield Village in Dearborn, where Ford intended his collection to be “a pocket edition of America”. Colonial Williamsburg, had a greater influence on museum development in North America, it influenced such projects through the continent as Mystic Seaport, Plimoth Plantation, Fortress Louisbourg. The approach to interpretation tends to differentiate the North American from the European model. In Europe, the tendency is to focus on the buildings. In North America, many open-air museums include interpreters who dress in period costume and conduct period crafts and everyday work; the living museum is, viewed as an attempt to recreate to the fullest extent conditions of a culture, natural environment, or historical period. The objective is immersion, using exhibits so that visitors can experience the specific culture, environment or historical period using the physical senses.
Performance and historiographic practices at American living museums have been critiqued in the past several years by scholars in anthropology and theater for creating false senses of authenticity and accuracy, for neglecting to bear witness to some of the darker aspects of the American past. Before such critiques were published, sites such as Williamsburg and others had begun to add more interpretation of difficult history. Sculpture garden Historical reenactment Human zoo List of Renaissance fairs List of tourist attractions providing reenactment Hurt, R. Douglas. "Agricultural Museums: A New Frontier for the Social Sciences". The History Teacher. 11: 367–75. JSTOR 491627. Association for Living History and Agricultural Museums Revista Digital Nueva Museologia Latin American Theory Main open-air museums in Britain European Open-air Museums An extensive list of Open-air museums in Europe. America's Outdoor History Museums Photos from Museum of Folk Architecture and LifeMuseum websitesOpen Air Museum Bokrijk Leading open-air museum of Belgium, Flanders.
Přerov nad Labem open-air museum – photo gallery Valachian Ethnographic Museum in Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Rep