Victorian Heritage Register
The Victorian Heritage Register lists places of cultural heritage significance to the State of Victoria, Australia. It has statutory weight under the Heritage Act 1995 which establishes Heritage Victoria as the permit authority, Heritage Victoria is part of the Department of Environment, Land and Planning, a department of the Government of Victoria, Australia. Heritage Victoria reports to the Heritage Council who assess nominations to the register, the Minister for Planning is the responsible Minister for Heritage Victoria and the Heritage Act 1995. As of 2013, there were over 2,200 places, delisting of a site requires the intervention of the relevant government minister. All places and objects listed on the register are entitled to a Blue plaque
Wergaia or Werrigia is an indigenous Australian language group in the Wimmera region of north-Western Victoria. Twenty clans made up the Wergaia language, which consisted of four dialects, Wudjubalug/Wotjobaluk. The various groups within the Wergaia speak dialects of Wemba-Wemba, a member of the Kulinic branch of Pama–Nyungan, stately trees and majestic mountains adorned the ever-varying scenery of this region, the most southern of all Australia and the best. It was he added, a sheet for future development. For the natives, it was rich in kumpung, the bulrush whose rhizomes formed the staple of their diet, as well as in lahoor, the water lily. Rivers were trawled for freshwater mussels and crayfish, bushland was carefully kept in order by selected firing. Around February and March, a Festival of Laap attracted many tribes to congregate in order to socialize, settle disputes and enjoy a sweet potion, called laap. Laap was harvested over a period of 6 to eight weeks and it was confected from the sugary excretions of a species of psylla deposited on the leaves of the walkerie mallee gumtree.
The aboriginal people of this go back at least 1,600 generations. There is evidence of occupation in Gariwerd going back to 30-20,000 years ago, predating the end of the last ice age. As the earlier warm, rainy era of the Holocene changed, the Maligundidj people were divided into 20 clans each with their particular territory. The first question they would ask an outsider was, ngaia yauarin, meaning what was your place within the system of moieties and totemic skin relations that governed aboriginal identity. They were a society divided into two moieties and grugidj ), with the moiety to which one belonged called a mir. Intermarriage occurred often with the Jardwadjali and Dja Dja Wurrung clans, and meetings and ceremonies were attended with the Dadidadi, stanbridges exposition showed that the Wergaia connected the rising and setting of particular stars with seasonal events and dreamtime mythology. A few examples illustrate the intimate correlation they established between the movements of bodies and the cycles of natural phenomena in their native habitat.
The northern rise of Arcturus, known as Marpeankuurk signaled that it was time to harvest the larvae of a species of Carpenter ant, when Vega sets just after duskfall, it indicated that malleefowl eggs were ready to be collected. When the Beehive Cluster in the constellation of Cancer set, it marked the onset of autumn, pupperimbul hurled an emu egg into the firmament, whereupon it burst and shed light over the sky. The celestial pattern of the near stars reflected kinship patterns, Gnowees sister was Venus and it killed large numbers of people, and disfigured many more with pock-marked faces, and tribal elders said it came down the Murray River sent by malevolent sorcerers to the north
The territory was bordered by the Djab wurrung and Wada wurrung in the north, the Dhauwurd wurrung in the west, and the Djargurd Wurrung and Gadubanud in the east. The Framlingham Aboriginal Reserve was established in Girai wurrung territory bordering the Gunditjmara people, the Girai wurrung people had 21 clans with a patriarchal hierarchy and a matrilineally based descent system based on the Gabadj and Guragidj moieties. The clans gathered with the Djab wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung peoples to harvest eels at Lake Bolac and they met at Mirraewuae swamp near Hexham to hunt emus and other game and to conduct business. European settlement of the began in 1838 and in the early 1840s the Girai wurrung engaged in a sustained guerilla war with the encroaching pastoralists. Dispossession from their land led to starvation and the theft of sheep resulted in murderous reprisals, assistant Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright was successful in bringing charges against G. S. This decision was made despite the nature of the squatters licence by the Government to allow for Aboriginal access for hunting.
Gunditjmara from Portland and Lake Condah refused to settle at Framlingham, historian Ian Clark asserts that from 1868 the history of the Girai wurrung becomes the history of Framlingham
Government of Victoria
The Government of Victoria, referred to as the Victorian Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Victoria. The Government of Victoria, a constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1851 as prescribed in its Constitution. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Victoria has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, under the Australian Constitution, Victoria ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Victoria is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers. Victorias public service has a reputation as one of the best in Australia, Victorian Ministry List of Victorian government agencies Local government areas of Victoria Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Government of Victoria website
Prior to European settlement, they lived as all people of the Kulin nation lived, on the land, predominantly as hunters and gatherers, for tens of thousands of years. Seasonal changes in the weather, availability of foods and other factors would determine where campsites were located, many near the Birrarung, Wurundjeri people spoke the Woiwurrung language. Wurundjeri refers to the people who occupy one tribal territory, while Woiwurrung refers to the group shared by the other tribal territory groups. Some tribes in this territory are Gunung william Balluk, Kurung Jang Balluk, Marin Balluk, the Woi Wurrung peoples territory extended from north of the Great Dividing Range, east to Mount Baw Baw, south to Mordialloc Creek and west to Werribee River. Their lands bordered the Gunai/Kurnai people to the east in Gippsland, the Bunurong people to the south on the Mornington Peninsula, Wurundjeri people take their name from the word wurun meaning Manna Gum which is common along Birrarung, and djeri, a grub found in the tree.
The Wurundjeri Tribe Land and Compensation Cultural Heritage Council was established in 1985 by descendants of the Wurundjeri people, the Wurundjeri have lived in the Woi Wurrung area for up to 40,000 years, according to Gary Presland. At the Keilor Archaeological Site a human hearth excavated in 1971 was radiocarbon-dated to about 31,000 years BP, a cranium found at the site has been dated at between 12,000 and 14,700 years BP. Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands became separated from mainland Australia around 12,000 BP, port Phillip was flooded by post-glacial rising sea levels between 8,000 and 6,000 years ago. Oral history and creation stories from the Wada wurrung, hobsons Bay was once a kangaroo hunting ground. Creation stories describe how Bunjil was responsible for the formation of the bay, the mine provided a complex network of trading for economic and social exchange among the different Aboriginal nations in Victoria. The Quarry had been in use for more than 1,500 years, in February 2008 the site was placed on the Australian National Heritage List for its cultural importance and archeological value.
William Buckley, a convict, escaped from this abortive settlement and this would have impacted the economic and social ties binding the Woi Wurrung and Bunwurrung peoples. Broome puts forward that two epidemics of smallpox decimated the population of the Kulin tribes by perhaps killing half each time in the 1790s, any plague is supposed to be brought on by the Mindye or some of its little ones. On 6 June 1835 John Batman met with eight elders of the Woi Wurrung people including Bebejan and Billibellary, the meeting took place on the bank of a small stream, likely to be the Merri Creek and treaty documents were signed along with exchanges of goods by both sides. The total value of the goods has been estimated at about GBP100 in the value of the day, in return the Woiwurrung offered woven baskets of examples of their weaponry and two Possum-skin cloaks, a highly treasured item. After the treaty signing, a celebration took place with the Parramatta Aborigines with Batmans party dancing a corroboree, the treaty was significant as it was the first and only documented time when European settlers negotiated their presence and occupation of Aboriginal lands.
The Treaty was immediately repudiated by the government in Sydney. Derrimut, an arweet of the Bunurong informed the early European settlers in October 1835 of an attack by up-country people
The Jardwadjali people are Indigenous Australians who occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd and west to Lake Bringalbert. The towns of Horsham, Coleraine, Minyip, there were 37 Jardwadjali clans who formed an alliance with the neighboring Djab wurrung people through intermarriage, shared culture and moiety system. The Jardwadjali language shares 90 percent common vocabulary with Djab wurrung, sub-dialects include Jagwadjali and Nundadjali. The Jardwadjali people have lived in the area for up to 30,000 to 40,000 years, one site in the Victoria Range has been dated from 22,000 years ago. In 1836 the squatter Edward Henty was exploring Jardwadjali land from the south, a further wave of European occupation occurred from the north in 1840 with Lieutenant Robert Briggs squatting near Lake Lonsdale. The Jardwadjali called these mountains Gariwerd with Gar meaning ‘pointed mountain’, i meaning ‘the’, Jardwadjali people formed the nucleus of the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868, although efforts were made by the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines to stop the tour.
The team played 47 matches, winning 14, losing 14, settlement was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court, after the massacre at Fighting Hills, John Whyte travelled to Melbourne to inform Governor La Trobe in person of the massacre. The depositions of the Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright who had investigated the massacre were disallowed. At the time aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law, the incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported, it is likely other incidents occurred that were never reported and not documented officially. There was much opposition to this proposal by European descendants, the Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities, advocated a dual name for the main area, Gariwerd/Grampians. The indigenous peoples of the Wimmera won native title recognition on 13 December 2005 after a legal process.
It was the first successful native title claim in south-eastern Australia and in Victoria, determined by Justice Ron Merkel involving Wotjobaluk, Jardwadjali, unamurriman, better known in cricket circles as Johnny Mullagh was born around 1843
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
Coranderrk was a government reserve for Australian Aborigines in the state of Victoria between 1863 and 1924, located 50km north-east of Melbourne. The reserve was closed in 1924, with most residents removed to Lake Tyers Mission. In March 1863, after 3 years of upheaval, the leaders, among them Simon Wonga and William Barak, led 40 Wurundjeri, Taungurong. They squatted on a camping site on Badger Creek near Healesville. They were anxious to have the officially approved so that they could move down. An area of 9.6 km² was gazetted on 30 June 1863 and called Coranderrk and this was the name they used for the Christmas Bush, a white flowering summer plant which is indigenous to the area. In mid-1864, there were around 70 Aboriginal people living at Coranderrk, Coranderrk Station ran successfully for many years as an Aboriginal enterprise, selling wheat and crafts on the burgeoning Melbourne market. Produce from the farm won first prize at the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1881, by 1874, the Aboriginal Protection Board was looking for ways to undermine Coranderrk by moving people away due to their successful farming practices.
Neighbouring farmers wanted the mission closed as the land was now deemed too valuable for Aboriginal people to occupy, photographer Fred Kruger was commissioned to document the site and its inhabitants. In the 1870s and 80s, Coranderrk residents sent deputations to the Victorian colonial government protesting their lack of rights, why does the Board seek in these latter days more stronger authority over us Aborigines than it has yet been. The Coranderrk Petition has survived and is on display at the Melbourne Museum in Carlton, as a result of the Aborigines Protection Act of 1886, around 60 residents were ejected from Coranderrk on the eve of the 1890s Depression. Their forced departure crippled Coranderrk as an enterprise, with only around 15 able-bodied men left to work the hitherto successful hop gardens, the reserve was formally closed in 1924, with most residents moved to Lake Tyers Mission in Gippsland in eastern Victoria. Five older people refused to move and continued living at Coranderrk until they died, the last known Aboriginal woman to live at Coranderrk was Elizabeth Davis, who died in 1956, aged 104.
She was denied permission to be buried at Coranderrk alongside her husband, the last Indigenous child to be born at Coranderrk Station was James Wandin in 1933, in the home of his grandmother, Jemima Wandin. After the death of the last remaining Indigenous residents in 1950s, in 1920, Sir Colin MacKenzie, a leading medical researcher, leased 78 acres from the Aboriginal Protection Board to begin his work in comparative anatomy with Australian fauna. This was the catalyst for the creation of the Healesville Sanctuary, a zoo for Australian native animals. Many Aboriginal families continue to live in the Upper Yarra and Healesville area, in March 1998, part of the Coranderrk Aboriginal Station was returned to the Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation and Cultural Heritage Council when the Indigenous Land Corporation purchased 0.81 km². Coranderrk was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 7 June 2011, James Wandin William Barak Simon Wonga Wurundjeri
The brainchild of British politician William Ewart in 1863, it is the oldest such scheme in the world. The worlds first blue plaques were erected in London in the 19th century to mark the homes and workplaces of famous people. This scheme continues to the present day, having been administered successively by the Society of Arts, the London County Council, the Greater London Council, many other plaque schemes have since been initiated in the United Kingdom. Some are restricted to a geographical area, others to a particular theme of historical commemoration. The plaques erected by these schemes are manufactured in a variety of designs, materials, the term blue plaque may be used narrowly to refer to the official English Heritage scheme, but is often used informally to encompass all similar schemes. There are commemorative plaque schemes throughout the world such as those in Paris, Oslo, and in cities in Australia, Russia. The forms these take vary, and they tend to be known as historical markers, the original blue plaque scheme was established by the Society of Arts in 1867, and since 1986 has been run by English Heritage.
It is the oldest such scheme in the world, since 1984 English Heritage have commissioned Frank Ashworth to make the plaques which have been inscribed by his wife, Sue, at their home in Cornwall. English Heritage plans to erect an average of twelve new blue plaques each year in London. After being conceived by politician William Ewart in 1863, the scheme was initiated in 1866 by Ewart, Henry Cole and the Society of Arts, the first plaque was unveiled in 1867 to commemorate Lord Byron at his birthplace,24 Holles Street, Cavendish Square. This house was demolished in 1889, the earliest blue plaque to survive, put up in 1867, commemorates Napoleon III in King Street, St Jamess. Byron’s plaque was blue, but the colour was changed by the manufacturer Minton, in total the Society of Arts put up 35 plaques, fewer than half of which survive today. The Society only erected one plaque within the square-mile of the City of London, in 1879, it was agreed that the City of London Corporation would be responsible for erecting plaques within the City to recognise its jurisdictional independence.
This demarcation has remained ever since, in 1901, the Society of Arts scheme was taken over by the London County Council, which gave much thought to the future design of the plaques. It was eventually decided to keep the shape and design of the Societys plaques, but to make them uniformly blue, with a laurel wreath. Though this design was used consistently from 1903 to 1938, some experimentation occurred in the 1920s, in 1921, the most common plaque design was revised, as it was discovered that glazed ceramic Doulton ware was cheaper than the encaustic formerly used. In 1938, a new design was prepared by an unnamed student at the LCCs Central School of Arts and Crafts and was approved by the committee. It omitted the decorative elements of earlier designs, and allowed for lettering to be better spaced and enlarged
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network