House of Zähringen
The House of Zähringen was a dynasty of Swabian nobility. Their name is derived from Zähringen castle near Freiburg im Breisgau; the Zähringer in the 12th century used the title of Duke of Zähringen, in compensation for having conceded the title of Duke of Swabia to the Staufer in 1098. The "Duchy of Zähringen" by definition consisted of the territories and fiefs held by the Zähringer, it was not seen as a duchy in equal standing with the old stem duchies; the Zähringer attempted to expand their territories in Swabia and Burgundy into a recognized duchy, but their expansion was halted in the 1130s due to their feud with the Welfs. They were granted the special title of Rector of Burgundy in 1127, they continued to use both titles until their extinction in 1218. Pursuing their territorial ambitions, they founded numerous cities and monasteries, on either side of the Black Forest as well as in the western Swiss plateau. After their extinction, parts of their territories reverted to the crown, other parts were divided between the houses of Kyburg, Urach and Fürstenberg.
The title of "Duke of Zähringen" was revived in the 19th century by the House of Baden, which shares descent from Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia with the House of Zähringen. The earliest known ancestor of the family was one Berthold, Count in the Breisgau, first mentioned in 962. In view of his name, he may have been related to the Alemannic Ahalolfing dynasty. Berthold's great-grandson, the Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia, held several lordships in the Breisgau, in Thurgau and Baar. By his mother, he was related to the rising Hohenstaufen family. Emperor Henry III had promised his liensman Berthold the Duchy of Swabia, but this was not fulfilled, as upon Henry's death, his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Count Rudolf of Rheinfelden to the position of Duke of Swabia in 1057. In compensation, Berthold was made Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona in 1061. However, this dignity was only a titular one, Berthold subsequently lost it when, in the course of the Investiture Controversy, he joined the rising of his former rival Rudolf of Rheinfelden against German king Henry IV in 1073.
Berthold's son Berthold II, who like his father fought against Henry IV, inherited a lot of the lands of Rudolf's son Count Berthold of Rheinfelden in 1090. Berthold II is so named both as head of the House of Zähringen. Berthold II did use the "Zähringen" name, although he moved his main residence from Zähringen Castle to the newly-built Freiburg Castle in 1091. In 1092, Berthold II was elected Duke of Swabia against Frederick I of Hohenstaufen. In 1098, he reconciled with Frederick, renounced all claims to Swabia and instead concentrated on his possessions in the Breisgau region, assuming the title of Duke of Zähringen, he was succeeded in turn by Berthold III and Conrad. In 1127, upon the assassination of his nephew Count William III, Conrad claimed the inheritance of the County of Burgundy against Count Renaud III of Mâcon. Renaud prevailed, though he had to cede large parts of the eastern Transjuranian lands to Conrad, who thereupon was appointed by Emperor Lothair III as a "rector" of the Imperial Kingdom of Arles or Burgundy.
This office was confirmed in 1152 and held by the Zähringen dukes until 1218, hence they are sometimes called "Dukes of Burgundy", although the existing Duchy of Burgundy was not an Imperial but a French fief. Duke Berthold IV, who followed his father Conrad and founded the Swiss city of Fryburg in 1157, spent much of his time in Italy in the train of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his son and successor, Berthold V, showed his prowess by reducing the Burgundian nobles to order. This latter duke was the founder of the city of Bern, when he died in February 1218, the ducal line of the Zähringen family became extinct. Among other titles, the Zähringen family acted as Reichsvogt of the Zürichgau area. After the extinction of the ducal line in 1218, much of their extensive territory in the Breisgau and modern-day Switzerland returned to the crown, except for their allodial titles, which were divided between the counts of Urach and the counts of Kyburg, both descended from the sisters of Berthold V.
Less than fifty years the Kyburgs died out and large portions of their domains were inherited by the House of Habsburg. Bern achieved the status of a free imperial city, whereas other cities such as Fribourg-Freiburg only obtained the same status in history. Berthold I held the comital titles of Breisgau, Thurgau, as well as being reeve in Stein am Rhein; the county of Thurgau was lost in c. 1077. Berthold II, founder of the House of Zähringen proper, in 1098 received Zähringen castle and the jurisdiction over Zürich. Ownership of the county of Rheinfelden and of Burgdorf dates to c. 1198. The "rectorate" of the county of Burgundy was granted in 1127. Ownership of Burgundy was contested, Zähringer de facto rule was limited to the parts of Upper Burgundy east of the Jura and north of Lake Geneva; the territories south of Lake Geneva were conceded to the Savoy an
Rudolf I of Germany
Rudolf I known as Rudolf of Habsburg, was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and King of Germany from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250. A Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria and Styria in opposition to his mighty rival, the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia, whom he defeated in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld; the territories remained under Habsburg rule for more than 600 years, forming the core of the Habsburg Monarchy and the present-day country of Austria. Rudolf was the first king of the Romans of the Habsburg dynasty, he played a vital role in raising the comital house to the rank of Imperial princes, he was the first of a number of late medieval count-kings, so called by the historian Bernd Schneidmüller, from the rival noble houses of Habsburg and Wittelsbach, all striving after the Roman-German royal dignity, taken over by the Habsburgs in 1438.
Rudolf was born on 1 May 1218 at Limburgh Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl in the Breisgau region of present-day southwestern Germany. He was the son of Count Albert IV of Habsburg and of Hedwig, daughter of Count Ulrich of Kyburg. Around 1232, he was given as a squire to his uncle, Rudolf I, Count of Laufenburg, to train in knightly pursuits. At his father's death in 1239, he inherited large estates from him around the ancestral seat of Habsburg Castle in the Aargau region of present-day Switzerland as well as in Alsace. Thus, in 1240 in order to quell the rising power of Rudolf and in an attempt to place the important "Devil’s Bridge" across the Schöllenenschlucht under his direct control, Emperor Frederick II, granted Schwyz Reichsfreiheit in the Freibrief von Faenza. In 1242, Hugh of Tuffenstein provoked Count Rudolf through contumelious expressions. In turn, the Count of Habsburg failed to take his seat of power; as the day passed on, Count Rudolf bribed the sentinels of the city and gained entry, killing Hugh in the process.
In 1244, to help control Lake Lucerne and restrict the neighboring forest communities of Uri and Unterwalden, Rudolf built near its shores Neuhabsburg Castle. In 1245 Rudolf married Gertrude, daughter of Count Burkhard III of Hohenberg, he received as her dowry the castles of Oettingen, the valley of Weile, other places in Alsace, he became an important vassal in Swabia, the former Alemannic German stem duchy. That same year, Emperor Frederick II was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV at the Council of Lyon. Rudolf sided against the Emperor; this gave them a pretext to damage Neuhabsburg. Rudolf defended it and drove them off; as a result, Rudolf, by siding with the Pope, gained influence. Rudolf paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather, the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, his loyalty to Frederick and his son, King Conrad IV of Germany, was richly rewarded by grants of land. In 1254, he engaged with other nobles of the Staufen party against Bishop of Basle; when night fell, he burnt down the local nunnery.
Pope Innocent IV excommunicated him and all parties involved. As penance, he took up the cross and joined Ottokar II, King of Bohemia in the Prussian Crusade of 1254. Whilst there, he oversaw the founding of the city of Königsberg, named in memory of King Ottokar; the disorder in Germany during the interregnum after the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty afforded an opportunity for Count Rudolf to increase his possessions. His wife was a Hohenberg heiress. Successful feuds with the Bishops of Strasbourg and Basel further augmented his wealth and reputation, including rights over various tracts of land that he purchased from abbots and others; these various sources of wealth and influence rendered Rudolf the most powerful prince and noble in southwestern Germany. In the autumn of 1273, the prince-electors met to choose a king after Richard of Cornwall had died in England in April 1272. Rudolf's election in Frankfurt on 1 October 1273, when he was 55 years old, was due to the efforts of his brother-in-law, the Hohenzollern burgrave Frederick III of Nuremberg.
The support of Duke Albert II of Saxony and Elector Palatine Louis II had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolf's daughters. As a result, within the electoral college, King Ottokar II of Bohemia, himself a candidate for the throne and related to the late Hohenstaufen king Philip of Swabia, was alone in opposing Rudolf. Other candidates were Prince Siegfried I of Anhalt and Margrave Frederick I of Meissen, a young grandson of the excommunicated Emperor Frederick II, who did not yet have a principality of his own as his father was still alive. By the admission of Duke Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria instead of the King of Bohemia as the seventh Elector, Rudolf gained all seven votes. Rudolf was crowned in Aachen Cathedral on 24 October 1273. To win the approbation of the Pope, Rudolf renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory, Sicily, promised to lead a new crusade. Pope Gregory X, despite the protests of Ottokar II of Bohemia, not only recognised Rudolf himself, but persuaded King Alfonso X of Castile, chosen German
Ulrich III, Duke of Carinthia
Ulrich III, Duke of Carinthia known as Ulrich III of Spanheim was ruling Lord in the March of Carniola from c. 1249 and Duke of Carinthia from 1256 until his death, the last ruler from the House of Sponheim. Ulrich III was the eldest son of Duke Bernhard of Carinthia and his wife Judith, a daughter of the Přemyslid king Ottokar I of Bohemia, his father had endeavoured to assume the rule over the Carniolan march, which Ulrich could secure for himself by marrying Agnes of Andechs, the widow of the last Babenberg duke Frederick II of Austria. From 1251, he was co-ruler of Carinthia with his father. Ulrich continued the development of his home territories. In 1260, he completed the foundation of the charterhouse in Bistra in Inner Carniola, he founded the Canons Regular monastery in Völkermarkt. He had differences of opinion about his father's inheritance with his younger brother Philip, who had to prepare for an ecclesiastical career and was elected Archbishop of Salzburg in 1247. Philip refused to take holy orders in order to reserve the right of succession in Carinthia for himself.
Ulrich and Philip reached an agreement of mutual protection and inheritance and, after Philip was deposed as bishop in 1257 by the cathedral chapter, fought together against Philip's successor, Archbishop Ulrich of Seckau. After the election of Archbishop Ladislaus of Salzburg, it became clear that Philip would have to abandon all hopes to return to Salzburg. In 1267 he asked Ulrich III to divide their inheritance and proposed that he could be Ulrich's heir, as Ulrich's son from his first marriage had died young, his second marriage was still childless. However, on 4 December 1268, Ulrich secretly proceeded to Poděbrady Castle, where he concluded an inheritance treaty with his cousin, King Ottokar II of Bohemia, in which the king was made his sole heir; when Duke Ulrich III died in Cividale del Friuli on 27 October 1269, both Philip and Ottokar II claimed his inheritance. In the same year, Philip was elected Patriarch of Aquileia, his election was never confirmed by the Pope and in 1270/71 he was expelled to Austria by Ottokar's forces.
This was the end of the rule of the Sponheim dynasty in Carinthia. Ulrich III was married twice: to Agnes of the widow of Duke Frederick II of Austria; this marriage produced a son. To Agnes of Baden, a daughter of Margrave Herman VI of Baden and Gertrude of Babenberg, niece of Duke Frederick II of Austria; this marriage remained childless. Franz von Krones, "Ulrich III.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 39, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 222–225 Friedrich Hausmann: Die Grafen zu Ortenburg und ihre Vorfahren im Mannesstamm, die Spanheimer in Kärnten, Sachsen und Bayern, sowie deren Nebenlinien, in the series Ostbairische Grenzmarken — Passauer Jahrbuch für Geschichte Kunst und Volkskunde, vol. 36, Passau, 1994 Dr. Eberhard Graf zu Ortenburg-Tambach: Geschichte des reichsständischen, herzoglichen und gräflichen Gesamthauses Ortenburg, part 1: Das herzogliche Haus in Kärnten, Vilshofen, 1932 Ulrich III in the thesaurus maintained by the Consortium of European Research Libraries
Gertrude of Austria
Gertrude of Austria was a member of the House of Babenberg, Duchess of Mödling and titular Duchess of Austria and Styria. She was the niece of Duke Frederick II of the last male member of the Babenberg dynasty, she was, according to the Privilegium Minus the first in line to inherit the Duchies of Austria and Styria after the death of childless Frederick, but these claims were disputed by her aunt Margaret. Gertrude was the only child of Henry of Austria, Duke of Mödling, by his wife Agnes, daughter of Hermann I, Landgrave of Thuringia. Henry, in turn, was the second son of Duke Leopold VI of Austria. In 1216, after the death of his older brother Leopold, Henry became his father's heir. Henry died on 26 September 1228, only twenty years old and without male issue. Two years on 28 July 1230, Henry's father Duke Leopold VI died and was succeeded by Frederick II, Leopold's third son; because Babenberg Austria was inheritable by females according to the provisions of Privilegium Minus, Gertrude disputed Frederick's ascension, claiming Austria as her inheritance as the only child of Leopold VI's eldest son.
So, Gertrude's claim was bypassed in her uncle's favor. Despite this negative turn of events, Gertrude inherited her father's Duchy of Mödling and was placed under the guardianship of her uncle, Frederick II, after two unhappy marriages, remained childless; this made Gertrude the primogenitural heiress of the entire Babenberg line of Dukes of Austria and Styria. Complicating Frederick II's hold over Austria was his long-standing quarrel with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, during which he was placed under an imperial ban. In 1245, in a spectacular change of imperial politics, Frederick II of Austria became one of the emperor's most important allies when negotiations regarding the elevation of Vienna to a bishopric and of Austria to a Kingdom were initiated. One condition effecting a positive outcome was that the 19-year-old Duke's niece, would marry the 51-year-old Emperor, a widower three times over. Though desirous of the union, Wenceslaus I of Bohemia voiced his concerns given a preexisting agreement that Gertrude marry his eldest son and heir Vladislaus.
Gertrude herself refused the marriage with the aged Emperor, citing his recent excommunication by the Pope. Other sources claim. After sending an army to Austria in order to pressure Duke Frederick II into agreeing to the union of Gertrude and Vladislaus, the two parties came to terms early in June 1245 in Verona; the rapid rise of Duke Frederick's political ambitions proved short-lived. On 15 June 1246 Frederick II was killed in battle. King Wenceslaus arranged the formal marriage ceremony of Gertrude and his heir, Vladislaus. Per hoc Wladislaus habebat Austriae ducatum cheered Bohemia and, supported by the rights of his wife and the prospect of inheriting the Bohemian throne, Vladislaus was recognized as Duke by the Austrian aristocracy. However, shortly after their marriage, Vladislaus died on 3 January 1247. In 1248, in order to bolster her claims, the 22-year-old Duchess married Herman VI, Margrave of Baden; the following year Gertrude gave birth to a son Frederick. In celebration of the happy event, Gertrude gave 30 people in Alland, the place of her son's birth, extended farm lands which became the foundation of the agrarian community of the Allander Urhausbesitzer.
In 1250 Gertrude had a second child, a daughter, whom she named Agnes after her maternal grandmother. Herman was able to maintain only minimal control in the duchies, failing to defeat the opposition of the Austrian aristocracy; as a result and her children fled to Meissen in Saxony and her relationship with Herman deteriorated significantly. Gertrude was suspected of poisoning Herman when he died on 4 October 1250. Gertrude lost the favour of the curia and with it the chance to recover the Babenberg dominions of Austria and Styria when she refused to marry the brother of Count William II of Holland, the favored candidate of Pope Innocent IV. In the meantime, her aunt and competitor for the duchies of Austria and Styria, married Ottokar of Bohemia, the second son and next heir of Wenceslaus I; the aristocracy accepted Ottokar as the rulers of Austria. On 12 July 1252, having lost most of her support, Gertrude formed an alliance with Béla IV of Hungary and married his relative, Roman Danylovich, Prince of Halicz, a member of the Rurikid dynasty.
In 1253, Gertrude gave birth to her only child from Maria. However, after failing to establish himself as Duke of Austria, Roman left Gertrude and their daughter to return to Hungary. Shortly thereafter, the marriage was formally dissolved. In 1254, Gertrude received a portion of Styria, 400 silver marks annually, the towns of Voitsberg and Judenburg as her residences. In 1267, as neither Gertrude nor her son Frederick forswore their claim to the duchies of Styria and Austria, King Ottokar II dispossessed them of their lands. Ottokar was motivated since he sought to remarry into the Hungarian royal house; that same year, the death of Margaret made Gertrude the only legitimate heir to the Babenberg dynasty. On 8 September 1268, Gertrude's son Frederick, who had accompanied Conradin on his Italian expedition, was captured in Astura to the south of Anzio. Handed over to Charles of Anjou, he remained in degrading imprisonment in the Castel dell'Ovo in Naples until his public beheading in the Piazza del Mercato in Naples on 29 October.
The following year, Gertrude was lost her claim to Windisch-Feistritz. Again, she found refuge with her f
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II, the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola from 1269. With Ottokar's rule, the Přemyslids reached the peak of their power in the Holy Roman Empire, his expectations of the imperial crown, were never fulfilled. Ottokar was the second son of King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia. Through his mother, daughter of Philip of Swabia, he was related to the Holy Roman Emperors of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, which became extinct in the male line upon the execution of King Conradin of Sicily in 1268. Named after his grandfather King Přemysl Ottokar I, he was educated for the role of an ecclesiastical administrator, while his elder brother Vladislaus was designated heir of the Bohemian kingdom, he was educated by the Bohemian chancellor Philip of Spanheim, who would become a rival for the rule of the Duchy of Carinthia.
When his brother Vladislaus died in 1247, Ottokar became the heir to the Bohemian throne. According to popular oral tradition, he was profoundly shocked by his brother's death and did not involve himself in politics, becoming focused on hunting and drinking, his father appointed the new heir as Margrave of Moravia, Ottokar took up residence in Brno, where he was occupied with the reconstruction of the Moravian lands devastated by Mongol raids of 1242. In 1248 some discontented nobles enticed him into leading a rebellion against his father King Wenceslaus. During this rebellion he was elected "the younger King" on 31 July 1248 and temporarily expelled his father from Prague Castle. Přemysl Ottokar II held the title of King of Bohemia until November 1249. However, Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Ottokar, whereafter Wenceslaus managed to defeat the rebels and imprisoned his son at Přimda Castle. Father and son reconciled to assist the king's aim of acquiring the neighbouring Duchy of Austria, where the last Babenberg duke, Frederick II had been killed in the 1246 Battle of the Leitha River.
King Wenceslaus had attempted to acquire Austria by marrying his heir, Vladislaus, to the last duke's niece Gertrude of Babenberg. That marriage came to an end after half a year with Vladislaus's death in January 1247, in 1248 Gertrude married the Zähringen margrave Herman VI of Baden. Herman, rejected by the Austrian nobility, could not establish his rule. Wenceslaus used this as pretext to invade Austria when Herman died in 1250 — according to some sources, the estates called upon him to restore order. Wenceslaus released Přemysl Ottokar soon and in 1251 again made him Margrave of Moravia and installed him, with the approval of the Austrian nobles, as governor of Austria; the same year Ottokar entered Austria. To legitimize his position, Přemysl Ottokar married the late Duke Frederick II's sister Margaret of Babenberg, his senior by 30 years and the widow of the Hohenstaufen king Henry of Germany, their marriage took place on 11 February 1252 at Hainburg. In 1253 King Wenceslaus died and Přemysl Ottokar succeeded his father as King of Bohemia.
After the death of the German King Konrad IV in 1254 while his son Conradin was still a minor, Ottokar hoped to obtain the Imperial dignity - as King of the Romans - for himself. However, his election bid was unsuccessful and Count William II of Holland, the German anti-king since 1247, was recognised. Feeling threatened by Ottokar's growing regional power beyond the Leitha River, his cousin King Béla IV of Hungary challenged the young king. Béla formed a loose alliance with the Wittelsbach duke Otto II of Bavaria and tried to install his own son Stephen as Duke of Styria, which since 1192 had been ruled in personal union with Austria under the terms of the Georgenberg Pact of 1186. Papal mediation settled the conflict: the parties agreed that Ottokar would yield large parts of Styria to Béla in exchange for recognition of his right to the remainder of Austria. Subsequently King Ottokar II led the two crusade expeditions against the pagan Old Prussians. Königsberg, founded in 1255 by the Teutonic Order, was named in his honour and became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia.
After a few years of peace the conflict with Hungary resumed: Ottokar defeated the Hungarians in July 1260 at the Battle of Kressenbrunn, ending years of disputes over Styria with Béla IV. Béla now ceded Styria back to Ottokar, his claim to those territories was formally recognized by Richard of Cornwall king of Germany and nominal ruler of all the German lands; this peace agreement was sealed by a royal marriage. Ottokar ended his marriage to Margaret and married Béla's young granddaughter Kunigunda of Halych, who became the mother of his children; the youngest of them became his only legitimate son, Wenceslaus II. During the Imperial Imperial interregnum of 1250 to 1273, Ottokar could increase his personal influence while Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso of Castile jostled to attain the Imperial dignity. In 1266 he occupied the Egerland in north-west Bohemia, in 1268 he signed an inheritance treaty with the Sponheim duke Ulrich III of Carinthia, succeeding him in Carinthia and the Windic March the next year.
In 1272 he acquired Friuli. His rule was once again contested by the Hungarians on the field of battle. After another victory, Ottokar became the most powerful king within the Empire. After Richard of Cornwall died in April 1272 and Pope Gregory X rejected the claims raised by Alfonso of Ca
Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was the head of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254. Born in Genoa in an unknown year, Sinibaldo was the son of Beatrice Grillo and Ugo Fieschi, Count of Lavagna; the Fieschi were a noble merchant family of Liguria. Sinibaldo received his education at the universities of Parma and Bologna and, for a time, taught canon law at Bologna, it is pointed out by Agostino Paravicini-Bagliani, that there is no documentary evidence of such a professorship. From 1216-1227 he was Canon of the Cathedral of Parma, he was considered one of the best canonists of his time, was called to serve Pope Honorius III in the Roman Curia as Auditor causarum, from 11 November 1226 to 30 May 1227. He was promoted to the office of Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, though he retained the office and the title for a time after he was named Cardinal. Vice-Chancellor Sinibaldo Fieschi was created Cardinal Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina on 18 September 1227 by Pope Gregory IX.
He served as papal governor of the March of Ancona, from 17 October 1235 until 1240. It is repeated, from the 17th century on, that he became bishop of Albenga in 1235, but there is no foundation to this claim. Innocent's immediate predecessor was Pope Celestine IV, elected 25 October 1241, whose reign lasted a mere fifteen days; the events of Innocent IV's pontificate are therefore inextricably linked to the policies dominating the reigns of popes Innocent III, Honorius III and Gregory IX. Gregory had been demanding the return of portions of the Papal States taken over by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II when he died; the Pope had called a general council so he could depose the emperor with the support of Europe's spiritual leaders, but Frederick had seized two cardinals traveling to the council in hopes of intimidating the curia. The two prelates remained incarcerated and missed the conclave that elected Celestine; the conclave that reconvened after his death fell into camps supporting contradictory policies about how to treat with the emperor.
After a year and a half of contentious debate and coercion, a papal election reached a unanimous decision. Cardinal de' Fieschi reluctantly accepted election as Pope 25 June 1243, taking the name Innocent IV; as Cardinal de' Fieschi, Sinibaldo had been on friendly terms with Frederick after his excommunication. The Emperor greatly admired the cardinal's wisdom, having enjoyed discussions with him from time to time. Following the election the witty Frederick remarked that he had lost the friendship of a cardinal but made up for it by gaining the enmity of a pope, his jest notwithstanding, Frederick's letter to the new pontiff was couched in respectful terms, offering Innocent congratulations and success expressing hope for an amicable settlement of the differences between the empire and the papacy. Negotiations leading to this objective proved abortive. Innocent refused to back down from his demands, Frederick II refused to acquiesce, the dispute continued, its major point of contention being the reinstatement of Lombardy to the Patrimony of St Peter.
The Emperor's machinations caused a good deal of anti-papal feeling to rise in Italy in the Papal States, imperial agents encouraged plots against papal rule. Realizing how untenable his position in Rome was growing, Innocent IV secretly and hurriedly withdrew, fleeing Rome on 7 June 1244. Traveling in disguise, Innocent made his way to Sutri and Civitavecchia, to Genoa, his birthplace, where he arrived on 7 July. From there, on 5 October, he fled to France. Making his way to Lyon, where he arrived on November 29, 1244, Innocent was greeted by the magistrates of the city. Finding himself now in secure surroundings and out of the reach of Frederic II, Innocent summoned, in a sermon preached on December 27, 1244, as many bishops as could get to Lyon, to attend what became the 13th General Council of the Church, the first to be held in Lyon; the bishops met for three public sessions: 28 June, 5 July, 17 July 1245. Their principal business was to subjugate the Emperor Frederick II. An earlier pope, Gregory IX, had issued letters on 9 June 1239, ordering all the bishops of France to confiscate all Talmuds in the possession of the Jews.
Agents were to raid each synagogue on the first Saturday of Lent of 1240, seize the books, placing them in the custody of the Dominicans or the Franciscans. The Bishop of Paris was ordered to see to it that copies of the Pope's mandate reached all the bishops of France, Aragon, Castile and León, Portugal. On 20 June 1239, there was another letter, addressed to the Bishop of Paris, the Prior of the Dominicans and the Minister of the Franciscans, calling for the burning of all copies of the Talmud, any obstructionists to be visited with ecclesiastical censures. On the same day he wrote to the King of Portugal ordering him to see to it that all copies of the Talmud be seized and turned over to the Dominicans or Franciscans. Louis IX, King of France, on account of these letters held a trial in Paris in 1240, which found the Talmud guilty of 35 alleged charges. Twenty-four cartloads of the Talmud were burned. Innocent IV continued Gregory IX's policy. In a letter of 9 May 1244, he wrote to King Louis IX, ordering the Talmud and any books with Talmudic glosses to be examined by the Regent Doctors of the University of Paris, if condemned by them, to be burned.
However, an argument was presented that this policy was a negation of the Church’s tradition
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740; the house produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations and intermarried; the House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title.
The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph became King of Germany in 1273, the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs and their descendants ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Bohemia and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty; the House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon; the remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa of Austria.
It was succeeded by the Vaudémont branch of the House of Lorraine, descendants of Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, because it was confusingly still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the unofficial appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918; the Lorraine branch continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, its industrial base was thin, its naval resources were so minimal. It typified by Metternich. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.
Their principal roles were as follows: Holy Roman Emperors, kings of Germany, kings of the Romans) Rulers of Austria Kings of Bohemia Kings of Hungary and Croatia Kings of Spain Kings of Portugal Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria Grand princes of Transylvania Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above. The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives, his grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby; the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges countship rights in Zürichgau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Swabia, they were able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosg