Attorney-General of South Australia
The Attorney-General of South Australia is the Cabinet minister in the Government of South Australia, responsible for that state's system of law and justice. The Attorney-General must be a qualified legal practitioner; the current Attorney-General since March 2018 is The Hon. Vickie Chapman MHA, a member of the Liberal Party of Australia. Justice ministry Government of South Australia Statistical Record of the Legislature 1836 - 2007 List of Australian Attorneys-General Former Members of the Parliament of South Australia
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Sir Herbert Angas Parsons, KBE, KC known as Sir Angas Parsons, was a Cornish Australian lawyer and judge. Parsons was born in North Adelaide on 23 May 1872, the only son of Cornish born minister and politician John Langdon Parsons and his first wife Rose, he was educated at Prince Alfred College and Roseworthy Agricultural College before spending three years following "pastoral and financial pursuits". He studied law at the University of Adelaide, serving his articles with George Ash and graduating in March 1897, aged 24, he was admitted to the Bar in 1897. He joined with Patrick McMahon Glynn, KC. in partnership in 1898. In 1912 he stood for parliament and was elected member of the South Australian House of Assembly for Torrens, subsequently member for Murray, it was around June of this year that he became universally referred to as "Angas Parsons". He was Attorney-General of South Australia and minister of education in 1915. Parsons was appointed K. C. in 1916, a judge of the Supreme Court in 1921, senior puisne judge in 1927, acting chief justice in 1935.
On occasions Parsons acted as deputy governor and, after his father's death, in 1904 he became consul for Japan. Like his father-in-law, he became president of the Cornish Association of South Australia, he was warden of the University of Adelaide's senate, vice-chancellor from 1942-1944. He was knighted in 1936, appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1945, he retired in 1945 and, having "spent many hours at the Adelaide Club, preferring its convivial atmosphere to his wife's Methodism". On 18 April 1900, Parsons married Mary Elsie Bonython, eldest surviving child of Sir John Langdon Bonython and his wife Mary Louisa Fredericka née Balthasar, they had two sons. Mary Elsie Parsons served with distinction as Mayoress at official functions for her widowed brother Sir John Lavington Bonython in 1911 and 1912. Parsons died of cirrhosis on 2 November 1945. Survived by Lady Parsons and their two sons Philip Brendon Angas Parsons and Geoffrey Bonython Parsons, he was buried with his parents in North Road Cemetery
Robert Homburg, senior was a politician and judge in colonial South Australia. He was a member of the South Australian House of Assembly from 1884 to 1905, representing the electorates of Gumeracha and Murray, he was Leader of the Opposition from 1901 to 1902 and Attorney-General of South Australia from 1890 to 1892, 1892 to 1893 and 1904 to 1905. His sons Hermann Homburg and Robert Homburg Jr. served in the House of Assembly, with Hermann being a long-serving minister. Homburg was born in Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick, the son of Wilhelm Homburg, a grain merchant, his wife Caroline Magdalene Pauline. Homburg arrived in South Australia in the year 1857, he was employed in a land agency business until 1868. The last two years of his articles were served in the office of Sir John Downer, he was admitted to the bar in April 1874. Homburg was elected to the South Australian House of Assembly as a representative for Gumeracha in April 1884, at the election of 1887 was re-elected with the Sir Robert Dalrymple Ross.
In April 1890 he was again returned with Theodore Hack. In 1880 for a short period he was president of the German Club, he was appointed Attorney-General in Thomas Playford's second Ministry in August 1890, held office till June 1892, when he retired with his colleagues. Homburg was again Attorney-General from 15 October 1892 to 16 June 1893 and from 4 July 1904 to 24 February 1905. Homburg held the seat of Gumeracha until its abolition at the 1902 election. Homburg served as the tenth Leader of the Opposition from 1901 to 1902. Homburg represented the Assembly for Murray from 1902 until the 1905 election. Homburg was appointed a justice of the Supreme Court of South Australia in 1905, he died in Medindie, Adelaide on 23 March 1912. His sons Hermann and Robert junior followed him as parliamentarians. Hundred of Homburg
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third-oldest university in Australia; the university's main campus is located on North Terrace in the Adelaide city centre, adjacent to the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. The university has five campuses throughout the state, it has the Ngee Ann -- Adelaide Education Centre, in Singapore. The university operates independent research institutes and groups; these include the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies, the Hanson Institute for Medical Research, the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute. The University of Adelaide is composed with each containing constituent schools; these include the Faculty of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, the Faculty of Arts, the Faculty of the Professions, the Faculty of Sciences. It is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities.
The university is a member of the Sandstone universities, which consist of colonial-era universities within Australia. The university is associated with five Nobel laureates, constituting one-third of Australia's total Nobel laureates, 109 Rhodes scholars; the university has had a considerable impact on the public life of South Australia, having educated many of the state's leading businesspeople, medical professionals and politicians. The university has been associated with many notable achievements and discoveries, such as the discovery and development of penicillin, the development of space exploration, the military tank, Wi-Fi, polymer banknotes and X-ray crystallography, the study of viticulture and oenology; the University of Adelaide was established on 6 November 1874 after a £20,000 donation by grazier and copper miner Walter Watson Hughes, along with support and donations from Thomas Elder. The first Chancellor was Sir Richard Hanson and the first vice-chancellor was Augustus Short.
The first degree offered was the Bachelor of Arts and the university started teaching in March 1876. John Davidson was the first Hughes professor of mental and moral philosophy; the University has a long history of championing the rights of women in higher education. It was the second University in the English-speaking world to admit women on equal terms with men, though women studied alongside men from the commencement of classes in 1876, were eligible for all academic prizes and honours, its first female graduate was Edith Emily Dornwell, the first person in Australia to receive the degree of Bachelor of Science. The university graduated Australia's first female surgeon Laura Fowler. Ruby Davy was the first Australian woman to receive a doctorate in music; the University was the first to elect a woman to a University Council in Australia, Helen Mayo, in 1914. The great hall of the University, Bonython Hall, was built in 1936 following a donation from the owner of The Advertiser newspaper, Sir John Langdon Bonython, who left £40,000 for a Great Hall for the University.
On 2 July 2010, the University implemented its "Smoke-Free Policy". This move was the culmination of an anti-smoking agenda headed by Professor Konrad Jamrozik and subsequently, following Jamrozik's death, the Executive Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences, Professor Justin Beilby. Security have the right to eject people smoking within the University buildings and fine people smoking in the gardens or walkways, it is the first higher education institution in South Australia to institute a smoke-free policy. The North Terrace campus has been smoke-free since July 2010, it was planned that the Waite and Roseworthy campuses would be smoke-free by 2011, the University's residential facilities have been made smoke-free. In June 2018, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia began discussions regarding the possibility of a merger; the proposition was described as the formation of a "super uni" by Steven Marshall and Simon Birmingham, but the merger was called off in October 2018.
The main campus of the University is on North Terrace. It is bordered by the Art Gallery of South Australia, the State Library of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the "City East" campus of the University of South Australia; the Adelaide University Medical and Dental Schools were located across Frome Road, behind the old Royal Adelaide Hospital. The hospital moved and so have the schools; the vast majority of students and staff of the University are based at the North Terrace campus, where the majority of courses are taught and schools are based. The central administration of the University and the main library, the Barr Smith Library, are both located on this campus. While many other universities have law and business schools or satellite campuses within the central business district, the University of Adelaide is unique among Australian sandstone universities for having its main presence adjacent to the main business and shopping precinct. Bonython Hall, the Mitchell Building, the Elder Hall, the Napier building and the Ligertwood building, form the North Terrace street frontage of the campus.
Bonython Hall is one of the many historic and heritage listed buildings located at the North Terrace campus. Others include the Mitchell Building
South Australian Legislative Council
The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. Its central purpose is to act as a house of review for legislation passed through the lower house, the House of Assembly, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The upper house has 22 members elected for eight-year terms by proportional representation, with 11 members facing re-election every four years, it is elected in a similar manner to the Australian Senate. Casual vacancies—where a member resigns or dies—are filled by a joint sitting of both houses, who elect a replacement; the Legislative Council was the first parliament in South Australia, having been created in 1840, seventeen years before the Assembly. It was appointed by the Governor, only served in an advisory capacity, as the governor retained all legislative powers, it was expanded in 1843, when several prominent landowners were allowed to join. In the same year, proceedings were opened to the general public. Public demand for some form of representative government had been growing throughout the 1840s, this was reflected in a series of reforms in 1851, which created a representative Legislative Council.
After the changes, it consisted of 24 members, four official and four non-official members, both nominated by the governor on behalf of the Crown, 16 elected members. The right to vote for these positions was not universal, being limited to propertied men. In addition, the reforms meant that the Governor no longer oversaw proceedings, with the role being filled by a Speaker, elected by the members. In 1856, the Legislative Council prepared what was to become the 1857 Constitution of South Australia; this laid out the means for true self-government, created a bicameral system, which involved delegating most of its legislative powers to the new House of Assembly. While all adult males could vote in the new Assembly, the Council continued to limit voting rights to the wealthier classes; the entire province was a single electorate for the Legislative Council, electing 18 members. In 1882, the Legislative Council was increased to 24 members by the a special election brought on by the Constitution Act Further Amendment Act 1881, the Province was divided into four districts which each elected six members: Central, North-Eastern and Southern districts.
Women earned the right to vote in the Council at the same time as the Assembly, in 1895, the first Parliament in Australia to do so, under the radical Premier Charles Kingston. In 1902, following the Federation of Australia, the Constitution Act Amendment Act, 1901 reduced the size of the legislative council from 24 back to 18 members - 6 from Central District and four each from Northern, North-Eastern and Southern districts. North-Eastern District was replaced by Midland District from the 1910 election, the restricted franchise was extended to include ministers of religion, school head teachers, railway stationmasters, the officer in charge of a police station. In 1913 the franchise extended to the inhabitant occupier of a house and the council expanded to 20 people, four from each of five districts, with the Central district being replaced by Central District No. 1 and Central District No. 2. "Contingency voting", a form of preferences, was introduced from 1930. The council had its purpose in replicating the British House of Lords as a restricted'house of review' in a colonial context.
When the Province of South Australia received its original constitution in 1857, it was the most democratic in the British Empire, combining a universal-suffrage lower house, with a restricted-suffrage upper house. The purpose of the Legislative Council was, as with the 19th century House of Lords, to safeguard the "longer term interests of the nation rather than just reacting to short term ephemeral issues of the day"; the council's numbers have varied. From inception to 1902 it had 24 members; the electoral districts were drawn to favour regional areas with a 2:1 bias in place, with half of the council being elected each time. From 1915 to 1975, Labor did not gain more than two members at each election, with the conservative parties always holding a sizeable majority. From 1975, the Council was increased with half to be elected at each election; the conservative members in the council were independent, differed markedly from their counterparts in the House of Assembly. During the long reign of Liberal and Country League Premier Sir Thomas Playford, they would prove to be an irritant, Labor support was sometimes required for bills to pass.
When a Labor government was elected in 1965 and began introducing social legislation, anathema to LCL councillors, they would delay and modify such bills. The councillors, saw their actions necessary to "oppose... radical moves that I feel would not be in the permanent will of the people." The House of Assembly contained some progressive Liberals, its membership would abide by the party line. The council contained none, its members rebelled against the decisions of the party leadership and the popular will of the people. After electoral legislation had been implemented in 1967 by Steele Hall that produced a fairer electoral system for the House of Assembly, the council remained unchanged, it was only in 1973 under Don Dunstan that changes were made. Dunstan, a social reformist, tired of the co