The Swiss are the citizens of Switzerland or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad. About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union; the largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, the Swiss are not considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy or Willensnation, a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term; the demonym Swiss and the name of Switzerland derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century. The ethno-linguistic composition of the territories of modern Switzerland includes the following components: The German-speaking Swiss, i.e. Alemannic German amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and the Alemanni.
Related German-speaking peoples are the Alsatians, the Swabians and the Vorarlbergians. German speakers accounted for 63% of population as of 2015. Speakers of High Alemannic divided into an Eastern and a Western subgroup, with most dialects of Aargau and Lucerne transitional between the groups. Speakers of Low Alemannic in Basel and the Lake Constance area Speakers of Highest Alemannic in the Bernese Oberland, Upper Valais and the Walser settlements in Central Switzerland and Ticino The French-speaking Swiss, traditionally speaking Franco-Provençal dialects, today assimilated to the standard French language, amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and Burgundians. Romands are considered a distinct Romance people, they are related to the French. They are referred to as Welsche in Swiss German. French speakers accounted for 23% of population as of 2015; the Italian-speaking Swiss, traditionally speakers of Lombard language today assimilated to the standard Italian language, amalgamated from Raetians and Lombards.
They are related to the Italians. Italian-speakers accounted for 8.4% of population as of 2015. The Romansh, speakers of the Romansh language, settling in parts of the Grisons of Raetic stock. Romansh speakers accounted for 0.6% of population as of 2015. The core Eight Cantons of the Swiss Confederacy were Alemannic-speaking, German speakers remain the majority. However, from as early as the 15th century, parts of French-speaking Vaud and Italian-speaking Ticino were acquired as subject territories by Berne and Uri, respectively; the Swiss Romandie was formed by the accession of French-speaking Geneva and Neuchâtel and the francophone Valais and Bernese Jura to the Restored Swiss Confederacy in 1815. Romansh was considered a group of Italian dialects, but Switzerland declared Romansh a national language in 1938 in reaction to the fascist Italian irredentism at the time; as elsewhere in Western Europe, immigration to Switzerland has increased since the 1960s, so that a large proportion of the resident population of Switzerland are now not descended or only descended from the core ethno-linguistic groups listed above.
As of 2011, 37% of total resident population of Switzerland had immigrant background. As of 2016, the most used foreign languages were English, Albanian, Serbo-Croat and Spanish, all named as a "main language" by more than 2% of total population; the Swiss populace derives from an amalgamation of Gallic or Gallo-Roman and Rhaetic stock. Their cultural history is dominated by the Alps, the alpine environment is cited as an important factor in the formation of the Swiss national character. For example, the "Swiss illness", the condition of Swiss mercenaries pining for their mountainous native home, became prototypical of the medical condition of nostalgia described in the 17th century. In early modern Switzerland, the Swiss Confederacy was a pact between independent states within the Holy Roman Empire; the populations of the states of Central Switzerland considered themselves ethnically or racially separate: Martin Zeiller in Topographia Germaniae reports a racial division within the canton of Unterwalden, the population of Obwalden being identified as "Romans", that of Nidwalden as "Cimbri", while the people of Schwyz were identified as of Swedish ancestry, the people of Uri were identified as "Huns or Goths".
Modern Switzerland is atypical in its successful political integration of a multiethnic and multilingual populace, is cited as a model for new efforts at creating unification, as in the European Union's frequent invocation of the Swiss Confederate model. Because the various populations of Switzerland share language and religion not with each other bu
Yeast in winemaking
The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice. In the absence of oxygen, yeast converts the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation; the more sugars in the grapes, the higher the potential alcohol level of the wine if the yeast are allowed to carry out fermentation to dryness. Sometimes winemakers will stop fermentation early in order to leave some residual sugars and sweetness in the wine such as with dessert wines; this can be achieved by dropping fermentation temperatures to the point where the yeast are inactive, sterile filtering the wine to remove the yeast or fortification with brandy or neutral spirits to kill off the yeast cells. If fermentation is unintentionally stopped, such as when the yeasts become exhausted of available nutrients and the wine has not yet reached dryness, this is considered a stuck fermentation; the most common yeast associated with winemaking is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, favored due to its predictable and vigorous fermentation capabilities, tolerance of high levels of alcohol and sulfur dioxide as well as its ability to thrive in normal wine pH between 2.8 and 4.
Despite its widespread use which includes deliberate inoculation from cultured stock, S. cerevisiae is the only yeast species involved in a fermentation. Grapes brought in from harvest are teeming with a variety of "wild yeast" from the Kloeckera and Candida genera; these yeasts begin the fermentation process as soon as the grapes are picked when the weight of the clusters in the harvest bins begin to crush the grapes, releasing the sugar-rich must. While additions of sulfur dioxide may limit some of the wild yeast activities, these yeasts will die out once the alcohol level reaches about 15% due to the toxicity of alcohol on the yeast cells physiology while the more alcohol tolerant Saccharomyces species take over. In addition to S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus is a species of yeast that can tolerate alcohol levels of 17–20% and is used in fortified wine production such as ports and varieties such as Zinfandel and Syrah harvested at high Brix sugar levels. Another common yeast involved in wine production is Brettanomyces whose presence in a wine may be viewed by different winemakers as either a wine fault or in limited quantities as an added note of complexity.
For most of the history of wine, winemakers did not know the mechanism that somehow converted sugary grape juice into alcoholic wine. They could observe the fermentation process, described as "boiling", "seething" or the wine being "troubled" due to release of carbon dioxide that gave the wine a frothy, bubbling appearance; this history is preserved in the etymology of the word "yeast" itself which means "to boil". In the mid-19th century, the French scientist Louis Pasteur was tasked by the French government to study what made some wines spoil, his work, which would lead to Pasteur being considered one of the "Fathers of Microbiology", would uncover the connection between microscopic yeast cells and the process of the fermentation. It was Pasteur who discovered that yeast converted sugars in the must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, though the exact mechanisms of how the yeast would accomplish this task was not discovered till the 20th century with the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway; the yeast species known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae was first identified in late 19th century enology text as Saccharomyces ellipsoideus due to the elliptical shape of the cells.
Throughout the 20th century, more than 700 different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified. The difference between the vast majority of these strains are minor, though individual winemakers will develop a preference for particular strains when making certain wines or working with particular grape varieties; some of these difference include the "vigor" or speed of fermentation, temperature tolerance, the production of volatile sulfur compounds and other compounds that may influence the aroma of the wine. The primary role of yeast is to convert the sugars present in the grape; the yeast accomplishes this by utilizing glucose through a series of metabolic pathways that, in the presence of oxygen, produces not only large amounts of energy for the cell but many different intermediates that the cell needs to function. In the absence of oxygen, the cell will continue some metabolic functions but will rely on other pathways such as reduction of acetaldehyde into ethanol to "recharge" the co-enzymes needed to keep metabolism going.
It is through this process of fermentation that ethanol is released by the yeast cells as a waste product. If the yeast cells are healthy and fermentation is allowed to run to the completion, all fermentable sugars will be used up by the yeast with only the unfermentable pentose leaving behind a negligible amount of residual sugar. While the production of alcohol is the most noteworthy by-product of yeast metabolism from a winemaking perspective, there are a number of other products that yeast produce that can be influence the resulting wine; this includes glycerol, produced when an intermediate of the glycolysis cycle is reduced to "recharge" the NADH enzyme needed to continue other metabolic activities. This is produced early in the fermentation process before the mechanisms to reduce acetaldehyde into ethanol to recharge NADH becomes the cell's primary means of maintaining redox balance; as glycerol contributes increased body and a sweet taste without increasing
Malolactic fermentation is a process in winemaking in which tart-tasting malic acid present in grape must, is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid. Malolactic fermentation is most performed as a secondary fermentation shortly after the end of the primary fermentation, but can sometimes run concurrently with it; the process is standard for most red wine production and common for some white grape varieties such as Chardonnay, where it can impart a "buttery" flavor from diacetyl, a byproduct of the reaction. The fermentation reaction is undertaken by the family of lactic acid bacteria. Chemically, malolactic fermentation is a decarboxylation, which means carbon dioxide is liberated in the process; the primary function of all these bacteria is to convert one of the two major grape acids found in wine called L-malic acid, to another type of acid, L+ lactic acid. This can occur naturally. However, in commercial winemaking, malolactic conversion is initiated by an inoculation of desirable bacteria O. oeni.
This prevents undesirable bacterial strains from producing "off" flavors. Conversely, commercial winemakers prevent malolactic conversion when it is not desired, such as with fruity and floral white grape varieties such as Riesling and Gewürztraminer, to maintain a more tart or acidic profile in the finished wine. Malolactic fermentation tends to create a fuller mouthfeel. Malic acid is associated with the taste of green apples, while lactic acid is richer and more buttery tasting. Grapes produced in cool regions tend to be high in acidity, much of which comes from the contribution of malic acid. Malolactic fermentation enhances the body and flavor persistence of wine, producing wines of greater palate softness. Many winemakers feel that better integration of fruit and oak character can be achieved if malolactic fermentation occurs during the time the wine is in barrel. A wine undergoing malolactic conversion will be cloudy because of the presence of bacteria, may have the smell of buttered popcorn, the result of the production of diacetyl.
The onset of malolactic fermentation in the bottle is considered a wine fault, as the wine will appear to the consumer to still be fermenting. However, for early Vinho Verde production, this slight effervesce was considered a distinguishing trait, though Portuguese wine producers had to market the wine in opaque bottles because of the increase in turbidity and sediment that the "in-bottle MLF" produced. Today, most Vinho Verde producers no longer follow this practice and instead complete malolactic fermentation prior to bottling with the slight sparkle being added by artificial carbonation. Malolactic fermentation is as old as the history of wine, but scientific understanding of the positive benefits of MLF and control of the process is a recent development. For many centuries, winemakers noticed an "activity" that would happen in their wines stored in barrel during the warm spring months following harvest. Like primary alcoholic fermentation, this phenomenon would release carbon dioxide gas and seem to have a profound change on the wine, not always welcomed.
It was described as a "second fermentation" in 1837 by the German enologist Freiherr von Babo and the cause for increased turbidity in the wine. Von Babo encouraged winemakers to respond at the first sight of this activity by racking the wine into a new barrel, adding sulfur dioxide, following up with another set of racking and sulfuring to stabilize the wine. In 1866, Louis Pasteur, one of the pioneers of modern microbiology, isolated the first bacteria from wine and determined that all bacteria in wine were a cause for wine spoilage. While Pasteur did notice an acid reduction in wine with the lactic bacteria, he did not link that process to a consumption of malic acid by the bacteria, but rather assumed it was just tartrate precipitation. In 1891, the Swiss enologist Hermann Müller theorized that bacteria may be the cause of this reduction. With the aid of peers, Müller explained his theory of "biological deacidication" in 1913 to be caused by wine bacterium Bacterium gracile. In the 1930s, the French enologist Jean Ribéreau-Gayon published papers stating the benefits of this bacterial transformation in wine.
During the 1950s, advances in enzymatic analysis allowed enologists to better understand the chemical processes behind malolactic fermentation. Émile Peynaud furthered enology understanding of the process and soon cultured stock of beneficial lactic acid bacteria was available for winemakers to use. The primary role of malolactic fermentation is to deacidify wine, it can affect the sensory aspects of a wine, making the mouthfeel seem smoother and adding potential complexity in the flavor and aroma of the wine. For these other reasons, most red wines throughout the world today go through malolactic fermentation. Malolactic fermentation deacidifies the wine by converting the "harsher" diprotic malic acid to the softer monoprotic lactic acid; the different structures of malic and lactic acids leads to a reduction of titratable acidity in the wine by 1 to 3 g/l and an increase in pH by 0.3 units. Malic acid is present in the grape throughout the growing season, reaching its peak at veraison and decreasing throughout the ripening process.
Grapes harvested from cooler climates have the highest malic content and have the most dramatic changes in TA and pH levels after malolactic fermentation. Malolactic fermentation can aid in making a wine "microbiologically stable" in that the lactic acid bacteria consume many of
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
Oestrich-Winkel is a town with 12,000 inhabitants in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. Oestrich-Winkel, which culturally belongs to the Rheingau region, lies on the Rhine River, 19 km west-southwest of Wiesbaden and 17 km west of Mainz, it is, as a part of the Rheingau wine region, the largest winegrowing town of Hesse. The coordinates 50°N, 8°E lie right in the stadtteil of Winkel, whose name, coincidentally, is German for “angle”. Oestrich-Winkel borders in the north on the town of Lorch and the municipalities of Welterod and Schlangenbad. Oestrich-Winkel as a municipality consists of four Stadtteile: Hallgarten Mittelheim Oestrich WinkelHallgarten as the only one of these has the status as a Ortsbezirk. Oestrich-Winkel was founded on the 1st of July, 1972 by the merger of the municipalities of Mittelheim and Winkel. From the beginning Oestrich-Winkel was entitled by state government to lead the designation Stadt; the double-barrelled name Oestrich-Winkel has had a long tradition as the name of the only train station for the East Rhine Railway between Geisenheim and Hattenheim.
Michael Heil was elected in 2013 for mayor with 51,3 % of the vote. Former mayors: 1995 - 2013: Paul Weimann 1989 - 1995: Heinz-Dieter Mielke 1972 - 1989: Klaus Frietsch The municipal election held on 26 March 2006, yielded the following results: The town of Oestrich-Winkel maintains partnerships with the following two places and one military unit: Tokaj, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary Denicé, Rhône, France 2./ Fernmeldebataillon 283 in Lahnstein. The town's arms might be described thus: Gules a Z reversed with cross stroke argent between two mullets of six Or; the Z is a variant of a common German heraldic charge known in German as a Wolfsangel or Doppelhaken, its appearance here refers to its use for dealing with wolves in earlier times. The arms themselves go back to the 17th century. Oestrich-Winkel is characterized by winegrowing; the following places are cultivated: Oestrich: Lenchen, Klosterberg, Pfaffenberg Mittelheim: Edelmann, St. Nikolaus, Goldberg Winkel: Dachsberg, Gutenberg, Bienengarten, Schloß Vollrads Hallgarten: Jungfer, Würzgarten, Schönhell, Mehrhölzchen The Oestricher Kran, Oestrich-Winkel's main landmark, is a former wine-loading crane from the 18th century for loading and unloading ships.
Completed in 1745, it was working until 1926. Inside the crane are two treadmills in each of which two men used their body weight to work a winch, which could lift loads onto or off ships, it is the last preserved wine-loading crane on the Rhine's right bank. There were once such cranes in Lorch, Eltville and Rüdesheim; these cranes can still be found in existence along the Rhine at Bingen. In Mittelheim is found one of Germany's oldest stone churches, St.-Aegidius-Basilika. In Winkel stands Germany's oldest stone house, the Graues Haus. For a long time it was believed that Rabanus Maurus in 856 died there. Schloss Vollrads, outside Winkel, with its ancient watertower belongs among the noteworthy sights. On the town's northeast limit near Hattenheim stands Schloss Reichartshausen with its outbuildings, which about 1900 were remodelled to look like follies, it nowadays houses the European Business School. In the middle of the community stands the Brentanohaus. Here, Goethe spent some time in 1814 as a guest of the Frankfurt banking family Brentano.
The family's children were Clemens and Bettina Brentano. Karoline von Günderrode, a poet and one of Bettina's friends, stabbed herself here in Winkel in 1806 on the Rhine's bank out of lovesickness and life weariness. Since 2003, the barn across from the Brentanohaus has hosted the cultural and event venue Brentanoscheune; these include the Lenchenfest, the Dippemarkt (a market with a funfair the Christmas market and Jazz Week. The Rheingau Musik Festival has its office in Oestrich in a former winery, the presshouse converted to a hall for intimitate concerts and events. Festival concerts have taken place in the basilica St. Aegidius, such as a recital of Elisabeth Scholl. Since 1980 Oestrich-Winkel has been the seat of the EBS Universität für Wirtschaft und Recht. Further educational institutions are, among others, the Clemens-Brentano-Schule, the Rabanus-Maurus-Schule and Hallgarten primary school. Oestrich-Winkel lies right on Bundesstraße 42, well developed towards the east, which seamlessly feeds into the A 66 near Wiesbaden.
The town lies on the Frankfurt am Main–Wiesbaden–Oestrich-Winkel–Koblenz railway line and belongs to the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund. Furthermore, between 6:00 and 21:00, a ferry shuttles across the Rhine between Mittelheim and Ingelheim, where there is a link with the A 60. Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads and Elector of Trier, was born at Schloss Vollrads Peter Spahn, German politician, Member of the Reichstag, Member of the Landtag (Prus