The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
Karl-Marx-Straße (Berlin U-Bahn)
Karl-Marx-Straße is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 7. The station was opened in 1926 as "Bergstrasse" and renamed in 1946, although Karl Marx was a hero of the socialist republic of East Germany the station is in former West Berlin. 1968 the station was elongated to 105m, due to this a lot of the original appearance was lost. 1993 parts of the platform fell into the rail track so that the station had to be closed for a few days. The station is one stop away from Neukölln station, where passengers can change to S-Bahn lines
Rudow (Berlin U-Bahn)
Rudow is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 7. There is a bus link to Berlin Schönefeld Airport, served by the line 171 and the express bus X7. Since 2015, the station has been under extended refurbishment to provide a better interchange between buses serving Schönefeld Airport/BER and the trains. Opened in 1972 by architect Rümmler it is the end station of the U7 line. Storage sidings for subway trains at the southern end measure about 350m; the next is Zwickauer Damm
Alfred Frederik Elias Grenander, was a Swedish architect, who became one of the most prominent engineers during the first building period of the Berlin U-Bahn network in the early twentieth century. Born in Skövde, Grenander was raised in Stockholm and began studying at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology in 1881, he changed to the Royal Technical College of Charlottenburg in 1885. After his final degree in 1890 he became a site engineer at the construction of the new Reichstag building under the direction of Paul Wallot and continued his career in the architectural office of Alfred Messel. In 1896 Grenander set up his own business and worked as a designer of the Hochbahngesellschaft, an affiliate of Siemens & Halske established in 1897 to build the first U-Bahn elevated railway of Berlin, opened in 1902. Up to 1931, he constructed about 70 U-Bahn stations. While the first stations were designed in an Art Nouveau or Neoclassical style, he preferred a Modern architecture. Alfred Grenander died in Berlin.
In 2009 the front yard of Krumme Lanke station in Berlin-Zehlendorf was named in his honour. 1902: Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1906: Deutsche Oper, Wilhelmplatz - demolished 1907: Potsdamer Platz 1908: Sophie-Charlotte-Platz, Theodor-Heuss-Platz.
U8 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U8 is a line on the Berlin U-Bahn. It is 18.1 km long. The U8 is one of two north–south Berlin U-Bahn lines, runs from Wittenau to Neukölln via Gesundbrunnen; the original proposal was for a suspended monorail like the Wuppertal Schwebebahn. The U8 line has had dark blue as its distinguishing colour since it first opened in 1927, it ran between Gesundbrunnen and Neukölln and was therefore known as the GN-Bahn. Until 1966 it was designated the D line. In 1984, the letter U was added as part of efforts to better distinguish the S-Bahn from the U-Bahn. In 1902, a Nuremberg company, the Continentale Gesellschaft für elektrische Unternehmungen, approached Berlin's executive council, the Magistrat, about building a monorail like the one, built in Elberfeld-Barmen, their preferred route ran from Gesundbrunnen to Rixdorf. However, the Magistrat and city council were sceptical about the project, above all fearing accidents. In 1907, AEG made a competing proposal for the same route, in the form of an underground line within the city and an elevated railway in the suburban districts.
After lengthy negotiations, in March 1912 the City of Berlin and AEG agreed upon a contract for the construction and operation of the line. Agreement was reached under considerable time pressure, because planning authority in matters of transport was to pass in April 1912 to the Greater Berlin Association and their position on this project was undetermined; the line was to begin as elevated track on Schwedenstraße and continue to Humboldthain via Badstraße. From there it would run underground to Hermannplatz via Brunnenstraße, Rosenthaler Straße, Weinmeisterstraße, Münzstraße, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Straße, Neue Friedrichstraße, Brückenstraße, Neanderstraße, Dresdener Straße, Reichenberger Straße, Kottbusser Straße and Kottbusser Damm. AEG intended to build the line for the wider of the two train formats, known as Großprofil, like the first north-south line. Construction began in 1912. Like Siemens, AEG had formed a subsidiary elevated railway company, AEG-Schnellbahn-AG. However, in the short period before and during the First World War, only a few tunnel sections were completed, among them the tunnel under the River Spree, between the Waisenbrücke and the Jannowitzbrücke.
AEG's financial situation became so difficult that they ceased all construction work in October 1919. Thereupon the City of Berlin brought a successful legal action against AEG, as a result of which AEG-Schnellbahn-AG was liquidated; the city received all the tunnel sections, built and planned to complete the line itself, but was at the time still in the process of constructing the first north-south U-Bahn. At that time plans were considered for extending the line, some of them adventurous, for example a connection to the Heidekrautbahn railway to the north and another to the Neukölln-Mittenwald Railway to the south, so that theoretically a mass transit line would have been created extending from Groß Schönebeck in Schorfheide through Berlin to Mittenwalde. Work did not resume on the GN-Bahn until 1926; the change of oversight had advantages for Berlin, because it made it possible to correct some sections of the route, for example, the northern elevated section, eliminated, the location of the tunnel at the Alexanderplatz.
The first work was on the southern portion of the GN-Bahn, so that service began on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße. Between these stations was the Hermannplatz station, built as part of the simultaneous construction of the first north-south U-Bahn, finished 4 years earlier. A switching track was built between the two. Construction progressed north. At the Kottbusser Tor station, the existing elevated station was relocated to make changing trains easier. Operation of the trunk line continued on wooden trestles, it now seemed natural to continue the line via Dresdener Straße and the Oranienplatz to Neanderstraße - too natural: the stretch to Kottbusser Tor would have been short. In addition, noting the Karstadt store at Hermannplatz, the Wertheim department store had realised the advantages of a connection to the U-Bahn and reputedly paid 5 million Reichsmarks for a change in the plans; the GN-Bahn would now be diverted to Moritzplatz and round a sharp curve to Neanderstraße.
So Wertheim in Moritzplatz acquired an entrance from the U-Bahn. The shell of a station at Oranienplatz, constructed by AEG, remains unused to the present day. After Moritzplatz, the route follows the Neanderstraße and provisionally terminated at the station of that name; the segment between Schönleinstraße and Neanderstraße was opened on 12 February 1928 as far as Kottbusser Tor and on 6 April of the same year to Neanderstraße. A year an additional station opened south of Boddinstraße, Leinestraße. Beyond the Neanderstraße station was the constructed tunnel under the Spree. However, since this needed to be altered and the Jannowitzbrücke was in bad condition, a new bridge was constructed with a new U-Bahn crossing beneath it; the old tunnel was put to use for a service connection between the U5 and U8. The U-Bahn construction at Alexanderplatz took a long time, because the opportunity was taken to re-design the square; some adjustments were made to the line of the route, the GN-
Südstern (Berlin U-Bahn)
Südstern is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 7. Opened as "Hasenheide" in 1924, the name changed to "Kaiser-Friedrich-Platz" in 1933 and to "Gardepionierplatz" in 1939. Two allied bombs hit the station on 24 May 1944 and the ceiling collapsed on Battle of Berlin. In 1947 the station got the name Südstern. In 1958 the platform was elongated; the next station is Hermannplatz. From 2010 the station will have additional support features for the blind and sighted as well as an elevator
The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe is the main public transport company of Berlin, the capital city of Germany. It manages the city's U-Bahn underground railway, bus, replacement services and ferry networks, but not the S-Bahn urban rail system; the used abbreviation, BVG, has been retained from the company's original name, Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft. Subsequently, the company was renamed Berliner Verkehrs-Betriebe. During the division of Berlin, the BVG was split between BVG and BVB. After reunification, the current formal name was adopted; the Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft was formed in 1928, by the merger of the Allgemeine Berliner Omnibus AG, the Gesellschaft für Elektrische Hoch- und Untergrundbahnen and the Berliner Straßenbahn-Betriebs-GmbH. On 1 January 1938, the company was renamed Berliner Verkehrs-Betriebe, but the acronym BVG was retained. From 1 August 1949, the BVG networks in East Berlin were operated separately; the two operators were known as BVG and BVG, but from 1 January 1969 the eastern operator was renamed as the Kombinat Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe or BVB.
After the reunification of Berlin, the two operators were recombined into the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe on 1 January 1992. Prior to the division of Berlin, tram lines existed throughout the city, but BVG abandoned all the tram lines in its part of the city, replacing them all by buses by 1967; however BVG retained its tram lines, on the reunification of Berlin the BVG inherited a considerable network of routes in the eastern half of Berlin. On 9 January 1984, BVG took over the responsibility for operation of the S-Bahn services in West Berlin; this urban rail network had been operated in both halves of Berlin by the Deutsche Reichsbahn, the state rail operator of East Germany, but had been subject to a boycott in the west after the building of the Berlin Wall. With the reunification of Berlin, responsibility for the S-Bahn reverted to Deutsche Bahn AG, the state rail operator of Germany; the S-Bahn is managed by the S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary company of DBAG. BVG took part in the Berlin M-Bahn project, an urban maglev system, in the period between 1984 and 1992.
The project used a section of the U-Bahn right of way, out of service due to the building of the Berlin Wall, was dropped with the fall of that wall. The BVG launched the MetroNetz on 12 December 2004 which remodeled the tram and bus network to create 24 tram and bus lines covering parts of the city that weren't served by S-Bahn or U-Bahn. BVG operates an urban rapid transit rail system; the U-Bahn now comprises a total length of 147 kilometres. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening and on Sunday. U-Bahn service is provided by 1266 carriages, of which 500 are used on the earlier small-profile lines and 766 are used on the large-profile lines; these cars travel 132 million km, carrying 400 million passengers, over the year. BVG operates a tram network comprising 22 tram lines with 377 stops and measuring 293.78 km in length. Of these, nine are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provide a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn.
These MetroTram tram lines are recognisable by an M prefix to their route number, are the only tram routes to operate 24 hours a day. Tram service is provided by 391 carriages, of which 154 are modern low floor carriages and 237 are older carriages. All of the remaining network is within the confines of the former East Berlin, as all the routes in the former West Berlin were abandoned during the period of the city's partition. However, there have been some extensions of routes across the former border since reunification, most remarkably to the city’s new main railway station Berlin Hauptbahnhof. BVG operates a network of 149 daytime bus routes serving 2634 stops and a total route length of 1,675 kilometres, together with a night bus network of 63 bus routes serving 1508 stops and a total route length of 795 kilometres. Seventeen of BVG's bus routes are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provides a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn. Like the MetroTram tram routes, these MetroBus routes can be recognised by an M prefix to their route number.
A further 13 BVG-operated bus routes are express routes with an X prefix to their route number. BVG bus service is provided by a fleet of 1349 buses, of which no fewer than 407 are double-decker buses. Whilst such buses are common in Ireland and the United Kingdom, their use elsewhere in Europe is uncommon. Route 218 is operated by ex-BVG vintage vehicles now in preservation but used in revenue-earning service; the services depart from Theodor-Heuss Platz every two hours from 11:15 to 19:15 and return from Pfaueninsel from 10:00 to 20:00. Berlin has an extensive network of waterways within its city boundaries, including the Havel and Dahme rivers, many linked lakes and canals; these are crossed by six passenger ferry routes that are operated by the BVG. The BVG is a member of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg, the transport association run by public transport providers in the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg; this body