Grevenbroich is a town in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated on the river Erft 15 km southwest of Neuss and 15 km southeast of Mönchengladbach; the Cistercian Order has a monastery in Langwaden. It is notable for having a wind turbine test park, similar to the Østerild Wind Turbine Test Field. Grevenbroich is about 30 kilometres northwest of Cologne. Grevenbroich consists of the urban quarters and villages: Postal code 41515: Allrath, Elsen, Fürth, Gewerbegebiet-Ost, Neu-Elfgen, Orken, Stadtmitte, Südstadt Postal code 41516: Busch, Gubisrath, Hemmerden, Hülchrath, Langwaden, Mühlrath, Münchrath, Neubrück, Neukircher Heide, Tüschenbroich, Wevelinghoven Postal code 41517: Frimmersdorf, Gustorf, Neurath Hape Kerkeling's fictional persona Horst Schlämmer has said Grevenbroich will be the new capital of Germany under his government. Vincenz Hundhausen Bethlehem, dark metal band named as the creator of the subgenre. North Rhine-Westphalia portal Lutz. "Literary translations of the classical lyric and drama in the first half of the 20th century: The "case" of Vincenz Hundhausen."
In: Alleton and Michael Lackner. De l'un au multiple: traductions du chinois vers les langues européennes Translations from Chinese into European Languages. Éditions de la maison des sciences de l'homme, 1999, Paris. P. 62-83. ISBN 273510768X, 9782735107681. Official website
Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV was Pope from 12 December 1254 to his death in 1261. Born as Rinaldo di Jenne in Jenne, he was, on his mother's side, a member of the family de' Conti di Segni, the counts of Segni, like Pope Innocent III and Pope Gregory IX, his uncle Gregory IX made him cardinal deacon and Protector of the Order of Franciscans in 1227, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church from 1227 until 1231 and Bishop of Ostia in 1231. He became Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1244. On the death of Pope Innocent IV in 1254 he was elected pope at Naples on 12 December 1254. Alexander IV succeeded Innocent IV as guardian of Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufens, promising him protection. Alexander IV threatened interdict against the party of Manfred without effect. Nor could he enlist the kings of England and Norway in a crusade against the Hohenstaufens. Rome itself became too Ghibelline for the Pope, who withdrew to Viterbo, where he died in 1261, he was buried in Viterbo Cathedral. Alexander's pontificate was signaled by efforts to reunite the Eastern Orthodox churches with the Catholic Church, by the establishment of the Inquisition in France, by favours shown to the mendicant orders, by an attempt to organize a crusade against the Tatars after the second raid against Poland in 1259.
On 26 September 1255, Alexander IV canonized Saint Clare of Assisi, founder of the religious order for women called the Poor Clares. On 29 October 1255, in the papal bull Benigna Operatio, Alexander declared "his own knowledge" of the stigmata attributed to Saint Francis of Assisi; the pontiff on 27 September 1258, declared in the bull Quod super nonnullis that "divination or sorcery" was not to be investigated by Inquisitors of the Church, who were tasked with investigating heresy. Crimes involving magic should be left to local authorities unless they had "knowledge of manifest heresy to be involved", wherein "manifest heresy" included "praying at the altars of idols, to offer sacrifices, to consult demons, to elicit responses from them". At this period in Church history, the use of magic was not seen as inherently heretical, but rather rooted in superstition or erroneous beliefs. On 14 May 1254, shortly before his death, Innocent IV had granted Sicily, a papal fiefdom, to Edmund, second son of King Henry III of England.
Alexander confirmed the grant on 9 April 1255, in return for 2000 ounces of gold per annum, the service of 300 knights for three months when required, 135,541 marks to reimburse the pope for the money he had expended attempting to oust Manfred from Sicily. Henry's unsuccessful attempts to persuade his subjects to pay the taxes required to meet Alexander's demands were one of the factors in the conflict between the king and parliament which culminated in the Second Barons' War. On 12 April 1261, shortly before his death, Alexander issued a papal bull for King Henry that absolved him and the magnates of his realm from the oaths taken in the Provisions of Oxford, instrumental in the War. List of popes Cardinals created by Alexander IV Nicolaus de Curbio, OFM, "Vita Innocentii Papae IV," Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Tertius pp. 592–592e. Bernardus Guidonis, "Vita Alexandri Papae IV," Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Tertius p. 592ζ-593.
Alexis François Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains Pontifes Romains Tome III, pp. 1–11. Augustinus Theiner, Caesaris S. R. E. Cardinalis Baronii, Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus Vigesimus Primus 1229-1256. August Karst, Geschichte Manfreds vom Tode Friedrichs II. Bis zu seiner Krönung. C. Bourel de la Roncière Les Registres d' Alexandre IV Tome premier. F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V.2 second edition, revised Book X, Chapter 1, pp. 335–358. F. Tenckhoff, Papst Alexander IV.. S. Andreotta, "La famiglia di Alessandro IV e l'abbazia di Subiaco," Atti e Memorie della Società Tiburtina di Storia ed Arte 35 63-126. I. Rodríguez de Lama, La documentación pontificia de Alejandro IV. Raoul Manselli, "Alessandro IV," Dizionario dei Papi. Richard, Jean; the Crusades: c. 1071 – c. 1291. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62566-1. Harding, Alan. England in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. P. 290. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Alexander IV".
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Alexander". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Battle of Ain Jalut
Monasticism or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself to spiritual work. Monastic life plays an important role in many Christian churches in the Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Similar forms of religious life exist in other faiths, most notably in Buddhism, but in Hinduism and Jainism, although the expressions differ considerably. By contrast, in other religions monasticism is criticized and not practiced, as in Islam and Zoroastrianism, or plays a marginal role, as in Judaism. Women pursuing a monastic life are called nuns, while monastic men are called monks. More both have described themselves as “monastics.” Many monastics live in monasteries to stay away from the secular world. The way of addressing monastics differs between the Christian traditions; as a general rule, in Roman Catholicism and nuns are called brother or sister, while in Eastern Orthodoxy, they are called father or mother. The Sangha or community of ordained Buddhist bhikkhus and original bhikkhunis was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime over 2500 years ago.
This communal monastic lifestyle grew out of the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics, some of whom the Buddha had studied under. It was fairly eremitic or reclusive in nature. Bhikkhus and bhikkunis were expected to live with a minimum of possessions, which were to be voluntarily provided by the lay community. Lay followers provided the daily food that bhikkhus required, provided shelter for bhikkhus when they needed it. After the Parinibbana of the Buddha, the Buddhist monastic order developed into a cenobitic or communal movement; the practice of living communally during the rainy vassa season, prescribed by the Buddha grew to encompass a settled monastic life centered on life in a community of practitioners. Most of the modern disciplinary rules followed by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis — as encoded in the Patimokkha — relate to such an existence, prescribing in great detail proper methods for living and relating in a community of bhikkhus or bhikkhunis; the number of rules observed.
There are a larger number of rules specified for bhikkhunis. The Buddhist monastic order consists of the female bhikkhuni assembly. Consisting only of males, it grew to include females after the Buddha's stepmother, asked for and received permission to live as an ordained practitioner. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are expected to fulfill a variety of roles in the Buddhist community. First and foremost, they are expected to preserve the discipline now known as Buddhism, they are expected to provide a living example for the laity, to serve as a "field of merit" for lay followers—providing laymen and women with the opportunity to earn merit by giving gifts and support to the bhikkhus. In return for the support of the laity and bhikkhunis are expected to live an austere life focused on the study of Buddhist doctrine, the practice of meditation, the observance of good moral character. A bhikkhu or bhikshu, first ordains as a Samanera. Novices ordain at a young age, but no younger than eight. Samaneras live according to the Ten Precepts, but are not responsible for living by the full set of monastic rules.
Higher ordination, conferring the status of a full Bhikkhu, is given only to men who are aged 20 or older. Bhikkhunis follow a similar progression, but are required to live as Samaneras for longer periods of time- five years; the disciplinary regulations for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are intended to create a life, simple and focused, rather than one of deprivation or severe asceticism. However, celibacy is a fundamental part of this form of monastic discipline. Monasticism in Christianity, which provides the origins of the words "monk" and "monastery", comprises several diverse forms of religious living, it is not mentioned in the scriptures. It has come to be regulated by religious rules and, in modern times, the Church law of the respective apostolic Christian churches that have forms of monastic living; the Christian monk embraces the monastic life as a vocation for God. His goal is to attain eternal life in his presence; the rules of monastic life are codified in the "counsels of perfection".
In the beginning, in Egypt, Christians felt called to a more reclusive or eremitic form of monastic living. Saint Anthony the Great is cited by Athanasius as one of these early "Hermit monks". In the Middle East, eremitic monasticism continued to be common until the decline of Syriac Christianity in the late Middle Ages; the need for some form of organized spiritual guidance was obvious. Soon, similar institutions were established throughout the Egyptian desert as well as the rest of the eastern half of the Roman Empire. Notable monasteries of the East include: Monastery of Saint Anthony, one of the oldest Christian monasteries in the world. Mar Awgin founded a monastery on Mt. Izla above Nisibis in Mesopotamia, from this monastery the cenobitic tradition spread in Mesopotamia, Armenia and India and China. St. Sabbas the Sanctified organized the monks
Order of Saint Augustine
The Order of Saint Augustine called Augustinians or Austin Friars, is a Catholic religious order. It was founded in 1254 by bringing together several eremetical orders in the Tuscany region who were following the Rule of St. Augustine, written by St. Augustine of Hippo in the 5th Century. In its establishment in its current form, it was shaped as a mendicant order, one of the four great orders which follow that way of life; the order has done much to extend the influence of the Church, to propagate the Roman Catholic Faith and to advance learning. The order has, in particular, spread internationally the veneration of the Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of Good Counsel. Augustine of Hippo, first with some friends and afterward as bishop with his clergy, led a monastic community life. Religious vows were not obligatory, their manner of life led others to imitate them. Instructions for their guidance were found in several writings of Augustine in De opere monachorum, mentioned in the ancient codices regularum of the eighth or ninth century as the "Rule of St. Augustine".
Epistola ccxi, otherwise cix, contains the early "Augustinian Rule for Nuns". Between 430 and 570 this life-style was carried to Europe by monks and clergy fleeing the persecution of the Vandals; this system of life for cathedral clergy continued in various locations throughout Europe for centuries. As the first millennium came to an end, the fervor of this life began to wane, the cathedral clergy began to live independently of one another. At the start of the second millennium, there was a revival in interest in the stricter form of clerical life. Several groups of canons were established under various disciplines, all with the Augustinian Rule as their basis. Examples of these were the Congregation of canons in Ravenna, founded by the Blessed Peter de Honestis about 1100, as well as the Norbertines; the instructions contained in Augustine's Rule formed the basis of the Rule that, in accordance with the decree of the Lateran Synod of 1059, was adopted by canons who desired to practice a common apostolic life, hence the title of Canons Regular of Saint Augustine.
Around the start of the 13th century, many eremetical communities in the vicinity of Siena, sprang up. These were small and composed of laymen, thus they lacked the clerical orientation of the canons, their foundational spirit was one of penance. With time, some of the communities adopted a more outward looking way of life; as the number of hermit-priests increased, assisting the local clergy in providing spiritual care for their neighbors became a larger part of their lives. In 1223 four of the communities around Siena joined in a loose association, which had increased to thirteen within five years; the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 issued the decree Ne nimium to organise these small groups of religious people by requiring them to live in community, to hold elective chapters, to be under obedience to a major superior and to adopt one of the Rules of community life that were approved by the Church. The Augustinian friars came into being as part of the mendicant movement of the 13th century, a new form of religious life which sought to bring the religious ideals of the monastic life into an urban setting which allowed the religious to serve the needs of the People of God in an apostolic capacity.
At this time there were a number of eremitical groups living in such diverse places as Tuscany, Umbria, England, Switzerland and France. In 1243 the Tuscan hermits petitioned Pope Innocent IV to unite them all as one group. Innocent IV issued the Bull Incumbit Nobis on 16 December 1243, an pastoral letter which exhorted these hermits to adopt "the Rule and way of life of the Blessed Augustine," to profess this Augustinian manner of life in a way that they themselves would decide with regards to specific charism and apostolate, to elect a Prior General; the bull appointed Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi as their supervisor and legal guide. The importance of this man in the foundation of the order cannot be overstated. On 15 July 1255, Pope Alexander IV issued the bull, Cum quaedam salubria, to command a number of religious groupings to gather for the purpose of being amalgamated into a new Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine; the delegates from other small religious communities met in Rome on 1 March 1256, which resulted in a union.
Lanfranc Septala of Milan, Prior of the Bonites, was appointed the first Prior General of the newly constituted Order. The belted, black tunic of the Tuscan hermits was adopted as the common religious habit, the walking sticks carried by the Bonites in keeping with eremetical tradition—and to distinguish themselves from those hermits who went around begging—ceased to be used. On 9 April 1256 Pope Alexander IV issued the bull Licet Ecclesiae catholicae which confirmed the integration of the Hermits of John the Good, the Hermits of St. William, the Hermits of Brettino, the Hermits of Monte Favale, other smaller congregations and the Tuscan Hermits into what was called the Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine. Special constitutions were drawn up for its government, on the same lines as the Dominicans and other mendi
Ypres is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders. Though the Dutch Ieper is the official name, the city's French name Ypres is most used in English; the municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Dikkebus, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Voormezele and Zuidschote. Together, they are home to about 34,900 inhabitants. During the First World War, Ypres was the centre of the Battles of Ypres between German and Allied forces. Ypres is an ancient town, known to have been raided by the Romans in the first century BC, it is first mentioned by name in 1066 and is named after the river Ieperlee on the banks of which it was founded. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was a prosperous Flemish city with a population of 40,000 in 1200 AD, renowned for its linen trade with England, mentioned in the Canterbury Tales; as the third largest city in the County of Flanders Ypres played an important role in the history of the textile industry. Textiles from Ypres could be found in the markets of Novgorod in Kievan Rus' in the early 12th century.
In 1241, a major fire ruined much of the old city. The powerful city was involved in important treaties and battles, including the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the Battle at Mons-en-Pévèle, the Peace of Melun, the Battle of Cassel; the famous Cloth Hall was built in the thirteenth century. During this time cats the symbol of the devil and witchcraft, were thrown off Cloth Hall because of the belief that this would get rid of evil demons. Today, this act is commemorated with a triennial Cat Parade through town. During the Norwich Crusade, led by the English bishop Henry le Despenser, Ypres was besieged from May to August 1383, until French relief forces arrived. After the destruction of Thérouanne, Ypres became the seat of the new Diocese of Ypres in 1561, Saint Martin's Church was elevated to cathedral. On 25 March 1678 Ypres was conquered by the forces of Louis XIV of France, it remained French under the treaty of Nijmegen, Vauban constructed his typical fortifications that can still be seen today.
In 1697, after the Treaty of Ryswick, Ypres was returned to the Spanish Crown. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Duke of Marlborough in 1709 intended to capture Ypres, at the time a major French fortress, but changed his mind owing to the long time and effort it had taken him to capture Tournai and apprehension of disease spreading in his army in the poorly drained land around Ypres. In 1713 it was handed over to the Habsburgs, became part of the Austrian Netherlands. In 1782 the Habsburg Austrian Emperor Joseph II ordered parts of the walls torn down; this destruction, only repaired, made it easier for the French to capture the city in the 1794 Siege of Ypres during the War of the First Coalition. In 1850 the Ypresian Age of the Eocene Epoch was named on the basis of geology in the region by Belgian geologist André Hubert Dumont. Ypres had long been fortified to keep out invaders. Parts of the early ramparts, dating from 1385, still survive near the Rijselpoort. Over time, the earthworks were replaced by a partial moat.
Ypres was further fortified in the 17th and 18th centuries while under the occupation of the Habsburgs and the French. Major works were completed at the end of the 17th century by the French military engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban. Ypres occupied a strategic position during the First World War because it stood in the path of Germany's planned sweep across the rest of Belgium and into France from the north; the neutrality of Belgium, established by the First Treaty of London, was guaranteed by Britain. The German army surrounded the city on three sides. To counterattack, British and allied forces made costly advances from the Ypres Salient into the German lines on the surrounding hills. In the First Battle of Ypres, the Allies captured the town from the Germans; the Germans had used tear gas at the Battle of Bolimov on 3 January 1915. Their use of poison gas for the first time on 22 April 1915 marked the beginning of the Second Battle of Ypres, which continued until 25 May 1915, they captured high ground east of the town.
The first gas attack occurred against Canadian and French soldiers, including both metropolitan French soldiers as well as Senegalese and Algerian tirailleurs from French Africa. The gas used was chlorine. Mustard gas called Yperite from the name of this town, was used for the first time near Ypres, in the autumn of 1917. Of the battles, the largest, best-known, most costly in human suffering was the Third Battle of Ypres, in which the British, Canadian, ANZAC, French forces recaptured the Passchendaele Ridge east of the city at a terrible cost of lives. After months of fighting, this battle resulted in nearly half a million casualties to all sides, only a few miles of ground won by Allied forces. During the course of the war the town was all but obliterated by the artillery fire. English-speaking soldiers in that war referred to Ieper/Ypres by the deliberate mispronunciation Wipers. British soldiers published a wartime newspaper called the Wipers Times; the same style of deliberate mispronunciation was applied to other Flemish place names in the Ypres area for the benefit of British troops, such as Whyteshaete becoming White Sheet and Ploegsteert becomi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Cistercians the Order of Cistercians, are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are known as Bernardines, after the influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux; the term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more the Rule of Saint Benedict; the best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy and Eastern Europe; the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict.
Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life as it had been in Saint Benedict's time. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life; the Cistercians made major contributions to culture and technology in medieval Europe: Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking a simpler lifestyle began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, became known as the Trappists; the Trappists were consolidated in 1892 into a new order called the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, abbreviated as OCSO.
The Cistercians who did not observe these reforms and remained within the Order of Cistercians and are sometimes called the Cistercians of the Common Observance when distinguishing them from the Trappists. In 1098, a Benedictine abbot, Robert of Molesme, left his monastery in Burgundy with around 20 supporters, who felt that the Cluniac communities had abandoned the rigours and simplicity of the Rule of St. Benedict; the monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James; the massive endowments and responsibilities of the Cluniac abbots had drawn them into the affairs of the secular world, their monks had abandoned manual labour to serfs to serve as scholars and "choir monks". On March 21, 1098, Robert's small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, given to them expressly for the purpose of founding their Novum Monasterium. Robert's followers included Alberic, a former hermit from the nearby forest of Colan, Stephen Harding, a member of an Anglo-Saxon noble family, ruined as a result of the Norman conquest of England.
During the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Robert's absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, Pope Urban II, a former Cluniac monk, ordered him to return; the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding. Robert had been the idealist of the order, Alberic was their builder. Upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and clothed the monks in white habits of undyed wool, he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo I of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church.
The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16, 1106, by the Bishop of Chalon sur Saône. On January 26, 1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase; the order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, he framed the original version of the Cistercian "Constitution" or regulations: the Carta Caritatis. Although this was revised on several occasions to meet contemporary needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, love and self-denial; the Cistercians regarded themselves as regular Benedictines, albeit the "perfect", reformed ones, but they soon came to distinguish themselves from the monks of unreformed Benedictin