Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
The Cirksena are a noble East Frisian family descended from a line of East Frisian chieftains from Greetsiel. In 1439 in the wake of clashes between different lines of chieftains, the town of Emden was first placed by Hamburg under direct rule and in 1453 given to the Cirksenas; the family administered and ruled the town until 1595. The Cirksena gained strength and succeeded the chieftain line of the tom Broks, after their opponent Focko Ukena was defeated and expelled by several allied chieftains, led by Edzard Cirksena. Ulrich Cirksena was elevated to the rank of imperial count by Emperor Frederick III and enfeoffed with the Imperial County of East Frisia; the most important rule from the House of Cirksena was Edzard the Great, under whose leadership the Imperial County of East Frisia reached its greatest extent. During his reign the Reformation spread throughout East Frisia. In 1654 the Cirksena were elevated to princes by the emperor. Charles Edzard, the last ruler from the House of Cirksena, died without issue during the night of 25/26 May 1744.
Thereafter, the state was taken over by Frederick the Great. The Cirksena provided the rulers of the County of Rietberg from 1581 to 1699; this happened as a personal union with East Frisia, after Count Enno III had married Rietberg's daughter-heir, Walburg von Rietberg. In the Treaty of Berum however he ceded the County of Rietberg to his daughters. In 1601 Enno's brother, Count John III, married his niece, Sabina Catherine, Enno's daughter and heiress of Rietberg, with papal dispensation. Both were converted to Catholicism and so founded the Catholic branch line of the House of Cirksena; the last male descendant of the House of East Frisia in Rietberg, Count Ferdinand Maximilian, died in 1687. His heiress, Maria Ernestine Francisca, married Maximilian Ulrich of Kaunitz in 1699; the coat of arms of the family of Cirksena displays a golden harpy on a black field. This motif appears in a variety of successor coats of arms. For example, in the final comital coat of arms of East Frisia, which Count Rudolf Christian adopted in 1625.
Here the harpy is in the upper left of the shield. This coat of arms is still used today as the emblem of East Frisia; the upper half of Emden's coat of arms depicts the Cirksena harpy. Until the Emden Revolution in 1595, the Cirksena resided in the town of Emden; the Dutch town of Delfzijl opposite Emden has the incorporated the Cirksena coat of arms into its own. This goes back to the rule of Edzard the Great in Groningerland; the harpy is part of the coat of arms of Aurich district, albeit in a different colour, something which goes back to the Cirksena. The present day municipality of Krummhörn, in which the ancestral homeland of the Cirksena lay, has the family's coat of arms in its municipal shield. After the Cirksena had taken over the reins of power in the County of Rietberg, their emblem was found in Rietberg's coat of arms, between the coat of arms of the old ruling family and that of the Harlingerland, it was supplemented by the Kaunitz family's coat of arms. Through the link between East Frisia and Rietberg the Cirksena harpy is still part of the coat of arms of the Principality of in Liechtenstein, albeit in the reverse colours, at the bottom right.
Gundakar of Liechtenstein had married Agnes Cirksena, the second daughter of Count Enno III and Walburgis of Rietberg, had a claim to Rietberg as a result. The name Cirksena is of Frisian origin, it goes back to the old forename Tzirk. Enno Attena took over the respectable name on the occasion of his marriage to the daughter-heir, Gela Syardsna of Manslagt. List of Counts of East Frisia Hobbing, Hans Heinrich. Die Begründung der Erstgeburtsnachfolge im ostfriesischen Grafenhaus der Cirksena. Aurich Reimers, Heinrich Ostfriesland bis zum Aussterben seines Fürstenhauses. Bremen Esselborn, Ernst. Das Geschlecht Cirksena. Berlin Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the Cirksena". Genealogy. EU
Sibet Attena was an East Frisian chieftain. He was a son of Sibet of Dornum and Frouwa of a daughter of Enno Cirksena. From his father he inherited the Beninga Castle in Dornum. From his first wife, Onna of Stedesdorf, a daughter of Hero Omken the Elder, he inherited Stedesdorf in 1447; as a nephew and a loyal supporter of Ulrich Cirksena, he was invested with Esens in 1454. He was to inherit Manslagt via his mother, but he renounced this. In 1454, he supported Ulrich Cirksena against Tanne Kankena in Wittmund, he expelled him. Seven years he invested Kankena with Dornum. From 1455, he called himself "Chieftain at Esens and Wittmund". Thus, he viewed himself as the ruler of the Harlingerland. After Onna of Stedesdorf died in 1464, he married his second wife Margaret of Westerwolde. Sibet was present in 1464 at the solemn ceremony in the Guesthouse Church in Emden where Ulrich Cirksena was raised to Imperial Count and was knighted during that ceremony. After his death, a magnificent sandstone sarcophagus was erected for him in the church of Esens in 1473.
Children from his first marriage: Wibet, married with Tyader of Jever Hero of Dornum, better known as Hero Omken the Younger, married to Armgard, Duchess of Oldenburg and had issue Frouwa, married with Edo Wiemken the Younger, chieftain of Jever Children from his second marriage: Ulrich of Dornum, married Essa of Oldersum and secondly, Hyma of Grimersum Sibo Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, "Sibo", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 34, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 138–139
Ubbo Emmius was a German historian and geographer. Ubbo Emmius was born on 5 December 1547 in East Frisia. From the ages of 9 to 18 Emmius studied in a Latin school, before having to leave on the death of his father, a Lutheran preacher. After studying at Rostock, at the age of 30, Emmius took classes in Geneva with Theodorus Beza, a Calvinist who influenced Emmius greatly. Upon returning to East Friesland in 1579 he took the position of rector in the school in which he was taught, the college at Norden, he was subsequently sacked by the local court in 1587 because, as a Calvinist, he would not subscribe to the confession of Augsburg. Following this, in 1588, the Calvinist count Johan offered him the position of rector in the Latin school of Leer.. Whilst remaining in Leer it is known that Emmius had corresponded with many other important people of the time who had fled from Groningen after the area fell into the hands of the Spanish; when Groningen surrendered to Prince Maurits in 1594 those who fled returned and offered Ubbo the position of rector in St Maarten school.
When in 1614 the decision was made to form a university, under the guidance of Emmius. As a result, he was chosen as the principal and professor of history and Greek and became the first rector magnificus of the Academy in which he formed. Ubbo Emmius made prominent contributions to historiography, his primary works were on the History of the Frisian Territories: his 6 part Rerum Frisicarum historiae decades from 1592 to 1616. In one of his other important works titled the Chronologicum he compared the histories of different nations that used different calendars. Other works include: Opus chronologicum Vetus Graecia illustrata Historia temporis nostri, first published at Groningen in 1732An account of his life, written by Nicholas Mulerius, was published, with the lives of other professors of Groningen, at Groningen in 1638. Ubbo Emmius died on the 9 December 1625 in Groningen. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Emmius, Ubbo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. P. 344
Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. The city is named Oldenburg to distinguish from Oldenburg in Holstein. During the French annexation in the wake of the Napoleonic war against Britain, it was known as Le Vieux-Bourg in French; the city is situated at the Rivers Hunte and Haaren, in the northwestern region between the cities of Bremen in the east and Groningen in the west. It has a population of 167,633. Oldenburg is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.37 million people. The city is the place of origin of the House of Oldenburg. Before the end of the German Empire, it was the administrative centre and residence of the monarchs of Oldenburg. Archaeological finds point to a settlement dating back to the 8th century; the place was first mentioned in 1108 as Aldenburg in connection with Elimar I, now seen as the first count of Oldenburg. The town gained importance due to its location at a ford of the navigable Hunte river.
Oldenburg became the capital of the County of Oldenburg, a small state in the shadow of the much more powerful Hanseatic city of Bremen. In the 17th century, Oldenburg was a wealthy town in a time of war and turmoil and its population and power grew considerably. In 1667, the town was struck by a disastrous plague epidemic and, shortly after, a fire destroyed Oldenburg; the Danish kings, who were counts of Oldenburg at the time, were not much interested in the condition of the town and it lost most of its former importance. In 1773, Danish rule ended, it was only that the destroyed buildings in the city were rebuilt in a neoclassicist style. After German Emperor Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate following the exhaustion and defeat of the German Empire in World War I, monarchic rule ended in Oldenburg as well with the abdication of Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II of Oldenburg on 11 November 1918; the Grand Duchy now became the Free State of Oldenburg, with the city remaining the capital. In the 1928 city elections, the Nazi Party received 9.8% of the vote, enough for a seat on the Oldenburg city council.
In the September 1930 Oldenburg state elections, the Nazi Party's share of the vote rose to 27.3%, on May 29, 1932, the Nazi Party received 48.4% of the state election, enough to put the Nazi party in charge of forming a state government and making Oldenburg the first state in the country to put the Nazis in power based on electoral turnout. By that autumn, a campaign of Aryanization began, forcing the sale of Jewish-owned properties at steep discounts. In 1945, after World War II, the State of Oldenburg was part of the British zone of occupation; the British military government of the Oldenburg region resided in the city. Several displaced persons camps were set up in the city that had suffered only 1.4% destruction during the bombing campaigns of World War II. About 42,000 refugees migrated into Oldenburg, which raised the number of residents to over 100,000. In 1946, the Free State of Oldenburg was dissolved, the area became the'Administrative District' of Oldenburg as part of the newly formed federal German state of Lower Saxony.
The city was now capital of the district. In 1978, the district was dissolved and succeeded by the newly formed Weser-Ems administrative region, again with the city as administrative capital; the State of Lower Saxony dissolved all of the Regierungsbezirke by the end of 2004 in the course of administrative reforms. Local elections take place every five years; the city council has 50 seats. The lord mayor is elected directly by the citizens; the city centre of Oldenburg is surrounded by a ring of freeways consisting of A 28, A 29 and A 293. Because of this, Oldenburg is connected to the nationwide network of federal autobahns, as well as to the international E-road network Oldenburg Central Station, Oldenburg Hauptbahnhof, is at the intersection of the railway lines Norddeich Mole—Leer—Oldenburg—Bremen and Wilhelmshaven—Oldenburg—Osnabrück, with Intercity services to Berlin and Dresden and InterCityExpress services to Frankfurt and Munich. Oldenburg is only about half an hour drive from Bremen Airport.
Other international airports nearby are Hannover-Langenhagen Airport. The small Hatten Airfield, is located about 17 km south-west of Oldenburg, it serves to small aircraft. A flight training school is located there, small planes can be chartered. Scenic flights can be booked as well. Oldenburg is connected to shipping through the Küstenkanal, a ship canal connecting the rivers Ems and Weser. With 1.6 million tons of goods annually, it is the most important non-coastal harbour in Lower Saxony. Bicycles play a important part in personal transport; the city is surrounded by large agricultural areas, about 80% of, grassland. There are farms near and a few within city limits. Predominant agricultural activities of the region are the cultivation of livestock dairy cows and other grazing animals, crops such as grains for food and animal feed, as well as asparagus, ka
Redbad, King of the Frisians
Redbad was the king of Frisia from c. 680 until his death. He is considered the last independent ruler of Frisia before Frankish domination, he defeated Charles Martel at Cologne. However, Charles prevailed and compelled the Frisians to submit. Redbad died in 719. What the exact title of the Frisian rulers was depends on the source. Frankish sources tend to call them dukes. Being Germanic pagans, it is that they would have been called kings by their followers, whereas the Christianized Franks, who had inherited the Latin literary tradition, would have referred to them as dukes. While his predecessor, had welcomed Christianity into his realm, Redbad attempted to extirpate the religion and free the Frisians from subjugation to the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks. In 689, Redbad was defeated by Pepin of Herstal in the battle of Dorestad and compelled to cede Frisia Citerior to the Franks. Between 690 and 692, Utrecht fell into the hands of Pepin; this gave the Franks control of important trade routes on the Rhine to the North Sea.
Some sources say that, following this defeat, Redbad retreated, to the island of Heligoland. Others say he retreated to the part of the Netherlands, still known as Friesland. Around this time there was an Archbishopric or bishopric of the Frisians founded for Willibrord and a marriage was held between Grimoald the Younger, the oldest son of Pepin, Thiadsvind, the daughter of Redbad in 711. On Pepin's death in 714, Redbad took the initiative again, he forced Saint Willibrord and his monks to flee and advanced as far as Cologne, where he defeated Charles Martel, Pepin's natural son, in 716. However, Charles prevailed and compelled the Frisians to submit. Redbad died in 719; as an example of how powerful King Redbad still was at the end of his life, the news that he was engaged in assembling an army was enough to fill the Frankish kingdom with fear and trembling. During the second journey of Saint Boniface to Rome, Wulfram, a monk and ex-archbishop of Sens tried to convert Redbad, but after an unsuccessful attempt he returned to Fontenelle.
It is said that Redbad was nearly baptised but refused when he was told that he would not be able to find any of his ancestors in Heaven after his death. He said he preferred spending eternity in Hell with his pagan ancestors than in Heaven with his enemies the Franks; this legend is told with Wulfram being replaced with bishop Willibrord. Saint Radboud was a descendant of Redbad. Saint Radboud was a bishop of Utrecht; the Nijmegen University and its corresponding medical facility were named after him in 2004. In Richard Wagner's Lohengrin a certain "Radbod, ruler of the Frisians" is mentioned as Ortrud's father, it is possible that Wagner was thinking of the historical Redbad, although he died more than 150 years before the birth of Henry the Fowler, another character in the opera, who could not, therefore, be contemporary of Redbad's daughter. In Harry Harrison's The Hammer and the Cross series of novels, Redbad becomes the founder of "the Way", an organized pagan cult, created to combat the efforts of Christian missionaries.
Black metal band Ophidian Forest recorded a concept album Redbad in 2007. Dutch folk metal band'Heidevolk' recorded a song'Koning Radboud' on their 2008 album'Walhalla Wacht' singing about the legend of Wulfram and Redbad. In 2015 the Frisian Folk-Metal band Baldrs Draumar released a full album on the life and deeds of king Redbad called Aldgillessoan, it is based on Kronyk fan in Kening by Willem Schoorstra. In 2018, Dutch production company Farmhouse will release a movie called "Redbad", based on the historical Redbad, it is directed by Roel Reiné and stars Jonathan Banks and Søren Malling alongside a variety of Dutch actors. Frisian–Frankish wars Low Countries mythology This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Frisians". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 234–235. Petz, G. H.. MGH Scriptures.. Media related to Redbad, King of the Frisians at Wikimedia Commons
Königsberg is the name for a former German city, now Kaliningrad, Russia. A Sambian or Old Prussian city, it belonged to the State of the Teutonic Order, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany until 1945. After being destroyed in World War II by Allied bombing and Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg remain today; the literal meaning of Königsberg is'King’s Mountain'. In the local Low German dialect, spoken by many of its German former inhabitants, the name was Kenigsbarg. Further names included Russian: Кёнигсберг, Королевец, tr. Kyonigsberg, Old Prussian: Kunnegsgarbs, Lithuanian: Karaliaučius, Polish: Królewiec and Yiddish: קעניגסבערג Kenigsberg. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement Twangste by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. A Baltic port city, it successively became the capital of their monastic state, the Duchy of Prussia and East Prussia.
Königsberg remained the coronation city of the Prussian monarchy, though the capital was moved to Berlin in 1701. A university city, home of the Albertina University, Königsberg developed into an important German intellectual and cultural centre, being the residence of Simon Dach, Immanuel Kant, Käthe Kollwitz, E. T. A. Hoffmann, David Hilbert, Agnes Miegel, Hannah Arendt, Michael Wieck and others. Between the thirteenth and the twentieth centuries, the inhabitants spoke predominantly German, but the multicultural city had a profound influence on the Lithuanian and Polish cultures; the city was a publishing centre of Lutheran literature, including the first Polish translation of the New Testament, printed in the city in 1551, the first book in the Lithuanian language and the first Lutheran catechism, both printed in Königsberg in 1547. Königsberg was the easternmost large city in Germany until World War II; the city was damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 and during the Battle of Königsberg in 1945.
Its German population was expelled, the city was repopulated with Russians and others from the Soviet Union. Russified as Kyonigsberg, it was renamed "Kaliningrad" in 1946 in honour of Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin, it is now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave bordered in the north by Lithuania and in the south by Poland. There has been some discussion of the territory's current legal status, although this is academic; the Potsdam Agreement placed it provisionally under Soviet administration, but did not mention an explicit right of annexation. In the Final Settlement treaty of 1990, Germany renounced all claim to it, but without transferring its former title to any other party. Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian, or Old Prussian, fort known as Twangste, meaning Oak Forest, as well as several Old Prussian settlements, including the fishing village and port Lipnick, the farming villages Sakkeim and Trakkeim. During the conquest of the Prussian Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress known as Conigsberg.
This name meant "King’s Hill", honoring King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who paid for the erection of the first fortress there during the Prussian Crusade. Northwest of this new Königsberg Castle arose an initial settlement known as Steindamm 4.5 miles from the Vistula Lagoon. The Teutonic Order used Königsberg to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania. Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in 1262–63, Königsberg Castle was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order; because the initial northwestern settlement was destroyed by the Prussians during the rebellion, rebuilding occurred in the southern valley between the castle hill and the Pregel River. This new settlement, received Culm rights in 1286. Löbenicht, a new town directly east of Altstadt between the Pregel and the Schlossteich, received its own rights in 1300. Medieval Königsberg's third town was Kneiphof, which received town rights in 1327 and was located on an island of the same name in the Pregel south of Altstadt.
Within the state of the Teutonic Order, Königsberg was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order. The city was the seat of the Bishopric of Samland, one of the four dioceses into which Prussia had been divided in 1243 by the papal legate, William of Modena. Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral, a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof. Königsberg joined the Hanseatic League in 1340 and developed into an important port for the south-eastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the chronicler Peter of Dusburg wrote his Chronicon terrae Prussiae in Königsberg from 1324–1330. After the Teutonic Order's victory over pagan Lithuanians in the 1348 Battle of Strawen, Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode established a Cistercian nunnery in the city. Aspiring students were educated in Königsberg before continuing on to higher education elsewhere, such as Prague or Leipzig.
Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald, Königsberg remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War. Livonian knights replaced the Prussian branch's garrison at Königsberg, allow