Berenice (daughter of Herod Agrippa)
Berenice of Cilicia, known as Julia Berenice and sometimes spelled Bernice, was a Jewish client queen of the Roman Empire during the second half of the 1st century. Berenice was a member of the Herodian Dynasty that ruled the Roman province of Judaea between 39 BC and 92 AD and she was the daughter of King Herod Agrippa I and a sister of King Herod Agrippa II. Suetonius, Dio Cassius, Aurelius Victor and Juvenal and she is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. However, it is for her tumultuous life that she is primarily known from the Renaissance. Her reputation was based on the bias of the Romans to the Eastern princesses, during the First Jewish-Roman War, she began a love affair with the future emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus. However, her unpopularity among the Romans compelled Titus to dismiss her on his accession as emperor in 79, when he died two years later, she disappeared from the historical record. Berenice was born in 28 to Herod Agrippa and Cypros, as granddaughter to Aristobulus IV and her elder brother was Agrippa II, and her younger sisters were Mariamne and Drusilla.
According to Josephus, there was a brother called Drusus. Her family constituted part of what is known as the Herodian Dynasty, on his early death in 44, she was married to her fathers brother, Herod of Chalcis, with whom she had two sons and Hyrcanus. After her husband died in 48, she lived with her brother Agrippa for several years and married Polemon II of Pontus, king of Cilicia, however the marriage did not last and she soon returned to the court of her brother. Josephus was not the ancient writer to suggest incestuous relations between Berenice and Agrippa. Juvenal, in his satire, outright claims that they were lovers. Whether this was based on truth remains unknown, Berenice indeed spent much of her life at the court of Agrippa, and by all accounts shared almost equal power. Popular rumors may have been fueled by the fact that Agrippa himself never married during his lifetime, like her brother, Berenice was a client ruler of the parts of the Roman Empire that lie in the present-day Syria.
The Acts of the Apostles records that during this time, Paul the Apostle appeared before their court at Caesarea, in 64 emperor Nero appointed Gessius Florus as procurator of the Judaea Province. During his administration, the Jews were systematically discriminated against in favour of the Greek population of the region, tensions quickly rose to civil unrest when Florus plundered the treasury of the Temple of Jerusalem under the guise of imperial taxes. Following riots, the instigators were arrested and crucified by the Romans, likewise a plea for assistance to the legate of Syria, Cestius Gallus, met with no response. They fled the city to Galilee where they gave themselves up to the Romans
Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and he was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Claudius infirmity probably saved him from the fate of other nobles during the purges of Tiberius and Caligulas reigns. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligulas assassination, despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was a builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain, having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility, Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position, this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion, many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife.
After his death in 54 AD, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor, Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum. He had two siblings and Livilla. His mother, may have had two children who died young. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus sister and his paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the son of Augustus. In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania, Claudius was left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour, Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years, Livia was a little kinder, but nevertheless often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a former mule-driver to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness, however, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests.
In 7 AD, Livy was hired to tutor him in history and he spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher Athenodorus
Herod Agrippa II
Herod Agrippa II officially named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes just called Agrippa, was the eighth and last client ruler of Rome from the Herodian dynasty, the fifth bearing the title of King. He was the son of the first and better-known Herod Agrippa, the brother of Berenice, Herod Agrippa II was educated at the court of the emperor Claudius, and at the time of his fathers death he was only seventeen years old. Claudius therefore kept him at Rome, and sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator of the Roman province of Judaea, the tetrarchy of Chalcis was subsequently in 57 given to his cousin, Aristobulus. Herod Agrippa celebrated by marrying off his two sisters Mariamne and Drusilla, flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian, repeats the gossip that Herod Agrippa lived in an incestuous relationship with his sister, Berenice. In 55, the Emperor Nero added to his realm the cities of Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilee and it was before him and his sister Berenice that, according to the New Testament, Paul the Apostle pleaded his case at Caesarea Maritima, possibly in 59.
Agrippa expended large sums in beautifying Jerusalem and other cities, especially Berytus and his partiality for the latter rendered him unpopular amongst his own subjects, and the capricious manner in which he appointed and deposed the high priests made him disliked by his coreligionists. Agrippa convened the people and urged instead that they tolerate the injustices done to them. By 66 the citizenry of Jerusalem expelled their king and his sister, from Jerusalem. During the First Jewish-Roman War of 66–73, he sent 2,000 men and cavalry, to support Vespasian, showing that, although a Jew in religion and he accompanied Titus on some campaigns, and was wounded at the siege of Gamla. After the capture of Jerusalem, he went with his sister Berenice to Rome and he had a great intimacy with the historian Josephus, having supplied him with information for his history, Antiquities of the Jews. Josephus preserved two of the letters he received from him, the modern scholarly consensus holds that he died before 93/94.
He was the last prince of the house of Herod, Herodian dynasty Herodian kingdom List of Hasmonean and Herodian rulers This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed. article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Matthew George. Yohanan Aharoni & Michael Avi-Yonah, The MacMillan Bible Atlas, Revised Edition, Jewish Encyclopedia, Agrippa II Agrippa II - Article in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Livius. org, Julius Marcus Agrippa
Mariamne I, called Mariamne the Hasmonean, was a Hasmonean princess and the second wife of Herod the Great. She was known for her beauty, as was her brother Aristobulus III. Herods fear of his rivals, the Hasmoneans, led to him executing all of the prominent members of the family and her name is spelled Μαριάμη by Josephus, but in some editions of his work the second m is doubled. In copies of those editions the spelling was dissimilated to its now most common form, in Hebrew, Mariamne is known as מִרְיָם, as in the traditional, Biblical name. Mariamne was the daughter of the Hasmonean Alexandros, known as Alexander of Judaea, Mariamnes only sibling was Aristobulus III. By virtue of her parents union, Mariamne claimed Hasmonean royalty on both sides of her family lineage and her mother, arranged for her betrothal to Herod in 41 BCE. The two were wed four years in Samaria, Mariamne bore Herod four children, two sons and Aristobulus, and two daughters and Cypros. Josephus writes that it was because of Mariamnes vehement insistence that Herod made her brother Aristobulos a High Priest, who was not even eighteen years old, drowned within a year of his appointment, his mother, blamed Herod.
Alexandra wrote to Cleopatra, begging her assistance in avenging the boys murder, Cleopatra in turn urged Mark Antony to punish Herod for the crime, and Antony sent for him to make his defense. Herod left his wife in the care of his uncle Joseph, along with the instructions that if Antony should kill him. Rumors soon circulated that Herod had been killed by Antony, and Alexandra persuaded Joseph to take Mariamne, Herod was released by Antony and returned home, only to be informed of Alexandras plan by his mother and sister, Salome. Salome accused Mariamne of committing adultery with Joseph, a charge which Herod initially dismissed after discussing it with his wife and he gave orders for Joseph to be executed and for Alexandra to be confined, but Herod did not punish his wife. Because of this conflict between Mariamne and Salome, when Herod visited Augustus in Rhodes, he separated the women and he left his sister and his sons in Masada while he moved his wife and mother-in-law to Alexandrium.
Again, Herod left instructions that should he die, the charge of the government was to be left to Salome and his sons, and Mariamne and her mother were to be killed. Mariamne and Alexandra were left in the charge of another man named Sohemus, Mariamne became convinced that Herod did not truly love her and resented that he would not let her survive him. When Herod returned home, Mariamne treated him coldly and did not conceal her hatred for him and her mother preyed on this opportunity, feeding Herod false information to fuel his dislike. Herod still favored her, but she refused to have relations with him and accused him of killing her grandfather, Hyrcanus II. Salome insinuated that Mariamne planned to poison Herod, and Herod had Mariamnes favorite eunuch tortured to learn more
Temple in Jerusalem
These successive temples stood at this location and functioned as a site of ancient Israelite and Jewish worship. The Hebrew name given in the Hebrew Bible for the complex is either Beit YHWH, Beit HaElohim House of God, or simply Beiti my house. The term hekhal hall or main building is often translated temple in older English Bibles, in rabbinical literature the temple is Beit HaMikdash, The Sanctified House, and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name. The Hebrew Bible says that the First Temple was built in 957 BCE by King Solomon and this temple was sacked a few decades by Shoshenq I, Pharaoh of Egypt. The First Temple was totally destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE, according to the Book of Ezra, construction of the Second Temple was authorized by Cyrus the Great and began in 538 BCE, after the fall of the Babylonian Empire the year before. It was completed 23 years later, on the day of Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the Great. However, with a reading of the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah, there were four edicts to build the Second Temple.
Cyrus in 536 BCE, which is recorded in the first chapter of Ezra, Darius I of Persia in 519 BCE, which is recorded in the sixth chapter of Ezra. Third, Artaxerxes I of Persia in 457 BCE, which was the year of his reign. Finally, by Artaxerxes again in 444 BCE in the chapter of Nehemiah. Moreover, the narrowly avoided being destroyed again in 332 BCE when the Jews refused to acknowledge the deification of Alexander the Great of Macedonia. Alexander was allegedly turned from his anger at the last minute by astute diplomacy, after the death of Alexander on 13 June 323 BCE, and the dismembering of his empire, the Ptolemies came to rule over Judea and the Temple. Under the Ptolemies, the Jews were given many civil liberties, when the Ptolemaic army was defeated at Panium by Antiochus III of the Seleucids in 198 BCE, this policy changed. Antiochus wanted to Hellenize the Jews, attempting to introduce the Greek pantheon into the temple. Moreover, a rebellion ensued and was crushed, but no further action by Antiochus was taken.
However, his policies never took effect in Judea, since he was assassinated the year after his ascension, Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeded his older brother to the Seleucid throne and immediately adopted his fathers previous policy of universal Hellenisation. The Jews rebelled again and Antiochus, in a rage, retaliated in force, considering the previous episodes of discontent, the Jews became incensed when the religious observances of Sabbath and circumcision were officially outlawed. When Antiochus erected a statue of Zeus in their temple and Hellenic priests began sacrificing pigs, when a Greek official ordered a Jewish priest to perform a Hellenic sacrifice, the priest killed him
Herod Agrippa, known as Herod or Agrippa I, was a King of Judaea from 41 to 44 AD. He was the last ruler with the royal title reigning over Judea and the father of Herod Agrippa II, the grandson of Herod the Great and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice, he was born Marcus Julius Agrippa, so named in honour of Roman statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. He is the king named Herod in the Acts of the Apostles 12,1, Josephus states that he was known in his time as Agrippa the Great. Christian and Jewish historiography take different views of this king, with the Christians largely opposing Agrippa, Agrippas territory comprised most of Israel, including Judea, Galilee and Perea. From Galilee his territory extended east to Trachonitis, Josephus informs us that, after the murder of his father, young Agrippa was sent by Herod the Great to the imperial court in Rome. There, Tiberius conceived a great affection for him, and had him educated alongside his son Drusus, who befriended him. On the death of Drusus, who had been recklessly extravagant and was deeply in debt, was obliged to leave Rome, there, it was said, he contemplated suicide.
But having quarrelled with Antipas, he fled to Flaccus, proconsul of Syria and he set sail, and landed at Puteoli. He was favorably received by Tiberius, who entrusted him with the education of his grandson Tiberius Gemellus and he formed an intimacy with Caligula, a popular favorite. Agrippa was one day overheard by his freedman Eutyches expressing a wish for Tiberiuss death and the advancement of Caligula, Agrippa was awarded the ornamenta praetoria and could use the title amicus caesaris. Caligula presented him with a gold chain equal in weight to the one he had worn in prison. In 39, Agrippa returned to Rome, and brought about the banishment of his uncle, Herod Antipas, he was granted his uncles tetrarchy, consisting of Galilee. This created a Jewish kingdom which did not include Judea at its center, after the assassination of Caligula in 41, Agrippa was involved in the struggle over the accession between Claudius, the Praetorian Guard, and the Senate. How big a part Agrippa played is uncertain, the sources differ.
Cassius Dio simply writes that Agrippa cooperated with Claudius in seeking rule, flavius Josephus gives us two versions. In The Jewish War, Agrippa is presented as only a messenger to a confident, but in The Antiquities of the Jews, Agrippas role is central and crucial, he convinces Claudius to stand up to the Senate and the Senate to avoid attacking Claudius. Thus Agrippa became one of the most powerful kings of the east and his domain more or less equaled that which was held by his grandfather Herod the Great. In the city of Berytus, he built a theatre and amphitheatre, baths and he was equally generous in Sebaste and Caesarea
High Priest of Israel
High Priest was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. This tradition came to an end in the 2nd century BCE during the rule of the Hasmoneans, when the position was occupied by other priestly families. Aaron, though he is but rarely called the great priest, being simply designated as ha-kohen, was the first incumbent of the office. The succession was to be one of his sons, and was to remain in his own family. If he had no son, the office devolved upon the next of age. In the time of Eli, the passed to the collateral branch of Ithamar. But King Solomon is reported to have deposed the High Priest Abiathar, and to have appointed Zadok, a descendant of Eleazar, in his stead. After the Exile, the succession seems to have been, at first, in a line from father to son. Antiochus IV Epiphanes for instance, deposed Onias III in favor of Jason, Herod the Great nominated no less than six high priests, two.
The Roman legate Quirinius and his successors exercised the right of appointment, as did Agrippa I, Herod of Chalcis, even the people occasionally elected candidates to the office. The age of eligibility for the office is not fixed in the Law, however, was only seventeen when appointed by Herod, but the son of Onias III was too young to succeed his father. The age a Levite entered the priesthood was 30 years of age, legitimacy of birth was essential, hence the care in the keeping of the genealogical records and the distrust of one whose mother had been captured in war. The high priest had to abstain from ritual defilement and he may marry only an Israelite virgin. In Ezekiel 44,22 this restriction is extended to all kohanim, according to Josephus, birth on foreign soil was not a disqualification, but the disqualifications of Leviticus 21,17 et seq. applied to the high priest as well as to other priests. The Torah provides for specific vestments to be worn by the priests when they are ministering in the Tabernacle, And you shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother, for dignity and these garments are described in detail in Exodus 28, Exodus 39 and Leviticus 8.
The high priest wore eight holy garments, of these, four were of the same type worn by all priests, and four were unique to the Kohen Gadol. That of the High Priest was embroidered, those of the priests were plain, Priestly sash, that of the High Priest was of fine linen with embroidered work in blue and purple and scarlet, those worn by the priests were of white, twined linen. It was fastened to the Ephod On the front of the turban was a golden plate inscribed with the words, the High Priest, like all priests, would minister barefoot when he was serving in the Temple
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples and cultures. The Jewish diaspora began with the Assyrian conquest and continued on a larger scale with the Babylonian conquest. Jews were widespread throughout the Roman Empire, and this carried on to an extent in the period of Byzantine rule in the central. In 638 CE the Byzantine Empire lost control of the Levant, the Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Omar conquered Jerusalem and the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt. The Golden Age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, during that time, Jews were generally accepted in society and Jewish religious and economic life blossomed. During the Classical Ottoman period, the Jews, together with most other communities of the empire, in the 17th century, there were many significant Jewish populations in Western Europe. During the period of the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, significant changes occurred within the Jewish community, Jews began in the 18th century to campaign for emancipation from restrictive laws and integration into the wider European society.
During the 1870s and 1880s the Jewish population in Europe began to actively discuss immigration back to Israel. The Zionist movement was founded officially in 1884, the Jews of Europe and the United States gained success in the fields of science and the economy. Among those generally considered the most famous were scientist Albert Einstein, a large number of Nobel Prize winners at this time were Jewish, as is still the case. In 1933, with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party in Germany, economic crises, racial anti-Semitic laws, and a fear of an upcoming war led many Jews to flee from Europe to Palestine, to the United States and to the Soviet Union. In 1939 World War II began and until 1941 Hitler occupied almost all of Europe and this genocide, in which approximately six million Jews were methodically exterminated, is known as The Holocaust or Shoah. In Poland, three million Jews were killed in gas chambers in all concentration camps combined, with one million at the Auschwitz concentration camp alone, in 1945 the Jewish resistance organizations in Palestine unified and established the Jewish Resistance Movement.
The movement began attacking the British authority, David Ben-Gurion proclaimed on May 14,1948, the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel to be known as the State of Israel. Immediately afterwards all neighbouring Arab states attacked, yet the newly formed IDF resisted, in 1949 the war ended and the state of Israel started building the state and absorbing massive waves of hundreds of thousands of Jews from all over the world. Today, Israel is a democracy with a population of over 8 million people. The largest Jewish communities are in Israel and the United States, with communities in France, Russia, United Kingdom, Canada. For statistics related to modern Jewish demographics see Jewish population, the history of the early Jews, and their neighbors, centers on the Fertile Crescent and east coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Herod the Great
Herod, known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century CE Roman–Jewish historian Josephus, Herod appears in the Christian Gospel of Matthew as the ruler of Judea who orders the Massacre of the Innocents at the time of the birth of Jesus. Despite his successes, including singlehandedly forging a new aristocracy from practically nothing and his reign polarizes opinion amongst scholars and historians, some viewing his legacy as evidence of success, or a reminder of his tyrannical rule. It is generally accepted that Herod was born around 73 BCE in Idumea, some authors think that he was born in about 72/71 BCE. He was the son of Antipater the Idumaean, a high-ranked official under ethnarch Hyrcanus II, and Cypros. Herods father was by descent an Edomite whose ancestors had converted to Judaism, Herod was raised as a Jew. A loyal supporter of Hyrcanus II, Antipater appointed his son governor of Galilee in 47 BCE and his elder brother, was appointed governor of Jerusalem.
Herod enjoyed the backing of Rome, but his brutality was condemned by the Sanhedrin, in 41 BCE, Herod and his brother Phasael, were named as tetrarchs by the Roman leader Mark Antony. They were placed in this role to support Hyrcanus II, Antigonus, Hyrcanus nephew, took the throne from his uncle with the help of the Parthians. Herod fled to Rome to plead with the Romans to restore Hyrcanus II to power, the Romans had a special interest in Judea because their general Pompey the Great had conquered Jerusalem in 63 BCE, thus placing the region in the Roman sphere of influence. In Rome, Herod was unexpectedly appointed King of the Jews by the Roman Senate, Josephus puts this in the year of the consulship of Calvinus and Pollio, but Appian places it in 39 BCE. Herod went back to Judea to win his kingdom from Antigonus, toward the end of the campaign against Antigonus, Herod married the granddaughter of Hyrcanus II, who was a niece of Antigonus. Herod did this in an attempt to secure his claim to the throne, Herod already had a wife, and a young son and chose therefore to banish Doris and her child.
After three years of conflict and the Romans finally captured Jerusalem and Herod sent Antigonus for execution to Marc Antony, Herod took the role as sole ruler of Judea and the title of basileus for himself, ushering in the Herodian Dynasty and ending the Hasmonean Dynasty. Josephus reports this as being in the year of the consulship of Agrippa and Gallus, but says that it was exactly 27 years after Jerusalem fell to Pompey, cassius Dio reports that in 37 BCE the Romans accomplished nothing worthy of note in the area. According to Josephus, Herod ruled for 37 years,34 of them after capturing Jerusalem, as Herods family were converts to Judaism, his religious commitment was questioned by some elements of Jewish society. Herod executed several members of his own family, including his wife Mariamne I, Herods rule marked a new beginning in the history of Judea. Judea had been ruled autonomously by the Hasmonean kings from 140 BCE until 63 BCE, the Hasmoneans retained their titles, but became clients of Rome after the conquest by Pompey in 63 BCE
The Herodian kingdom of Judaea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed King of the Jews by the Roman Senate. When Herod died in 4 BCE, the kingdom was divided among his sons into the Herodian Tetrarchy, the first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome created the province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Pompey sacked Jerusalem in 63 BCE, the Hasmonean Queen, Salome Alexandra, had recently died and her sons, Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, turned against each other in a civil war. In 63 BCE, Aristobulus was besieged in Jerusalem by his brothers armies and he sent an envoy to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, Pompeys representative in the area. Aristobulus offered a bribe to be rescued, which Pompey promptly accepted. Afterwards, Aristobulus accused Scaurus of extortion, since Scaurus was Pompeys brother in law and protégée, the general retaliated by putting Hyrcanus in charge of the kingdom as Prince and High Priest.
When Pompey was defeated by Julius Caesar, Hyrcanus was succeeded by his courtier Antipater the Idumaean, in 57-55 BCE, Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, split the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts of Sanhedrin/Synedrion. The Parthian army crossed the Euphrates and Labienus was able to entice Mark Antonys Roman garrisons around Syria to rally to his cause, the Parthians split their army, and under Pacorus conquered the Levant from the Phoenician coast through the Land of Israel, Antigonus. Roused the Parthians to invade Syria and Palestine, the Jews eagerly rose in support of the scion of the Maccabean house, when Phasael and Hyrcanus II set out on an embassy to the Parthians, the Parthians instead captured them. Antigonus, who was present, cut off Hyrcanuss ears to make him unsuitable for the High Priesthood, whose Hebrew name was Mattathias, bore the double title of king and High Priest for only three years. He had not disposed of Herod, who fled into exile, Herod was designated King of the Jews by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE, Antony resolved to get made king of the Jews.
Told that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king, Antony made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign. The struggle thereafter lasted for years, as the main Roman forces were occupied with defeating the Parthians and had few additional resources to use to support Herod. After the Parthian defeat, Herod was victorious over his rival in 37 BCE, Antigonus was delivered to Antony and executed shortly thereafter, bringing about the end of the Hasmonean rule over Israel. Under his enterprise, such projects as the Masada fortress, the Herodion, during King Herods reign the last representatives of the Hasmoneans were eliminated. Antigonus was not, the last Hasmonean, the fate of the remaining male members of the family under Herod was not a happy one. Aristobulus III, grandson of Aristobulus II through his elder son Alexander, was made high priest. His sister, Mariamne was married to Herod, but fell victim to his notorious jealousy and her sons by Herod, Aristobulus IV and Alexander, were in their adulthood executed by their father
Herodias was a princess of the Herodian Dynasty of Judaea during the time of the Roman Empire. She was the daughter of Aristobulus IV and his wife Berenice and her first husband was the son of Herod the Great and his third wife, Mariamne II. Her mother Berenice was the daughter of Herods sister Salome I, full sister to Herod V, Herod Agrippa, Aristobulus Minor, and Mariamne III. Daughter-in-law of Herod the Great, once by marriage to his son, Herod II, Herod II was the son of Herod the Great and his third wife Mariamne II, who was the daughter of Simon Boethus the High Priest. For a brief period he was his fathers heir, some writers call him Herod Philip I. Herod was the first husband of Herodias, and because the Gospel of Mark states that Herodias was married to Philip, some scholars have argued that his name was actually Herod Philip. Many scholars dispute this and believe the Gospel writer was in error, because he was the grandson of the high priest Simon Boethus he is sometimes described as Herod Boethus, but there is no evidence he was actually called this.
Herod the Greats execution of his Hasmonean sons and Aristobulus IV in 7 B. C. left the latters daughter Herodias an orphaned minor. Herod engaged her to Herod II, her half-uncle, and her connection to the Hasmonean bloodline supported her new husbands right to succeed his father. This marriage led to opposition from Antipater II, Herod the Greats eldest son, Herodias divorced Herod II, although it is unclear when they were divorced. Josephus does not say this but these events chronologically give weight to this theory, as Josephus reports in Jewish Antiquities, was married to Herod, the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne II, the daughter of Simon the High Priest. Some ancient Greek versions of Mark read Herods daughter Herodias, to scholars using these ancient texts, both mother and daughter had the same name. However, the Latin Vulgate Bible translates the passage as it is above, Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great by his fourth wife and half-brother of Herod II. He was a ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch and he is best known today for accounts in the New Testament of his role in events that led to the executions of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth.
Antipas divorced his first wife Phasaelis, the daughter of King Aretas IV of Nabatea, according to the New Testament Gospels, it was John the Baptists condemnation of this arrangement that led Antipas to have him arrested, John was subsequently put to death. Besides provoking his conflict with the Baptist, the tetrarchs divorce added a grievance to previous disputes with Aretas over territory on the border of Perea and Nabatea. The result was a war that proved disastrous for Antipas, a Roman counter-offensive was ordered by Tiberius, in 39 A. D. Antipas was accused by his nephew Agrippa I of conspiracy against the new Roman emperor Caligula, who sent him into exile in Gaul. Accompanied there by Herodias, he died at an unknown date, the Gospel of Luke states that when Jesus was brought before Pontius Pilate for trial, Pilate handed him over to Antipas, in whose territory Jesus had been active