Clupea is genus of planktivorous bony fish belonging to the family Clupeidae known as herrings. They are found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized; the main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies. Herrings are forage fish moving in vast schools, coming in spring to the shores of Europe and America, where they form important commercial fisheries; the species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae, which comprises some 200 species that share similar features. They are silvery-colored fish that have a single dorsal fin, soft, without spines, they have a protruding lower jaw. Their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring is small, 14 to 18 centimeters. See Atlantic herring for videos of juvenile herring feeding by catching copepods. Predators of herring include humans, dolphins, striped bass, sea lions, sharks, dog fish, cod and halibut.
Other large fish feed on adult herring. Young herring feed on phytoplankton and as they mature. Adult herring feed on zooplankton, tiny animals that are found in oceanic surface waters, small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when there is less chance of being seen by predators, they swim along with their mouths open, filtering the plankton from the water as it passes through their gills. Adult herring are harvested for their meat and eggs, they are used as baitfish; the trade in herring is an important sector of many national economies. In Europe the fish has been called the "silver of the sea", its trade has been so significant to many countries that it has been regarded as the most commercially important fishery in history. Environmental Defense have suggested that the Atlantic herring fishery is one of the more environmentally responsible fisheries
Rollmops are pickled herring fillets, rolled into a cylindrical shape around a savoury filling. The filling consists of sliced pickled gherkin, or green olive with pimento. Rollmops are skewered with a cocktail skewer. Rollmops are bought ready-to-eat, in jars or tubs; the brine additionally consists of water, white vinegar, salt. Rollmops can be eaten cold, on bread. After the jar has been opened, they will keep for two to three weeks if kept cool or refrigerated. Rollmops are sometimes served with Labskaus; the name "rollmops" is German in origin, derived from Mops. The form Rollmops is singular, the plural is Rollmöpse. In English, the term "rollmops" is treated as the plural of the singular "rollmop"; the form "rollmop herrings" is attested. Pickled herrings have been a staple in Northern Europe since Medieval times, being a way to store and transport fish necessary in meatless periods like Lent; the herrings would be prepared packed in barrels for storage or transportation. Rollmops grew popular throughout Germany during the Biedermeier period of the early 19th century and were known as a particular specialty of Berlin, like the similar pickled herring dish Bismarckhering.
A crucial factor in their popularity was the development of the long-range railway network, which allowed the transport of herring from the North and Baltic seas to the interior. The fish was transported in wooden barrels. In pubs in Old Berlin, it was common to have high-rising glass display cases known as Hungerturm on the bar to present ready-to-eat dishes like lard bread, salt eggs, mettwurst, of course rollmops. Nowadays rollmops are served as part of the German Katerfrühstück, believed to restore some electrolytes. Rollmops are eaten in South America, as well as in areas of the United States and Canada. Battle of the Herrings – A battle during the Hundred Years' War Brathering
Dussumieriidae is a family of clupeiform fishes popularly called the "round herrings". It is now recognized by Fishbase as a family in its own right, it contains two extant genera, one extinct genus from the Ypresian of Monte Bolca. Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Dussumieriidae" in FishBase. August 2012 version
The wolf herrings are a family of two marine species of ray-finned fish related to the herrings. Both species have elongated bodies and jaws with long sharp teeth that facilitate their ravenous appetites for other fish. Both species reach a length of 1 m, they have silvery sides and bluish backs. They are commercially fished, marketed fresh or frozen. Chirocentrus dorab - Dorab wolf-herring, found in warm coastal waters from the Red Sea to Japan and Australia Chirocentrus nudus Swainson, 1839 - whitefin wolf-herring, found in a similar range Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Chirocentridae" in FishBase. June 2011 version
Drifter (fishing boat)
A drifter is a type of fishing boat. They were designed to catch herring in a long drift net. Herring fishing using drifters has a long history in the Netherlands and in many British fishing ports in East Scottish ports; until the mid-1960s fishing fleets in the North Sea comprised drifters and trawlers, with the drifters targeting herring while the trawlers caught cod, plaice and haddock, etc. By the mid-1960s the catches were diminishing the herring; the drifter fleet disappeared and many of the trawlers were adapted to work as service ships for the newly created North Sea oil rigs. Some history of drifters is covered in Scottish east coast fishery. Drifters preserved as museum ships include Lydia Eva, a steam drifter of the herring fishing fleet based in Great Yarmouth and Reaper, a restored Scottish Fifie herring drifter at the Scottish Fisheries Museum. Naval drifters were boats built in the same way used by the Royal Navy to maintain and patrol anti-submarine nets, they requisitioned from private owners.
Herring Buss Fifie Manx nobby History of fishing in the United Kingdom Tradewind Wylde Swan http://www.lydiaeva.org.uk/
Opisthonema, the thread herrings, is a genus of herring found in tropical waters of the Western Hemisphere. They get their name from a filamentous nature of the last ray of the dorsal fin. There are five members of this genus. Opisthonema berlangai Berry & Barrett, 1963 Opisthonema bulleri Opisthonema libertate Opisthonema medirastre Berry & Barrett, 1963 Opisthonema oglinum Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. Species of Opisthonema in FishBase. June 2011 version
Silver-stripe round herring
The silver-stripe round herring, slender sprat, or Kibinago minnow is a small, herring-like forage fish. They are small fish used as fishing bait in skipjack tuna-fishing, it is valued as food in Japan. These can be eaten raw, as sashimi, or cooked, as whitebait