The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chatham Village (Pittsburgh)
Chatham Village is a community within the larger Mount Washington neighborhood of the City of Pittsburgh, an internationally acclaimed model of community design. It is bounded by Virginia Ave. Bigham St. Woodruff St. Saw Mill Run Blvd. and Olympia Rd. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2005 as a remarkably well-preserved example of Garden City Movement design; the village is operated as a cooperative by its residents. Chatham Village was built 1932–1936, was designed by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright on the principles of the Garden City Movement of the early 20th century, it is in the Georgian Colonial Revival style. It was built to show that affordable housing for the working class could be attractive and safe, however it became a middle- and upper-class neighborhood because it was so attractive; the funding was provided by Pittsburgh's Buhl Foundation. In 2007, Chatham Village was included in the American Planning Association's list of Great Neighborhoods as part of its Great Places in America program, which recognized 10 neighborhoods from across the nation for good design, function and community involvement.
In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, writer Jane Jacobs criticizes Chatham Village as an example of how Garden City planning created islands of class homogeneity, thus fostering economic and social distance within Pittsburgh and other cities. Jacobs cites Chatham Village residents' inabilities to cooperate with other parents once their children entered the more economically and diverse local junior high school, which drew lower-class and lower-middle-class students from outside of Chatham Village. In Jacobs' view, the success of Chatham Village as an urban community in a park-like setting depended upon the residents' tendencies to trust one another due to the similarities in their professional and social status; the ideals of city planning expressed in the Garden City Movement, Jacobs argues, are only suitable for upper-middle-class lifestyles and, fail to engage the endemic economic and social diversity of cities. The homes are red-brick-and-slate-roof townhomes, they are situated in clusters toward interior courtyards with their rears facing the loop roads around the property.
The homes do have rear-access integral garages in the basements but these are recessed several feet to reduce the visual impact. The community is regarded as one of the best-preserved examples of the Garden City concept by city planners and landscape architects, it is a National Historic Landmark, on the National Register of Historic Places, is on the List of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmarks. The complex includes the Bigham House built in 1849, renovated for use as a community clubhouse, known as Chatham Hall. Thomas James Bigham was an abolitionist lawyer, his house was "purportedly a station on the Underground Railroad". Chatham Village Website 2005 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article on the community
Brunot Island is a 129-acre island in the Ohio River. It is part of the Marshall-Shadeland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania in the United States, it was named for Dr. Felix Brunot; the family entertained the Lewis and Clark expedition on the island in August 1803. The island is home to the Brunot Island Generating Station, a 315 MW fossil fuel power plant; the Ohio Connecting Railroad Bridge crosses the Ohio River at the island. The island does not otherwise connect to the land, all vehicular traffic must use a ferry to access the island; the employees of the power plant use a pedestrian walkway on the railroad bridge to go to work. The walkway is not accessible to the public. From 1903 to 1914, the island was the home of Brunots Island Race Track. Type: Fossil fuel. Airgun Accident
Manchester is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has a ZIP code of 15233, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6; the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire houses Battalion 1 in Manchester. The neighborhood includes the Manchester Historic District, which protects, to some degree, 609 buildings over a 51.6-acre area. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975; the Manchester Historic District is Pittsburgh's largest historic district under the National Register of Historic Places, preserved for its early 19th century-built Late Victorian-style houses. Manchester was rated as one of the top 10 neighborhoods for "being close to everything" because it's walkable and has easy access to public transportation and major roadways; the Three Rivers Heritage Trail System runs along Manchester. Manchester is exclusively residential; as of the 2010 Census, there were 2,130 people residing in Manchester. According to a report created by the University Center for Social and Urban Research, 46.3% of houses were families while 55.7% were nonfamily households.
The median sales price for homes in Manchester for Nov 12 to Jan 13 was $172,350. This represents an increase of 36.8%, or $46,350, compared to the prior quarter and an increase of 48.6% compared to the prior year. Sales prices have appreciated 94.7 % over the last 5 years in Pittsburgh. The median sales price of $172,350 for Manchester is 29.68% higher than the median sales price for Pittsburgh PA. Average price per square foot for homes in Manchester was $54 in the most recent quarter, 43.75% lower than the average price per square foot for homes in Pittsburgh. Manchester's schools are within the Pittsburgh Public School District. Allegheny West California-Kirkbride Central Northside Chateau Marshall-Shadeland List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods UCSUR's Census Report Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Manchester Historic Society Manchester Citizen's Corporation Mexican War Streets Society Carnegie Science Center Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Manchester Craftmen's Guild City Council District 6 Manchester Youth Development Center
Marshall-Shadeland is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has a zip codes of both 15212 and 15214, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 1; the neighborhood is a residential area, annexed by Allegheny City in 1870. It is bordered by Woods Run Avenue on the north, Marshall Avenue on the south, Riverview Park, Highwood Cemetery, Uniondale Cemetery on the east; the neighborhood technically extends west to the Ohio River, but in practice the residential district ends at California Avenue. The area between California Avenue and the Ohio River is an industrial site and the home of the Woods Run Penitentiary, now known as State Correctional Institution – Pittsburgh; the neighborhood has been home to a number of different ethnic groups and has been called a number of different names. It was called "Woods Run" after early settler John Ross, the neighborhood's library is still the Woods Run branch of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. In an article about the library, reporter Patricia Lowry described the neighborhood by saying that "Woods Run isn't an official city neighborhood, but it has always seemed to me to be one of the most quintessentially Pittsburgh places -- a valley village with some neatly kept gardens and frame houses stacked on the hillsides."
It was called "Shadeland-Halls Grove" in a 1974 Neighborhood Profile by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Urban Planning, which drew a distinction between the residential neighborhood and the "Woods Run Industrial district." It was called "Marshall-Shadeland" in a 1977 Neighborhood Atlas that purported to be part of "a neighborhood information system that more reflects neighborhood boundaries as defined by residents instead of by public officials." The Atlas stated that "Marshall-Shadeland was named for Archibald M. Marshall, Irish grocer, dry goods merchant, landscaper of West Park and a partner in the Marshall-Kennedy Milling Company. A residential area, Marshall-Shadeland is predominately Slovak, with Italians, Carpatho-Rusins, Russians and Germans represented." More residents have been calling the area Brightwood. The City of Pittsburgh's website now refers to the area as "Marshall-Shadeland". Area advocates have organized the Brightwood Civic Group. Marshall-Shadeland has six land borders, including the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Brighton Heights to the north, Perry North to the northeast, Perry South to the east, California-Kirkbride and Chateau to the south.
Across the Ohio River to the west, Marshall-Shadeland runs adjacent with Stowe Township, McKees Rocks, the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Esplen. The McKees Rocks Bridge westbound starts at PA Route 65 in Brighton Heights passes over Marshall-Shadeland, the Ohio River, Stowe Township and ends at PA Route 51 in McKees Rocks. Brighton Heights is within the city of Pittsburgh, is in "Zone 1" of the public transit system. Bus lines serving Brighton Heights include the 500, 16A, 16B and 16D. Brunot Island List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Pittsburgh Northside -- Brightwood Pittsburgh Northside Business Districts -- Brightwood
Uptown or The Bluff is a neighborhood in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to the southeast of the city's Central Business District. It is bordered in the north by the Hill District and located across the Monongahela River from South Side; the predominant area zip code is 15219. This area is home to Mercy Hospital as well as Duquesne University, it includes a residential community, once flourishing during the first half of the 20th century. Uptown is the home of the Pittsburgh Fire Bureau 4 Engine and 4 Truck; the area was known to American frontiersmen and colonists as Ayer's Hill in honor of a fortification built by the English commander Ayers in the mid-1700s. Sometime near the Revolutionary War and throughout the 19th century the area was referred to as Boyd's Hill in the expanding frontier and than industrial city; the name is said to have been given to the neighborhood after a newly arrived businessman swayed by Hugh Brackenridge, left his downtown office and hanged himself on the hill.
The Uptown was first developed by James Tustin, an eccentric English émigré who built an estate in the area in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. His home featured an English taste in architecture and a fruit orchard, was acknowledged at the time to have been "the most beautiful place in Pittsburgh," according to a 1915 article in the Pittsburgh Gazette–Times. Tustin named his estate "Soho" after his previous residence in Britain, the name came to be applied to the neighborhood; the neighborhood was part of Pitt Township, but was annexed in 1846. The addition was precipitated by the city's efforts at regrowth following a cataclysmic fire in 1845, which destroyed 56 acres and 1,000 buildings. A 1922 guidebook, A History of Pittsburgh and Environs, noted that the area's houses were "old and not attractive, are populated by foreign mill workers and their families", a 1977 guide remarked that it was once "a pleasant residential area for many wealthy Pittsburghers" but "as industry moved in, the wealthy moved out".
The neighborhood was adversely affected by Pittsburgh's urban renewal campaign in the 1960s, in the estimation of some, "has never been reassembled". Construction projects in the area include expansion by Duquesne University, development surrounding the newly completed arena for the Pittsburgh Penguins. Fifth Avenue is home to law offices and a few restaurants, but vacant storefronts, rundown bars, small street parking lots for Downtown commuters are prevalent as well. Brick rowhouses are common in the neighborhood. There are significant efforts in the community to reassert a sense of identity, residents range from Downtown workers and long-time residents to university students and health professionals. Uptown has four land borders with Downtown Pittsburgh to the west and northwest, the Crawford-Roberts section of the Hill District to the north, West Oakland to the northeast and South Oakland to the east; the entire Bluff runs adjacent to the western section of the South Side Flats across the Monongahela River.
List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Post Gazette article on the 19th century history of the area Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Post-Gazette on residential renovations in the Bluff
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Allegheny County is a county in the southwest of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2017 the population was 1,223,048, making it the state's second-most populous county, following Philadelphia County; the county seat is Pittsburgh. Allegheny County is included in the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the Pittsburgh Designated Market Area. Allegheny was Pennsylvania's first to bear a Native American name, being named after the Allegheny River; the word "Allegheny" is with uncertain meaning. It is said to mean "fine river", but sometimes said to refer to an ancient mythical tribe called "Allegewi" that lived along the river before being destroyed by the Lenape. Little is known of the region's inhabitants prior to European contact. During the colonial era, various native groups claimed or settled in the area, resulting in a multi-ethnic mix that included Iroquois, Lenape and Mingo. European fur traders such as Peter Chartier established trading posts in the region in the early eighteenth century.
In 1749, Captain Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville claimed the Ohio Valley and all of western Pennsylvania for Louis XV of France. The captain traveled along the Ohio and Allegheny rivers inserting lead plates in the ground to mark the land for France. Since most of the towns during that era were developed along waterways, both the French and the British desired control over the local rivers. Therefore, the British sent Major George Washington to expel the French from their posts, with no success. Failing in this objective, he nearly drowned in the ice-filled Allegheny River while returning; the English tried in 1754 to again enter the area. They sent 41 Virginians to build Fort Prince George; the French learned of the plan and sent an army to capture the fort, which they resumed building with increased fortification, renaming it Fort Duquesne. The loss cost the English dearly because Fort Duquesne became a focal point of the French and Indian War; the first attempt to retake the fort, the Braddock Expedition, failed miserably.
It was recaptured in 1758 by British forces under General John Forbes. The British built a new, larger fort on the site, including a moat, named it Fort Pitt; the site is now Pittsburgh's Point State Park. Both Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed the region, now Allegheny County. Pennsylvania administered most of the region as part of its Westmoreland County. Virginia considered everything south of the Ohio River and east of the Allegheny River to be part of its Yohogania County and governed it from Fort Dunmore. In addition, parts of the county were located in the proposed British colony of Vandalia and the proposed U. S. state of Westsylvania. The overlapping boundaries, multiple governments, confused deed claims soon proved unworkable. In 1780 Pennsylvania and Virginia agreed to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, the region became part of Pennsylvania. From 1781 until 1788, much of what had been claimed as part of Yohogania County, was administered as a part of the newly created Washington County, Pennsylvania.
Allegheny County was created on September 24, 1788, from parts of Washington and Westmoreland counties. It was formed due to pressure from settlers living in the area around Pittsburgh, which became the county seat in 1791; the county extended north to the shores of Lake Erie. In the 1790s, a whiskey excise tax was imposed by the United States federal government; this started the so-called Whiskey Rebellion when the farmers who depended on whiskey income refused to pay and drove off tax collector John Neville. After a series of demonstrations by farmers, President George Washington sent troops to stop the rebellion; the area developed in the 1800s to become the nation's prime steel producer. In 1913 the County's 125th anniversary was celebrated with a week long chain of events, the final day September 27 was marked with a steamboat parade consisting of 30 paddle wheelers which sailed from Monongahela Wharf down the Ohio to the Davis Island Dam; the boats in line were the flag ship. Woodward, Volunteer, A. R. Budd, J. C.
Risher, Rival, Jim Brown, Charlie Clarke, Robt. J. Jenkins, Bertha, Midland Sam Barnum, Cadet and Troubadour. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 745 square miles, of which 730 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Three majors traverse Allegheny County: the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River converge at Downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River; the Youghiogheny River flows into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, 10 miles southeast. There are several islands in these courses; the rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Although the county's industrial growth caused the clearcutting of the area's forests, a significant woodland remains. Butler County Armstrong County Beaver County Westmoreland County Washington County Until January 1, 2000, Allegheny County's government was defined under Pennsylvania's Second Class County Code; the county government was charged with all local activities, including elections, airports, public health, city planning.
All public offices were headed by elected citizens. There were three elected county commissioners. On January 1, 2000 the Home-Rule Charter went into effect, it replaced the three elected commissioners wi