Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science
The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science is the engineering and applied science school of Columbia University. It was founded as the School of Mines in 1863 and the School of Mines and Chemistry before becoming the School of Engineering and Applied Science. On October 1, 1997, the school was renamed in honor of Chinese businessman Z. Y. Fu, who had donated $26 million to the school; the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science maintains a close research tie with other institutions including NASA, IBM, MIT, The Earth Institute. Patents owned by the school generate over $100 million annually for the university. SEAS faculty and alumni are responsible for technological achievements including the developments of FM radio and the maser; the School's applied mathematics, biomedical engineering, computer science and the financial engineering program in operations research are famous and ranked high. The current SEAS faculty include 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering and one Nobel Laureate in a faculty size of 173.
In all, the faculty and alumni of Columbia Engineering have won 10 Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry and economics. The school consists of 300 undergraduates in each graduating class and maintains close links with its undergraduate liberal arts sister school Columbia College which shares housing with SEAS students; the School's current dean is Mary Cunningham Boyce, appointed in 2013. Included in the original charter for Columbia College was the direction to teach "the arts of Number and Measuring, of Surveying and Navigation the knowledge of various kinds of Meteors, Stones and Minerals, Plants and Animals, everything useful for the Comfort, the Convenience and Elegance of Life." Engineering has always been a part of Columbia before the establishment of any separate school of engineering. An early and influential graduate from the school was John Stevens, Class of 1768. Instrumental in the establishment of U. S. patent law, Stevens procured many patents in early steamboat technology, operated the first steam ferry between New York and New Jersey, received the first railroad charter in the U.
S. built a pioneer locomotive, amassed a fortune, which allowed his sons to found the Stevens Institute of Technology. When Columbia University first resided on Wall Street, engineering did not have a school under the Columbia umbrella. After Columbia outgrew its space on Wall Street, it relocated to what is now Midtown Manhattan in 1857. President Barnard and the Trustees of the University, with the urging of Professor Thomas Egleston and General Vinton, approved the School of Mines in 1863; the intention was to establish a School of Mines and Metallurgy with a three-year program open to professionally motivated students with or without prior undergraduate training. It was founded in 1864 under the leadership of its first dean, Columbia professor Charles F. Chandler, specialized in mining and mineralogical engineering. An example of work from a student at the School of Mines was William Barclay Parsons, Class of 1882, he was an engineer on the Cape Cod and Panama Canals. Most he worked for New York, as a chief engineer of the city's first subway system, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company.
Opened in 1904, the subway's electric cars took passengers from City Hall to Brooklyn, the Bronx, the newly renamed and relocated Columbia University in Morningside Heights, its present location on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. In 1896, the school was renamed to the "School of Mines and Chemistry". During this time, the University was offering more than the previous name had implied, thus the change of name; the faculty during this time included Michael I. Pupin, after whom Pupin Hall is named. Pupin himself was a graduate of the Class of 1883 and the inventor of the "Pupin coil", a device that extended the range of long-distance telephones. Students of his included Irving Langmuir, Nobel laureate in Chemistry, inventor of the gas-filled tungsten lamp and a contributor to the development of the radio vacuum tube. Another student to work with Pupin was inventor of FM radio. After graduating in 1913 Armstrong was stationed in France during World War I. There he developed the superheterodyne receiver to detect the frequency of enemy aircraft ignition systems.
During this period, Columbia was home to the "Father of Biomedical Engineering" Elmer L. Gaden; the university continued to evolve and expand as the United States became a major political power during the 20th century. In 1926, the newly renamed School of Engineering prepared students for the nuclear age. Graduating with a master's degree, Hyman George Rickover, working with the Navy's Bureau of Ships, directed the development of the world's first nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus, launched in 1954; the school's first woman graduate received her degree in 1945. After a substantial grant of $26 million from Chinese businessman Z. Y. Fu, the engineering school was renamed again in 1997; the new name, as it is known today is the Fu Foundation School of Applied Science. SEAS continues to be a teaching and research institution, now with a large endowment of over $400 million, sits under the Columbia umbrella endowment of $7.2 billion. As an initiative to make information more accessible, Columbia Engineering operates a viewed open-course video network.
It is the only university to hold a share in the MPEG-2 patent. The school continues research into nuclear science with the Robert A. Gross Plasma Physics Lab; the school is home to Columbia's
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Mount Lefroy is a mountain on the Continental Divide, at the border of Alberta and British Columbia in western Canada. The mountain is located on the eastern side of Abbot Pass which separates Lake Louise in Banff National Park from Lake O'Hara in Yoho National Park. Mount Victoria lies on the western side of the pass; the mountain was named by George M. Dawson in 1894 for Sir John Henry Lefroy, an astronomer who had traveled over 8,800 kilometres in Canada's north between 1842-44 making meteorological and magnetic observations; the mountain is the site of the first fatal climbing accident in Canada. In 1896 during a failed summit bid, Philip Stanley Abbot slipped on rocks after just coming off an icy section and plummeted down the rock face to his death; the first successful ascent was made in 1897 by Arthur Michael, H. Dixon. Noyes, Charles Thompson, H. Parker. A prominent painting by Canadian Group of 7 artist Lawren Harris, was painted at this site. Mount Lefroy is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Cambrian period.
Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Mount Lefroy is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below −20 C with wind chill factors below −30 C. Mount Lefroy weather: Mountain Forecast Parks Canada web site: Banff National Park
The Canadian Rockies or Canadian Rocky Mountains comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, a system of multiple ranges of mountains which runs from the Canadian Prairies to the Pacific Coast; the Canadian Rockies mountain system comprises the southeastern part of this system, lying between the Interior Plains of Alberta and Northeastern British Columbia on the east to the Rocky Mountain Trench of BC on the west. The southern end borders Montana of the United States. In geographic terms the boundary is at the Canada/US border, but in geological terms it might be considered to be at Marias Pass in northern Montana; the northern end is at the Liard River in northern British Columbia. The Canadian Rockies have numerous high ranges, such as Mount Robson and Mount Columbia; the Canadian Rockies are composed of limestone. Much of the range is protected by national and provincial parks, several of which collectively comprise a World Heritage Site.
The Canadian Rockies are the easternmost part of the Canadian Cordillera, the collective name for the mountains of Western Canada. They form part of the American Cordillera, an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that runs all the way from Alaska to the tip of South America; the Cordillera, in turn, is the eastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire that runs all the way around the Pacific Ocean. The Canadian Rockies are bounded on the east by the Canadian Prairies, on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench, on the north by the Liard River. Contrary to popular misconception, the Rockies do not extend north into Yukon or Alaska, or west into central British Columbia. North of the Liard River, the Mackenzie Mountains, which are a distinct mountain range, form a portion of the border between the Yukon and the Northwest Territories; the mountain ranges to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench in southern British Columbia are called the Columbia Mountains, are not considered to be part of the Rockies by Canadian geologists.
Mount Robson is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, but not the highest in British Columbia, since there are some higher mountains in the Coast Mountains and Saint Elias Mountains. Mount Robson lies on the continental divide near Yellowhead Pass, one of the lowest passes in the Canadian Rockies, is close to the Yellowhead Highway, its base is985 m above sea level, with a total vertical relief of 2,969 m. Mount Columbia is the second-highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, is the highest mountain in Alberta. Snow Dome is the hydrological apex of North America. Water flows off Snow Dome into three different watersheds, into the Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean via Hudson Bay; the Canadian Rockies are not the highest mountain ranges in Canada. Both the Saint Elias Mountains and the Coast Mountains have higher summits; the Canadian Rockies are subdivided into numerous mountain ranges, structured in two main groupings, the Continental Ranges, which has three main subdivisions, the Front Range, Park Ranges and Kootenay Ranges, the Northern Rockies which comprise two main groupings, the Hart Ranges and the Muskwa Ranges.
The division-point of the two main groupings is at Monkman Pass northwest of Mount Robson and to the southwest of Mount Ovington. The Canadian Rockies are noted for being the source of several major river systems, for the many rivers within the range itself; the Rockies form the divide between the Pacific Ocean drainage on the west and that of Hudson Bay and the Arctic Ocean on the east. Of the range's rivers, only the Peace River penetrates the range. Notable rivers originating in the Canadian Rockies include the Fraser, North Saskatchewan and Athabasca Rivers; the Canadian Rockies are quite different in appearance and geology from the American Rockies to the south of them. The Canadian Rockies are composed of layered sedimentary rock such as limestone and shale, whereas the American Rockies are made of metamorphic and igneous rock such as gneiss and granite; the Canadian Rockies are overall more jagged than the American Rockies because the Canadian Rockies have been more glaciated, resulting in pointed mountains separated by wide, U-shaped valleys gouged by glaciers, whereas the American Rockies are overall more rounded, with river-carved V-shaped valleys between them.
The Canadian Rockies are cooler and wetter, giving them moister soil, bigger rivers, more glaciers. The tree line is much lower in the Canadian Rockies than in the American Rockies. Five national parks are located within the Canadian Rockies, four of which are adjacent and make up the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks; these four parks are Banff, Jasper and Yoho. The fifth national park, Waterton is not adjacent to the others. Waterton lies farther south, straddling the Canada–US border as the Canadian half of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. All five of these parks, combined with three British Columbia provincial parks, were declared a single UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984 for the unique mountain landscapes found there. Numerous provincial parks are located in the Canadian Rockies, including Hamber, Mount Assiniboine and Mount Robson parks. Throughout the Rockies, in the national parks, the Alpine Club of Canada maintains a series of alpine huts for use by mountaineers and adventurers.
The Canadian Pacific Railway was founded to provide a link from the province of British Columbia to the eastern provinces. The main difficulty in p
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Deltaform Mountain is one of the mountains in the Valley of the Ten Peaks, located on the Continental Divide on the border of British Columbia and Alberta, on the border between Banff and Kootenay National Parks in Canada. The mountain was named Saknowa by Samuel Allen but Walter Wilcox named it to its official title in 1897 as it resembles the Greek letter delta. Deltaform was first climbed in 1903 by August Eggers and Herschel Clifford Parker who were guided by Christian and Hans Kaufmann; the two main climbing routes are: North-West Ridge II 5.5 North Face, The Supercouloir IV 5.8 Deltaform Mountain is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Precambrian to Jurassic periods. Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Deltaform is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below −20 C with wind chill factors below −30 C.
Mountains of Alberta Mountains of British Columbia List of peaks on the British Columbia–Alberta border
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language. Following the acquisition of Grolier in 2000, the encyclopedia has been produced by Scholastic; the encyclopedia has more than 45,000 articles, most of them more than 500 words and many running to considerable length. The work's coverage of American and Canadian geography and history has been a traditional strength. Written by 6,500 contributors, the Encyclopedia Americana includes over 9,000 bibliographies, 150,000 cross-references, 1,000+ tables, 1,200 maps, 4,500 black-and-white line art and color images, it has 680 factboxes. Most articles are signed by their contributors. Long available as a 30-volume print set, the Encyclopedia Americana is now marketed as an online encyclopedia requiring a subscription. In March 2008, Scholastic said that print sales remained good but that the company was still deciding on the future of the print edition; the company did not produce an edition in 2007, a change from its previous approach of releasing a revised print edition each year.
The most recent print edition of the Encyclopedia Americana was published in 2006. The online version of the Encyclopedia Americana, first introduced in 1997, continues to be updated and sold; this work, like the print set from which it is derived, is designed for high school and first-year college students along with public library users. It is available to libraries as one of the options in the Grolier Online reference service, which includes the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, intended for middle and high school students, The New Book of Knowledge, an encyclopedia for elementary and middle school students. Grolier Online is not available to individual subscribers. There have been three separate works using the title Encyclopedia Americana; the first began publishing in the 1820s by the German exile Francis Lieber. The 13 volumes of the first edition were completed in 1833, other editions and printings followed in 1835, 1836, 1847-1848, 1849 and 1858. Lieber's work was based upon and was in no small part a translation of the 7th edition of the well established Konversations-Lexikon of Brockhaus.
Some material from this set was carried over into the modern version, as well as the Brockhaus short article method. A separate Encyclopedia Americana was published by J. M. Stoddart between 1883 and 1889, as a supplement to American reprintings of the 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was four quarto volumes meant to "extend and complete the articles in Britannica". Stoddart's work, however, is not connected to the earlier work by Lieber. In 1902 a new version in 16 volumes was published under the title Encyclopedia Americana, under the editorial supervision of Scientific American magazine; the magazine's editor, Frederick Converse Beach, was editor-in-chief, was said to be assisted by hundreds of eminent scholars and authorities who served as consulting editors or authors. The first publisher was R. S. Peale & Co; the relationship with Scientific American was terminated in 1911. From 1907 to 1912, the work was published as The Americana. A major new edition appeared with George Edwin Rines as editor-in-chief.
An Annual or Yearbook was published each year beginning in 1923 and continuing until 2000. The encyclopedia was purchased by Grolier in 1945. By the 1960s, sales of the Americana and its sister publications under Grolier—The Book of Knowledge, the Book of Popular Science, Lands and Peoples—were strong enough to support the company's occupancy of a large building in Midtown Manhattan, at 575 Lexington Avenue. Sales during this period were accomplished through mail-order and door-to-door operations. Telemarketing and third-party distribution through their Lexicon division added to sales volumes in the 1970s. By the late 1970s, Grolier had moved its operations to Connecticut. In 1988 Grolier was purchased by the French media company Hachette, which owned a well-known French-language encyclopedia, the Hachette Encyclopedia. Hachette was absorbed by the French conglomerate the Lagardère Group. A CD-ROM version of the encyclopedia was published in 1995. Although the text and images were stored on separate disks, it was in keeping with standards current at the time.
More the work had been digitized, allowing for release of an online version in 1997. Over the next few years the product was augmented with additional features, supplementary references, Internet links, current events journal. A redesigned interface and reengineered product, featuring enhanced search capabilities and a first-ever ADA-compliant, text-only version for users with disabilities, was presented in 2002; the acquisition of Grolier by Scholastic for US$400 million, took place in 2000. The new owners projected a 30% increase in operating income, although Grolier had experienced earnings of 7% to 8% on income. Staff reductions as a means of controlling costs followed soon thereafter while an effort was made to augment the sales force. Cuts occurred every year between 2000 and 2007, leaving a much-depleted work force to carry out the duties of maintaining a large encyclopedia database. Today, Encyclopedia Americana lives on as an integral database within the Grolier Online product. Frederick Converse Beach, 1902–1917.
Engineer and editor of Scientific American magazine. George Edwin Rines, 1917–1920. Author and editor. A. H. McDannald, 1920–1948. Reporter and author