Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee
George W. Towns
George Washington Bonaparte Towns was a United States lawyer and politician. He was a U. S. Representative, and the 39th Governor of Georgia from 1847 to 1851, Towns was born in Wilkes County, Georgia to Margaret George Hardwick and John Towns in 1801. His parents were Virginians who had moved to Georgia and settled in Wilkes County, shortly after his birth, the Towns family moved throughout Georgia, where he received a small preparatory education. He began to study medicine in Eatonton, but after his studies were interrupted by an injury, he moved to Montgomery, there, he studied law and, in 1824 was admitted to the Montgomery bar. As time went by, Towns continued to gain prominence and in 1826 acquired the Alabama Journal newspaper, during that same year he married his first wife, Margaret Jane Campbell, whose poor health led to her death several days after the marriage ceremony. Following the death of his wife, Towns moved back to Georgia, in 1828, Towns became one of the original town commissioners of Talbotton, where he established a law office.
During this period Towns served as colonel in the 65th Regiment of the Georgia Militia, Towns began his 22-year-long political career in 1829 as a strong Unionist and opponent of nullification in the Georgia House of Representatives and Georgia Senate. He subsequently served as a U. S. Representative, on September 23,1850, Towns asked the General Assembly to allow a special election to send delegates to a state convention to pass judgment on the Compromise of 1850. By the end of his time in politics, Towns had become a radical secessionist who believed the government was controlled by abolitionists bent on repressing the South. Towns died in Macon, Georgia on July 15,1854, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. George W. Towns at Find a Grave
George M. Dallas
George Mifflin Dallas was an American politician and diplomat who served as Mayor of Philadelphia, U. S. Senator from Pennsylvania and the 11th Vice President of the United States, George Mifflin Dallas was born on July 10,1792, to Alexander James Dallas and Arabella Maria Smith Dallas in Philadelphia. His father, born in Kingston and educated in Edinburgh, was the Secretary of the Treasury under United States President James Madison, George Dallas was given his middle name after Thomas Mifflin, another politician who was good friends with his father. Dallas was the second of six children, another of whom, during Dallass childhood, the family lived in a mansion on Fourth Street, with a second home in the countryside, situated on the Schuylkill River. He was educated privately at Quaker-run preparatory schools, before studying at the College of New Jersey, while at College, he participated in several activities, including the American Whig–Cliosophic Society. Afterwards, he studied law, and was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1813, Dallas did not have much enthusiasm at the time for legal practice, and wanted to fight in the War of 1812, a plan that he dropped due to his fathers objection.
Dallas enjoyed the opportunities offered to him by being in Russia, in August 1814, he arrived in Washington, D. C. and delivered a preliminary draft of Britains peace terms. Since the job did not entail a large workload, Dallas found time to develop his grasp of politics and he became the counsel to the Second Bank of the United States. After the War of 1812 ended, Pennsylvanias political climate was chaotic, the other faction was called the Amalgamators, headed by the future President James Buchanan. Voters elected Dallas Mayor of Philadelphia as the candidate of the Family party, Dallas served less than fifteen months—from December 13,1831, to March 4,1833. He was chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs, Dallas declined to seek re-election, in part due to a fight over the Second Bank of the United States, and in part because his wife did not want to leave Philadelphia for Washington. Dallas resumed the practice of law, was general of Pennsylvania from 1833 to 1835. He was appointed by President Martin Van Buren as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Russia from 1837 to 1839, Dallas was offered the role of Attorney General, but declined, and resumed his legal practice.
In the lead-up to the 1844 presidential election, Dallas worked to help Van Buren win the Democratic nomination over Dallass fellow Pennsylvanian, at the May 1844 Democratic National Convention in Baltimore, James K. Polk and Silas Wright were nominated as the Democratic ticket. However, when Wright declined the nomination, they chose Dallas as his replacement, who was not at the convention, was woken up at his home by convention delegates who had traveled to Philadelphia to tell him the news. Dallas somewhat reluctantly accepted the nomination, the Democratic candidates won the popular vote by a margin of 1. 5%, and won the election with an electoral vote of 170 out of 275. Dallas was influential as the officer of the Senate, where he worked to support Polks agenda. Though Dallas was unsuccessful in preventing Polk from appointing Buchanan as Secretary of State, as Vice President, Dallas sought to maneuver himself into contention for the presidency in the 1848 election, as Polk had promised to serve only one term
Benjamin Fitzpatrick was the 11th Governor of the U. S. state of Alabama and a United States Senator from Alabama. Born in Greene County, Fitzpatrick was orphaned at the age of seven and was taken by his sister to Alabama in 1815, Fitzpatrick helped his brothers manage land they owned on the Alabama River, and served as deputy under the first sheriff of Autauga County. He worked in the law office of Nimrod E. Benson before he was admitted to the bar, Fitzpatrick studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1821, commencing practice in Montgomery, Alabama. Fitzpatrick served as solicitor of the Montgomery circuit from 1822 to 1823, but moved to his plantation in Autauga County in 1829 and engaged in planting. He was again appointed on January 14,1853 and subsequently elected to the Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William R. King and he served in this Congress as Chairman of the Committee on Printing and the Committee on Engrossed Bills. He was elected to the Senate again to fill the vacancy caused by the failure of the legislature to elect his own successor on November 26,1855, in this role he served several times as President pro tempore of the Senate.
The country was plagued by depression as a result of the Panic of 1837. Fitzpatricks predecessor, Governor Arthur P. Bagby introduced measures to assist the state banks, all the state banks were closed by Fitzpatrick. Fitzpatrick withdrew from the Senate on January 21,1861, following the secession of his home state, Fitzpatrick did not take a particularly active role in the politics of the Confederacy, but did serve as president of the constitutional convention of Alabama in 1865. Fitzpatrick died on his plantation near Wetumpka, Alabama, on November 21,1869, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Benjamin Fitzpatrick at Find a Grave
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
Joseph E. Brown
Joseph Emerson Brown, often referred to as Joe Brown, was an attorney and politician, serving as the 42nd Governor of Georgia from 1857 to 1865, the only governor to serve four terms. After the American Civil War, he was elected by the legislature as a two-term U. S. Senator. Brown was a leading secessionist in 1861, and led his state into the Confederacy, a former Whig, and a firm believer in slavery and southern states rights, he defied the Confederate governments wartime policies. He resisted the draft, believing that local troops should be used only for the defense of Georgia. Several other governors followed his lead, after the war, Brown joined the Republican Party for a time, and was appointed as chief justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia from 1865 to 1870. Later he rejoined the Democrats, became president of the Western and Atlantic Railroad and began to amass great wealth and he earned high profits from two decades of using mostly black convicts leased from state and local governments in his coal mining operations in Dade County.
His Dade Coal Company bought other coal and iron companies, all based on the use of convict labor, by 1889 it was known as the Georgia Mining and Investment Company. Brown and his wife were honored in 1928 by a statue installed on the capitol grounds. Joseph Emerson Brown was born April 15,1821 in Pickens County, South Carolina to Mackey Brown, at a young age he moved with his family to Union County, Georgia. In 1840, he decided to leave the farm and seek an education, with the help of his younger brother James and his fathers plow horse, Brown drove a yoke of oxen on a 125-mile trek to an academy near Anderson, South Carolina. There Brown traded the oxen for eight months board and lodging, in 1844, Brown moved to Canton, where he served as headmaster of the academy at Canton. He went to Yale University to study law, returned to Canton to practice, in 1847 he opened a law office in the county seat, and began to make the connections on which he built his fortune. He married Elizabeth Grisham, daughter of a land developer.
Brown joined the Democratic Party and was elected to the Georgia state senate in 1849 from the developing Etowah Valley. He rapidly rose as a leader in the party and he was elected as state circuit court judge in 1855. In 1857, at the age of 36, Brown was elected governor of the state. He supported public education for white children, believing that it was key to development of the state. He asked the legislature to divert a portion of profits from the state-owned railroad
2nd Confederate States Congress
Held May 2,1864, through March 18,1865, at the Virginia State Capital in Richmond, Virginia. The term of the Second Congress was due to end on February 18,1866, due to the defeat and dissolution of the Confederacy prior to that time, the Congress did not function after the end of its second and final session. 1st Session – May 2,1864 to June 14,1864 2nd Session – November 7,1864 to March 18,1865 President, Alexander H. Stephens President pro tempore, hunter Speaker, Thomas S. Bocock X, served in the Senate of the First Congress. Confederate States Senators were elected by the legislatures, or appointed by state Governors to fill casual vacancies until the legislature elected a new Senator. It was intended that one-third of the Senate would begin new six-year terms with each Congress after the first, preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their terms. Senators of Class 1 were intended to serve a term, starting with this Congress. Class 2 Senators served what was intended to be a four-year term, Class 3 Senators were meant to serve a six-year term, due to expire in 1868.
Charles Burton Mitchel X Augustus Hill Garland Florida 1, Augustus Emmet Maxwell X Georgia 3. Herschel Vespasian Johnson X Kentucky 3, William Emmet Simms X Louisiana 2. John William Clark Watson Missouri 2, george Graham Vest North Carolina 2. William Alexander Graham South Carolina 2, james Lawrence Orr X Tennessee 3. Louis Trezevant Wigfall X Virginia 3, allen Taylor Caperton X The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. Congress refused to seat Representative-elect W. R. W. Cobb, an avowed Unionist, Augustus Hill Garland X David Williamson Carroll 4. Thomas Burton Hanly X Florida 1, robert Benjamin Hilton X Georgia 1. John Milton Elliott X Louisiana 1, Benjamin Lewis Hodge Henry Gray 6. John Tillman Lamkin Missouri In Confederate law, the people of Missouri were entitled to elect thirteen representatives, the state never implemented the reapportionment and continued to use its existing seven districts. Robert Anthony Hatcher North Carolina 1, William Nathan Harrell Smith X2.
George Washington Logan South Carolina 1, William Waters Boyce X Tennessee 1
It is in the piedmont section of the state. The city was named after Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, according to 2012 US Census estimates, the Augusta–Richmond County population was 197,872, not counting the unconsolidated cities of Hephzibah and Blythe. It is the 116th-largest city in the United States, Augusta is best known for hosting The Masters golf tournament each spring. The area along the river was inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The site of Augusta was used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, in 1735, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops to explore the upper Savannah River. He gave them an order to build at the head of the part of the river. The expedition was led by Noble Jones, who created the settlement to provide a first line of defense for coastal areas against potential Spanish or French invasion from the interior, Oglethorpe named the town Augusta, in honor of Princess Augusta, wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales.
Oglethorpe visited Augusta once, in September 1739, Augusta was the second state capital of Georgia from 1785 until 1795. Augusta developed rapidly as a town as the Black Belt in the Piedmont was developed for cotton cultivation. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of cotton profitable. Cotton plantations were worked by labor, with hundreds of thousands of slaves shipped from the Upper South to the Deep South in the domestic slave trade. In the mid-20th century, it was a site of civil rights demonstrations, in 1970 Charles Oatman, a mentally disabled teenager, was killed by his cellmates in an Augusta jail. A protest against his death broke out in a riot involving 500 people, after six black men were killed by police, the noted singer and entertainer James Brown was called in to help quell lingering tensions, which he succeeded in doing. Augusta is located on the Georgia/South Carolina border, about 150 miles east of Atlanta and 70 miles west of Columbia, the city is located at 33°28′12″N 81°58′30″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Augusta–Richmond County balance has an area of 306.5 square miles. Augusta is located halfway up the Savannah River on the fall line. The city marks the end of a waterway for the river. The Clarks Hill Dam is built on the line near Augusta
James K. Polk
James Knox Polk was the 11th President of the United States. Polk was born in Pineville, North Carolina, and moved to Tennessee to study law, after building a successful law practice, he was elected to the Tennessee legislature and to the United States House of Representatives in 1825. He left Congress to serve as Governor of Tennessee from 1839 to 1841, after losing re-election as governor in 1840, and losing in another gubernatorial election in 1842, Polk was a dark horse candidate for president in 1844. Though he entered the convention hoping to be nominated for vice president, in the general election, he defeated Henry Clay of the rival Whig Party in large part due to his promise to annex the Republic of Texas. True to his pledge to serve only one term as President, Polk left office in March 1849. He died of cholera three months later, scholars have ranked him favorably on lists of greatest presidents for his ability to promote, obtain support for, and achieve all of the major items on his presidential agenda.
However, he has criticized for leading the country into war against Mexico. Polk has been called the least known consequential president, James Knox Polk, the first of ten children, was born on November 2,1795 in a log house in what is now Pineville, North Carolina in Mecklenburg County, just outside Charlotte. His father, Samuel Polk, was a slaveholder, successful farmer and his mother, Jane Polk, was a descendant of a brother of the Scottish religious reformer John Knox. She named her firstborn after her father James Knox, like many early Scots-Irish settlers in the North Carolina mountains, the Knox and Polk families were Presbyterian. While Polks mother Jane remained a devout Presbyterian her entire life, when the parents took the young James to a Presbyterian church to be baptized, the father Samuel refused to declare his belief in Christianity, and the minister refused to baptize the child. In 1803, most of Polks relatives moved to the Duck River area in what is now Maury County, Middle Tennessee, the family grew prosperous, with Samuel Polk turning to land speculation and becoming a county judge.
His health was problematic and in 1812 his pain became so unbearable that he was taken to Dr. Ephraim McDowell of Danville, Polk was awake during the operation with nothing but brandy available for anesthetic, but it was successful. The surgery may have left Polk sterile, as he did not sire any children, when Polk recovered, his father offered to bring him into the mercantile business, but Polk refused. In July 1813, Polk enrolled at the Zion Church near his home, a year he attended an academy in Murfreesboro, where he may have met his future wife, Sarah Childress. At Murfreesboro, Polk proved a promising student, in January 1816, Polk was admitted into the University of North Carolina as a second-semester sophomore. The Polk family had connections with the university, a school of about 80 students, Sam Polk was their land agent for Tennessee. While there, Polk joined the Dialectic Society where he took part in debates