Hundred (county division)
A hundred is an administrative division, geographically part of a larger region. It was used in England, some parts of the United States, Southern Schleswig, Finland and Norway, it is still used in other places, including South Australia, The Northern Territory. Other terms for the hundred in English and other languages include wapentake, herad, hérað, härad or hundare, Satakunta or kihlakunta and cantref. In Ireland, a similar subdivision of counties is referred to as a barony, a hundred is a subdivision of a large townland; the use of "hundred" for a division of a county has what the OED describes as an "exceedingly obscure" etymology. It may once have referred to an area of 100 hides, though a "hide" is not a specific area: instead it was conceptually the amount of land required to support a family. Alternatively it may have been based on the area liable to provide 100 men under arms, or because it was an area settled by 100 men at arms. There was an equivalent traditional Germanic system, in Old High German a huntari, a division of a gau, but the OED believes that the link between the two is not established.
In England a hundred was the division of a shire for military and judicial purposes under the common law, which could have varying extent of common feudal ownership, from complete suzerainty to minor royal or ecclesiastical prerogatives and rights of ownership. Until the introduction of districts by the Local Government Act 1894, hundreds were the only used assessment unit intermediate in size between the parish, with its various administrative functions, the county, with its formal, ceremonial functions; the term "hundred" is first recorded in the laws of Edmund I as a measure of land and the area served by a hundred court. In the Midlands, they covered an area of about 100 hides, but this did not apply in the south; the Hundred Ordinance, which dates to the middle of the century, provided that the court was to meet monthly, thieves were to be pursued by all the leading men of the district. The name of the hundred was that of its meeting-place. During Norman times, the hundred would pay geld based on the number of hides.
To assess how much everyone had to pay, a clerk and a knight were sent by the king to each county. There would be two knights from each hundred. After it was determined what geld had to be paid, the bailiff and knights of the hundred were responsible for getting the money to the sheriff, the sheriff for getting it to the Exchequer. Above the hundred was the shire, under the control of a sheriff. Hundred boundaries were independent of both parish and county boundaries, although aligned, meaning that a hundred could be split between counties, or a parish could be split between hundreds. Exceptionally, in the counties of Kent and Sussex, there was a sub-division intermediate in size between the hundred and the shire: several hundreds were grouped together to form lathes in Kent and rapes in Sussex. At the time of the Norman conquest of England, Kent was divided into seven lathes and Sussex into four rapes; the system of hundreds was not as stable as the system of counties being established at the time, lists differ on how many hundreds a county had.
In many parts of the country, the Domesday Book contained a radically different set of hundreds from that which became established. The numbers of hundreds in each county varied widely. Leicestershire had six, whereas Devon, nearly three times the size, had 32. Over time, the principal functions of the hundred became the administration of law and the keeping of the peace. By the 12th century, the hundred court was held twelve times a year; this was increased to fortnightly, although an ordinance of 1234 reduced the frequency to once every three weeks. In some hundreds, courts were held at a fixed place; the main duty of the hundred court was the maintenance of the frankpledge system. The court was formed of freemen. According to a 13th-century statute, freeholders did not have to attend their lord's manorial courts, thus any suits involving them would be heard in a hundred court. For serious crimes, the hundred was under the jurisdiction of the Crown. However, many hundreds came into private hands, with the lordship of the hundred being attached to the principal manor of the area and becoming hereditary.
Helen Cam estimated that before the Conquest, over 130 hundreds were in private hands. Where a hundred was under a lord, a steward, acting as a judge and the chief official of the lord of the manor, was appointed in place of a sheriff; the importance of the hundred courts declined from the 17th century, most of their powers were extinguished with the establishment of county courts in 1867. The remaining duty of the inhabitants of a hundred to make good damages caused by riot was ended by the Riot Act 1886, when the cost was transferred to the county police rate
The Jarlabanke Runestones is the name of about 20 runestones written in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark rune script in the 11th century, in Uppland, Sweden. They were ordered by what appears to have been a chieftain named Jarlabanke Ingefastsson and his clan, in Täby. Jarlabanke was a hersir responsible for the local leidang organization and on several runestones he stated that he was a Christian and not a Pagan. Five of the runestones contain much the same message: "Jarlabanke had these stones made after himself while he was alive, he made this bridge for his soul. He alone owned all of Täby". One stone at the church of Vallentuna shows the following text on its second side: "Jarlabanke had this stone made after himself while he was alive, he made this assembly location and he alone owned this hundred". The so-called Jarlabanke's bridge is a causeway in Täby, bordered by four runestones and many raised stones, it is c. 116 metres long and 6.4 metres wide, there were inscriptions by Jarlabanke both at the southern and the northern end of the causeway.
One of the runestones was moved during his lifetime to the location of the local assembly of the Vallentuna Hundred, where it received a new text and it was replaced with a new fifth one at Jarlabanke's bridge and which had a different design. Three other runestones present Jarlabanke as the builder of roads and bridges, ten or so mention his family members making it possible to follow his family during four generations, his pride at building roads and bridges shows that this was something that gave prestige in 11th-century Sweden. The inscriptions have led to a controversy on the meaning of the Old Norse verb eiga, to a debate on the origins on the hundred division, it is debated whether he owned the hundred or if he was appointed as its chieftain by the King of Sweden, a final conclusion is impossible to arrive at. Omeljan Pritsak has remarked that Jarlabanke's prominent position and property show that he and his clan profited from taking part in the Danegelds and from the services that men of his clan provided as mercenaries in the Varangian Guard and in Kievan Rus'.
Besides the runestones treated in this article, there are many others that were raised by Jarlabanke and his clansmen such as U 101, U 135, U 136, U 137, U 143, U 147, U 309 and U 310. However, these runestones are treated separately as they were raised in connection with Estrid, the female progenitor of the Jarlabanke clan; the remaining runestones that are associated with Jarlabanke's relatives are: U 100, U 104, U 112, U 133, U 141, U 151, U 160, U 161, U 225, U 226, U 328, U 336, U 343 and U 344. This runestone in the style Pr2 is located at the church of Danderyd, it was found in the walls of the church and had been move quite a distance from Täby before it was used in the church. On this rune stone, Jarlabanke declared that he had the whole of Täby under his command and that he had made a bridge and raised several rune stones in honour of himself while he was alive. Latin transliteration: × iarla×baki × lit raisa staina × þasa at sik × kuikuan × auk bru þisa karþi × fur ont sina × auk × ain ati tabu ala-Old Norse transcription: Iarlabanki let ræisa stæina þessa at sik kvikvan, ok bro þessa gærði fyr and sina, ok æinn atti Tæby alla.
English translation: Jarlabanki had these stones raised in memory of himself while alive, made this bridge for his spirit, alone owned all of Tábýr. This fragment is located in Broby, near the Broby bro Runestones and U 150, it was discovered among the ground stones of a smaller building. It is one of two Jarlabanke runestones that mention men who travelled abroad, but it is not known who the traveller mentioned in the fragment was, it belongs to the Greece Runestones and it is treated there as well. Latin transliteration: ×...la×b...... Han: entaþis * i kirikiumOld Norse transcription: laba... Hann ændaðis i Grikkium. English translation: Jarlabanki... He met his end in Greece; this rune stone in the style Pr4 is located in Fällbro, it is one of the most important Jarlabanke rune stones as it was raised in his memory after his death. It was raised by Jarlabanke's wife Ketiley, his son Ingifastr Jarlabankesson; the stone informs that it was made by Öpir, the most productive runemaster of his time.
Latin transliteration: ikifastr' lit' raisa' stain * uk' bro' kera' eftiʀ' iarlabaka' faþur' sruna' uk' ketilau lit' at' bonta' sin ybir ristiOld Norse transcription: Ingifastr let ræisa stæin ok bro gæra æftiʀ Iarlabanka, faður sinn ok sun Iorunaʀ, ok Kætiløy let at bonda sinn. Øpiʀ risti. English translation: Ingifastr had the stone raised and the bridge made in memory of Jarlabanki, his father, Jórunnr's son, and Ketiley had in memory of her husbandman. Œpir carved. This runestone in the style Pr3 is located in the forest south-west of Hagby, where a road once crossed a brook, only a few hundred metres from U 147; the road was made by Jarlabanke's clan and it went from the bay of Edsviken to Täby. The rune stone informs that it was raised by Ingifastr Eysteinsson in memory of his wife Ragnfríðr, together with his son Hemingr. Latin transliteration: × inkifastr × lit × rista × runaʀ þisaʀ × aftiʀ × rahnfriþi × kuinu × sina × auk × -kr × aftiʀ × muþur × sinaOld Norse transcription: Ingifastr let rista runaʀ þessaʀ æftiʀ Ragnfriði, kvinnu sina, ok mngʀ æftiʀ moður sina.
English translation: Ingifastr had these runes carved in memory of Ragnfríðr, hi
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head. More a helmet complements the skull in protecting the human brain. Ceremonial or symbolic helmets without protective function are sometimes worn. Soldiers wear helmets made from lightweight plastic materials; the word helmet is diminutive from a medieval word for protective combat headgear. The medieval great helm covers the whole head and is accompanied with camail protecting throat and neck as well. A helmet was a helm which covered the head only and protected it from injury in accidents. In civilian life, helmets are used for recreational sports. Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin or plastic, which may be reinforced with fibers such as aramids; some British gamekeepers during the 18th and 19th centuries wore helmets made of straw bound together with cut bramble. Europeans in the tropics wore the pith helmet, developed in the mid-19th century and made of pith or cork. Military applications in the 19th-20th centuries saw a number of leather helmets among aviators and tank crews in the early 20th century.
In the early days of the automobile, some motorists adopted this style of headgear, early football helmets were made of leather. In World War II, Soviet, German and French flight crews wore leather helmets, the German pilots disguising theirs under a beret before disposing of both and switching to cloth caps; the era of the First and Second World Wars saw a resurgence of metal military helmets, most notably the Brodie helmet and the Stahlhelm. Modern helmets have a much wider range of applications, including helmets adapted to the specific needs of many athletic pursuits and work environments, these helmets often incorporate plastics and other synthetic materials for their light weight and shock absorption capabilities; some types of synthetic fibers used to make helmets in the 21st century include Aramid and Twaron. Helmets of many different types have developed over time. Most early helmets had military uses, though some may have had more ceremonial than combat applcations. Two important helmet types to develop in antiquity were the Roman galea.
During the Middle Ages, many different military helmets and some ceremonial helmets were developed all being metal. Some of the more important medieval developments included the great helm, the bascinet, the frog-mouth helm and the armet; the great seal of Owain Glyndŵr depicts the prince of Wales & his stallion wearing full armour, they both wear protective headgear with Owain's gold dragon mounted on top, this would have been impractical in battle so therefore these would have been ceremonial. In the 19th century, more materials were incorporated, namely leather and pith; the pith helmet and the leather pickelhaube were important 19th century developments. The greatest expansion in the variety of forms and composition of helmets, took place in the 20th century, with the development of specialized helmets for a multitude of athletic and professional applications, as well as the advent of modern plastics. During World War I, the French army developed the Adrian helmet, the British developed the Brodie helmet, the Germans produced the Stahlhelm.
Flight helmets were developed throughout the 20th century. A multitude of athletic helmets, including football helmets, batting helmets, cricket helmets, bicycle helmets, motorcycle helmets and racing helmets, were developed in the 20th century. Helmets since the mid-20th century have incorporated lightweight plastics and other synthetic materials, their use has become specialized; some important recent developments include the French SPECTRA helmet, Spanish MARTE helmet or the American PASGT and Advanced Combat Helmet, or ACH. As the coat of arms was designed to distinguish noble combatants on the battlefield or in a tournament while covered in armour, it is not surprising that heraldic elements incorporated the shield and the helmet, these being the most visible parts of a knight's military equipment; the practice of indicating peerage through the display of barred or grilled helmets first appeared around 1587-1615, the heraldic convention of displaying helmets of rank in the United Kingdom, which came into vogue around Stuart times, is as follows: Sovereign: a gold barred-face helm placed affronté Peer's helmet: silver barred-face helm placed in profile Knight's or baronet's helmet: steel helm placed affronté with visor open Esquire's helmet: steel helm placed in profile with visor closedEarlier rolls of arms reveal, that early heraldic helmets were depicted in a manner faithful to the styles in actual military or tournament use at the time.
Helmets portal Balaclava Cap Combat helmet Face shield Firefighter's helmet Helmet boxing The Stackhat "Helmets... A Medieval Note In Modern Warfare", August 1942, Popular Science evolution of military helmets
The Sognefjord or Sognefjorden, nicknamed the King of the Fjords, is the largest and deepest fjord in Norway. Located in Sogn og Fjordane county in Western Norway, it stretches 205 kilometres inland from the ocean to the small village of Skjolden in the municipality of Luster; the fjord takes its name from the traditional district of Sogn, which covers the southern part of the county. The fjord runs through many municipalities: Solund, Hyllestad, Høyanger, Balestrand, Sogndal, Lærdal, Aurland, Årdal, Luster; the fjord reaches a maximum depth of 1,308 metres below sea level, the greatest depths are found in the central parts of the fjord near Høyanger. Sognefjord is more than 1,000 metres deep for about 100 km of its length, from Rutledal og Leikanger. Near its mouth, the bottom rises abruptly to a sill about 100 metres below sea level; the seabed in Sognefjord is covered by some 200 metres thick sediments such that the bedrock is some 1,500 metres below sea level. The fjord is up to 6 km wide.
The average width of the main branch of the Sognefjord is less than 5 kilometres. The depth increases from Årdal to a central basin of more than 1000 meters between Leikanger and Brekke. From Brekke the floor rises to Losna island drops with a threshold at about 150 meter in Solund area. Thresholds occur in an area with sounds and low land where the glacier was allowed spread out and lose its erosive effect. Cliffs surrounding the fjord rise sheer from the water to heights of 1,000 metres and more. Around the outer area the land rises to about 500 meters above sea, while in the inner areas around 1600 meters; the inner part has extensive tributary fjords such as Aurlandsfjorden, while the outer part is connected by narrow sounds to neighbouring fjords. Near the coast the fjord mouth is bounded by low islands and skerries that are part of the strandflat; the inner end of the Sognefjord is southeast of a mountain range rising to about 2,000 metres above sea level and covered by the Jostedalsbreen, continental Europe's largest glacier.
Thus the climate of the inner end of Sognefjorden and its branches are not as wet as on the outer coastline. Hurrungane range at the eastern end of the fjord reaches 2400 m; the greatest elevation from sea bed to summit is at Sogndal. Several rivers pour fresh water into the fjord with an annual "spring" flood in June; the mouth of the fjord is surrounded by many islands including Sula and Hiserøyna. The Sognefjord cuts through a northwestern gneiss area with a south-west to north-east structure, penetrates the Caledonian fold through in the inner part. There is no clear relation between the east-west direction of the main fjord and the fold patterns of the bedrock, while some of tributary fjords in the parts corresponds to fold pattern; the volume of Sognefjorden with branches is about 500 km3, while the total volume of rock eroded by glaciers from the entire Sognefjord system and adjacent valleys is about 4000 km3. There are many smaller fjords. Sognesjøen Lifjorden Høyangsfjord Arnafjord Esefjord Fjærlandsfjord Sogndalsfjord Aurlandsfjord Nærøyfjord Lærdalsfjord Årdalsfjord Lustrafjord The innermost arm of the Sognefjorden is called the Lustrafjord, in the municipality of Luster.
At its end is the village of Skjolden, an access point to Jotunheimen National Park. In earlier times, transport between Bergen and the Scandinavian inland was by boat between Bergen and Skjolden and from there on a simple road over the highlands, or by boat to Lærdal and through the mountain pass to Valdres; the valley of Sognefjord is one of various valleys of western Norway that predates the Quaternary glaciations. It existed as part of the ancient Paleic surface but had at the time much gentler slopes; the fjords of western Norway formed in connection to the east-ward tilting of much of Norway during the Cenozoic uplift of the Scandinavian Mountains. This uplift, that occurred long before the Quaternary glaciations, enabled rivers to incise the Paleic relief. An estimate of 7610 km3 of rock has been eroded from the Sognefjord drainage basin since the Paleic surface formed; the fluvial and glacial erosion that made the fjords has followed structural weaknesses in the crust. During the last glaciation the ice reached a maximum thickness of nearly 3000 meters in the Sognefjord area.
Confluence of tributary fjords led excavation of the deepest fjord basin. Until about 30 km from the coast the Sognefjord glacier was constricted to its narrow channel of homogeneous gneiss the glacier spread out through sounds and low valleys. Boats connect settlements along its sidearms. Larger villages on the fjord and its branches include Leirvik, Ytre Oppedal, Vadheim, Høyanger, Vikøyri, Hermansverk, Sogndalsfjøra, Gudvangen, Flåm, Aurlandsvangen, Lærdalsøyri, Årdalstangen and Solvorn. Gudvangen is situated by the Nærøyfjord, a branch of the Sognefjord noted for its unspoiled nature and dramatic scenery, only 300 metres across at its narrowest point; the Nærøyfjord is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. From the village of Flåm, the Flåm Railway climbs 864 metres up to Myrdal Station in a distance of only 20 kilometres —the steepest unassisted railway climb in the world. Around the inner end of the fjord, three of Norway's famous stave churches have survived: Kaupanger and Urnes and Bo
The Viking Age is a period in European history Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age. It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids and conquest. In this period, the Norsemen settled in Norse Greenland and present-day Faroe Islands, Norway, Normandy, England, Ireland, Isle of Man, the Netherlands, Ukraine, Russia and Italy. Viking travellers and colonists were seen at many points in history as brutal raiders. Many historical documents suggest that their invasion of other countries was retaliation in response to the encroachment upon tribal lands by Christian missionaries, by the Saxon Wars prosecuted by Charlemagne and his kin to the south, or were motivated by overpopulation, trade inequities, the lack of viable farmland in their homeland. Information about the Viking Age is drawn from what was written about the Vikings by their enemies, primary sources of archaeology, supplemented with secondary sources such as the Icelandic Sagas.
In England, the beginning of the Viking Age is dated to 8 June 793, when Vikings destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne, a centre of learning on an island off the northeast coast of England in Northumberland. Monks were killed in the abbey, thrown into the sea to drown, or carried away as slaves along with the church treasures, giving rise to the traditional prayer—A furore Normannorum libera nos, Domine, "Free us from the fury of the Northmen, Lord."Three Viking ships had beached in Weymouth Bay four years earlier, but that incursion may have been a trading expedition that went wrong rather than a piratical raid. Lindisfarne was different; the Viking devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island was reported by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York, who wrote: "Never before in Britain has such a terror appeared". Vikings were portrayed as wholly bloodthirsty by their enemies. In medieval English chronicles, they are described as "wolves among sheep"; the first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century.
Pioneering scholarly works on the Viking Age reached a small readership in Britain. Linguistics traced the Viking Age origins of rural proverbs. New dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled more Victorians to read the Icelandic Sagas. In Scandinavia, the 17th-century Danish scholars Thomas Bartholin and Ole Worm and Swedish scholar Olaus Rudbeck were the first to use runic inscriptions and Icelandic Sagas as primary historical sources. During the Enlightenment and Nordic Renaissance, historians such as the Icelandic-Norwegian Thormodus Torfæus, Danish-Norwegian Ludvig Holberg, Swedish Olof von Dalin developed a more "rational" and "pragmatic" approach to historical scholarship. By the latter half of the 18th century, while the Icelandic sagas were still used as important historical sources, the Viking Age had again come to be regarded as a barbaric and uncivilised period in the history of the Nordic countries. Scholars outside Scandinavia did not begin to extensively reassess the achievements of the Vikings until the 1890s, recognising their artistry, technological skills, seamanship.
Until the history of the Viking Age had been based on Icelandic Sagas, the history of the Danes written by Saxo Grammaticus, the Kievan Rus's Primary Chronicle, Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. Today, most scholars take these texts as sources not to be understood and are relying more on concrete archaeological findings and other direct scientific disciplines and methods; the Vikings who invaded western and eastern Europe were pagans from the same area as present-day Denmark and Sweden. They settled in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, peripheral Scotland and Canada, their North Germanic language, Old Norse, became the mother-tongue of present-day Scandinavian languages. By 801, a strong central authority appears to have been established in Jutland, the Danes were beginning to look beyond their own territory for land and plunder. In Norway, mountainous terrain and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. Communities remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in lowland Denmark. By 800, some 30 small kingdoms existed in Norway.
The sea was the easiest way of communication between the outside world. In the eighth century, Scandinavians began to build ships of war and send them on raiding expeditions which started the Viking Age; the North Sea rovers were traders, colonisers and plunderers. Many theories are posited for the cause of the Viking invasions. At the time, England and Ireland were vulnerable to attack, being divided into many different warring kingdoms in a state of internal disarray, while the Franks were well defended. Overpopulation near the Scandes, was influential. Technological advance like the use of iron, or a shortage of women due to selective female infanticide had an impact. Tensions caused by Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia, their subsequent attacks upon the Viking peoples, may have played a role in Viking pillaging. Harald I of Norway had displaced many peoples; as a result, these people sought for new bases to launch counter-raids against Harald. Vikings would plant crops after the winter and go raiding as soon as the ice melted on the sea return
In Norse mythology, Víðarr is a god among the Æsir associated with vengeance. Víðarr is described as the son of Odin and the jötunn Gríðr, is foretold to avenge his father's death by killing the wolf Fenrir at Ragnarök, a conflict which he is described as surviving. Víðarr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, is interpreted as depicted with Fenrir on the Gosforth Cross. A number of theories surround the figure, including theories around potential ritual silence and a Proto-Indo-European basis. In the Poetic Edda, Víðarr is mentioned in the poems Völuspá, Vafthrúdnismál, Grímnismál, Lokasenna. In stanzas 54 and 55 of the poem Völuspá, a völva tells Odin that his son Víðarr will avenge Odin's death at Ragnarök by stabbing Fenrir in the heart. In stanzas 51 and 53 of Vafthrúdnismál, Vafþrúðnir states that Víðarr and his brother Váli will both live in the "temples of the gods" after Surtr's fire has ceded and that Víðarr will avenge the death of his father Odin by sundering the cold jaws of Fenrir in battle.
In stanza 17 of Grímnismál, during Odin's visions of various dwelling places of the gods, he describes Víðarr's residence: Brushwood grows and high grass in Vidar's land and there the son proclaims on his horse's back that he's keen to avenge his father. According to Lokasenna, Loki rebukes the gods at the start of the poem for not properly welcoming him to the feast at Ægir's hall. In stanza 10, Odin relents to the rules of hospitality, urging Víðarr to stand and pour a drink for the quarrelsome guest. Víðarr does so, Loki toasts the Æsir before beginning his flyting. Víðarr is referenced in the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál: Víðarr is referenced in the book Gylfaginning in chapters 29, 51, 53. In chapter 29, Víðarr is introduced by the enthroned figure of High as "the silent god" with a thick shoe, that he is nearly as strong as the god Thor, that the gods rely on him in times of immense difficulties. In chapter 51, High foretells that, during Ragnarök, the wolf Fenrir will devour Odin, Víðarr will avenge him by stepping down with one foot on the lower jaw of the monster, grabbing his upper jaw in one hand and tearing his mouth apart, killing him.
Víðarr's "thick shoe" is described as consisting of all the extra leather pieces that people have cut from their own shoes at the toe and heel, collected by the god throughout all time. Therefore, anyone, concerned enough to give assistance to the gods should throw these pieces away. In chapter 54, following Ragnarök and the rebirth of the world, Víðarr along with his brother Váli will have survived both the swelling of the sea and the fiery conflagration unleashed by Surtr unharmed, shall thereafter dwell on the field Iðavöllr, "where the city of Asgard had been". According to Skáldskaparmál, Víðarr was one of the twelve presiding male gods seated in their thrones at a banquet for the visiting Ægir. At a point in dialogue between the skaldic god Bragi and Ægir, Snorri himself begins speaking of the myths in euhemeristic terms and states that the historical equivalent of Víðarr was the Trojan hero Aeneas who survived the Trojan War and went on to achieve "great deeds". In the book, various kennings are given for Víðarr, including again the "silent As", "possessor of the iron shoe", "enemy and slayer of Fenrisulf", "the gods' avenging As", "father's homestead-inhabiting As", "son of Odin", "brother of the Æsir".
In the tale of the god Thor's visit to the hall of the jötunn Geirröd, Gríðr is stated as the mother of "Víðarr the Silent" who assists Thor in his journey. In chapter 33, after returning from Asgard and feasting with the gods, Ægir invites the gods to come to his hall in three months. Fourteen gods make the trip to attend the feast, including Víðarr. In chapter 75, Víðarr's name appears twice in a list of Æsir; the mid-11th century Gosforth Cross, located in Cumbria, has been described as depicting a combination of scenes from the Christian Judgement Day and the pagan Ragnarök. The cross features various figures depicted in Borre style, including a man with a spear facing a monstrous head, one of whose feet is thrust into the beast's forked tongue and on its lower jaw, while a hand is placed against its upper jaw, a scene interpreted as Víðarr fighting Fenrir; the depiction has been theorized as a metaphor for Jesus's defeat of Satan. Theories have been proposed that Víðarr's silence may derive from a ritual silence or other abstentions which accompany acts of vengeance, as for example in Völuspá and Baldrs draumar when Váli, conceived for the sole purpose of avenging Baldr's death, abstains from washing his hands and combing his hair "until he brought Baldr's adversary to the funeral pyre".
Parallels have been drawn between chapter 31 of Tacitus' 1st century CE work Germania where Tacitus describes that members of the Chatti, a Germanic tribe, may not shave or groom before having first slain an enemy. Georges Dumézil theorized that Víðarr represents a cosmic figure from an archetype derived from the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Dumézil stated that he was aligned with both vertical space, due to his placement of his foot on the wolf's lower jaw and his hand on the wolf's upper jaw, horizontal space, due to his wide step and strong shoe, that, by killing the wolf, Víðarr keeps the wolf from destroying the cosmos, the cosmos can thereafter be restored after the destruction resulting from Ragnarök, thus Dumézil conceives of Víðarr as a spatial god Dumézil substantiates this claim with the text of the Lokasenna, in which Víðarr, trying to mediate the dispute with Loki, ur
In Norse mythology, Gefjon is a goddess associated with ploughing, the Danish island of Zealand, the legendary Swedish king Gylfi, the legendary Danish king Skjöldr and virginity. Gefjon is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda and Heimskringla both report that Gefjon plowed away what is now lake Mälaren and with this land formed the island of Zealand, Denmark. In addition, the Prose Edda describes that not only is Gefjon a virgin herself, but that all who die a virgin become her attendants. Heimskringla records that Gefjon married the legendary Danish king Skjöldr and that the two dwelled in Lejre, Denmark. Scholars have proposed theories about the etymology the name of the goddess, connections to fertility and ploughing practices, the implications of the references made to her as a virgin, five potential mentions of the goddess in the Old English poem Beowulf, potential connections between Gefjon and Grendel's Mother and/or the goddesses Freyja and Frigg.
The etymology of theonym Gefjon has been a matter of dispute. In modern scholarship, the element Gef- is held to be related to the element Gef- in the name Gefn, one of the numerous names for the goddess Freyja, means'she who gives'; the connection between the two names has resulted in etymological interpretation of Gefjun as "the giving one." The names Gefjun and Gefn are both related to the Matron groups the Ollogabiae. Albert Murey Sturtevant notes that "the only other feminine personal name which contains the suffix -un is Njǫr-un, recorded only in the þulur, among the kvenna heiti ókend. Whatever the stem syllable Njǫr- represents, the addition of the n- and un-suffixes seems to furnish an exact parallel to Gef-n: Gefj-un."A Finnish word for "bride's outfit, trousseau" may derive from Gefjon's name. In the Poetic Edda, Gefjon appears in three stanzas of the poem Lokasenna, where an exchange occurs between Gefjun and Loki at a dinner feast, the god Odin comes to Gefjon's defense. After an exchange occurs between Loki and the goddess Iðunn, Gefjon questions why Loki wants to bring negativity into the hall with the assembled gods: The last two lines of the stanza above differ by translation.
Henry Adams Bellows comments that the manuscript text for these two lines is "puzzling" and that as a result they have been "freely amended." In the stanza that follows, Loki responds to Gefjon, commenting that a youthful male once gave her a necklace, that with this youth Gefjon slept: Odin interjects. This woman was "of the race of the Æsir" and her name was Gefjun. Gefjun took four oxen from Jötunheimr in the north; these oxen were her sons from a jötunn. Gefjun's plough "cut so hard and deep that it uprooted the land, the oxen drew the land out into the sea to the west and halted in a certain sound." Gefjun there placed the land, bestowed upon it the name Zealand. Where the land had been taken from a lake stands. According to Snorri, the lake is now known as Lake Mälar, located in Sweden, the inlets in this lake parallel the headlands of Zealand; as a reference, the prose account presents a stanza from a work attributed to the 9th century skald Bragi Boddason: Gefjun dragged from Gylfi, gladly the land beyond value.
Denmark's increase, steam rising from the swift-footed bulls. The oxen bore eight moons of the forehead and four heads, hauling as they went in front of the grassy isle's wide fissure. In chapter 35 of Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High presents a list of goddesses. High presents Gefjun fourth, says that Gefjun is a virgin, all who die as virgins attend her. In relation, High notes that, like Gefjun, the goddess Fulla is a virgin. At the beginning of the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Gefjun is listed among nine goddesses who attend a banquet for Ægir on the island of Hlesey. In chapter 32, Gefjun is listed among six goddesses. In chapter 75, Gefjun is included among a list of 27 ásynjur names. In addition, Gefjun appears in a kenning for the völva Gróa employed in the skald Þjóðólfr of Hvinir's composition Haustlöng as quoted in chapter 17 of Skáldskaparmál. In chapter 5 of Ynglinga saga, a euhemerized prose account relates that Odin sent Gefjun from Odense, Funen "north over the sound to seek for land."
There, Gefjun encountered king Gylfi "and he gave her ploughland." Gefjun went to the land of Jötunheimr, there bore four sons to a jötunn. Gefjun transformed these four sons into oxen, attached them to a plough, drew forth the land westward of the sea, opposite to Odense; the saga adds that this land is now called Zealand, that Gefjun married Skjöldr. The two dwelled in Lejre thereafter. From where Gefjun took the land