Duke of Wellington's Regiment
The Duke of Wellington's Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, forming part of the King's Division. In 1702 Colonel George Hastings, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, was authorised to raise a new regiment, which he did in and around the city of Gloucester; as was the custom in those days the regiment was named Huntingdon's Regiment after its Colonel. As Colonel succeeded Colonel the name changed, but in 1751 regiments were given numbers, the regiment was from that time known as the 33rd Regiment of Foot. In 1782 the regiment's title was changed to the 33rd Regiment, thus formalising an association with the West Riding of Yorkshire which then, had been long established; the first Duke of Wellington died in 1852 and in the following year Queen Victoria, in recognition of the regiment's long ties to him, ordered that the regiment's title be changed to the 33rd Regiment. In 1881, following the Childers Reforms, the 33rd was linked with the 76th Regiment of Foot, who shared their depot in Halifax.
The 76th had first been raised in 1745, by Simon Harcourt and disbanded in 1746, re-raised in 1756 disbanded again in 1763, before being raised again in 1777, disbanded in 1784 and re-raised, in 1787, for service in India, by the Honorable East India Company. The two regiments became the 1st and 2nd battalions of the Duke of Wellington's Regiment. In 1948 the 1st and 2nd battalions were amalgamated into the 1st Battalion. On 6 June 2006 the'Dukes' were amalgamated with the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire and the Green Howards to form the 3rd Battalion, Yorkshire Regiment. Following further mergers, in 2012, the battalion was redesignated as the new 1st Battalion of the regiment. Battalions from the regiment had served in most land conflicts involving British forces since its formation, from the Wars of the Austrian and Spanish successions, through the American war of Independence and various campaigns in India and Africa, the Napoleonic Wars, the Second Boer War and many of the greatest battles of the First World War and the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919.
During the Second World War, the regiment fought as part of the British Expeditionary Force in France, forming part of the rearguard at Dunkirk. In Korea, the'Dukes' desperate defence of the Hook position halted the last major Chinese attempt to break the United Nations Line before the truce, in July 1953, brought the war to an end. In Cyprus the battalion was successful in Operation Golden Rain, destroying a major EOKA terrorist group operating in the Troodos Mountains in 1956. In 1964 the battalion joined the NATO deterrence in Germany on the front line in the Cold War and from 1971 was engaged in'the Troubles' in Ulster until 1997, they were amongst the first units to cross the border from Kuwait in the 2003 Iraq War. Nine soldiers from the regiment have been awarded the Victoria Cross, Corporal Wayne Mills of the 1st Battalion became the first recipient of the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross in 1994, whilst serving with the United Nations forces in Bosnia; the Duke of Wellington's Regiment was formed in 1702 as Huntingdon's Regiment.
As regiments at that time took the name of the Colonel taking it over it became:- Henry Leigh's Regiment. It was disbanded on 25 March 1714, but was registered as the 33rd Regiment of Foot in January 1715 and re-raised on 25 March 1715, as George Wade's Regiment. In 1782 Lord Cornwallis, the Colonel of the Regiment, wrote that "The 33rd Regiment of Infantry has always recruited in the West Riding of Yorkshire and has a good interest and the general goodwill of the people in that part of the country:- I should therefore wish not only to be permitted to recruit in that county, but that my Regiment may bear the name of the 33rd or West Yorkshire Regiment". On 31 August 1782 Lord Cornwallis heard that the King had approved of the new title:- 33rd Regiment of Foot. Owing to its links with the Duke of Wellington, the title'The Duke of Wellington's Regiment' was granted to the 33rd Regiment on 18 June 1853, on the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo in the year following Wellington's death; the 76th Regiment was raised, by Simon Harcourt as Lord Harcourt's Regiment on 17 November 1745 and disbanded in June 1746.
Following the loss of Menorca, to the French, it was reraised in November 1756 as the 61st Regiment, but renumbered to 76th, by General Order in 1758, again disbanded in 1763. A second battalion raised by that regiment in October 1758, for service in Africa, was renumbered as the 86th Regiment and disbanded in 1763. On 25 December 1777, the 76th was again re-raised, as the 76th Regiment of Foot, by Colonel John MacDonell of Lochgarry, in the West of Scotland and Western Isles, as a Scottish Light Infantry regiment, it was disbanded at Stirling Castle in March 1784. The regiment was again raised for service in India by the Honorable East India Company in 1787. In 1881 the 76th Regiment, which shared the same Depot in Halifax as the 33rd, was linked to the 33rd, under the Childers Reforms, to become the 2nd Battalion. Although retitled as the Halifax Regiment this title only lasted six months until it was changed on 30 June 1881, in a revised appendix to General order 41, to:- The Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regimen
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
1945 United Kingdom general election
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks. The results were counted and declared on 26 July, to allow time to transport the votes of those serving overseas; the result was an unexpected landslide victory for Clement Attlee's Labour Party, over Winston Churchill's Conservatives. It was the first time. Labour won its first majority government, a mandate to implement its postwar reforms; the 10.7% national swing from the Conservative Party to the Labour Party remains the largest achieved in a British general election. Held less than two months after VE Day, it was the first general election since 1935, as general elections had been suspended during the Second World War. Clement Attlee, Leader of the Labour Party, refused Winston Churchill's offer of continuing the wartime coalition until the Allied defeat of Japan. Parliament was dissolved on 15 June.
The caretaker government led by Churchill was defeated. The result of the election came as a major shock to the Conservatives, given the heroic status of Winston Churchill, but reflected the voters' belief that the Labour Party were better able to rebuild the country following the war than the Conservatives. Ralph Ingersoll reported in late 1940 that "Everywhere I went in London people admired energy, his courage, his singleness of purpose. People said, he was respected. But no one felt, he was the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain's enemies". Henry Pelling, noting that polls showed a steady Labour lead after 1942, explained the long-term forces that caused the Labour landslide, he pointed to the usual swing against the party in power. Though voters respected and liked Churchill's wartime record, they were more distrustful of the Conservative Party's domestic and foreign policy record in the late 1930s. Labour had been given, during the war, the opportunity to display to the electorate their domestic competence in government, under men such as Attlee as Deputy Prime Minister, Herbert Morrison at the Home Office and Ernest Bevin at the Ministry of Labour.
Churchill and the Conservatives are generally considered to have run a poor campaign in comparison to Labour. The Labour manifesto'Let Us Face the Future' included promises of nationalisation, economic planning, full employment, a National Health Service, a system of social security; the Conservative manifesto,'Mr. Churchill's Declaration to the Voters', on the other hand, included progressive ideas on key social issues but was vague on the idea of post-war economic control; this was the first election in which Labour gained a majority of seats, the first time it won a plurality of votes. The election was a disaster for the Liberal Party. According to Baines, the defeat marked its transition from being a party of government to a party of the political fringe; the National Liberal Party fared worse, losing two-thirds of its seats and falling behind the Liberals in seat count for the first time since the parties split in 1931. This was the final election that the Liberal Nationals fought as an autonomous party, as they merged with the Conservative Party two years continuing to exist as a subsidiary party of the Conservatives until 1968.
Future prominent figures who entered Parliament included Harold Wilson, James Callaghan, Barbara Castle, Michael Foot and Hugh Gaitskell. Future Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan lost his seat, returning to Parliament at a by-election in the year; this differs from the above list in including seats where the incumbent was standing down and therefore there was no possibility of any one person being defeated. The aim is to provide a comparison with the previous election. All comparisons are with the 1935 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1945; such circumstances are marked with a †. With the Second World War coming to an end in Europe, the Labour Party decided to pull out of the wartime national coalition government, precipitating an election which took place in July 1945.
King George VI dissolved Parliament, sitting for ten years without an election. What followed was one of the greatest swings of public confidence of the twentieth century. In May 1945, the month in which the war in Europe ended, Churchill's approval ratings stood at 83%, although the Labour Party held an 18% lead as of February 1945. Labour won overwhelming support while Churchill "was both surprised and stunned" by the
Lieutenant Croye Rothes Pithey was a South African World War I flying ace credited with 10 aerial victories. He was one of the war's handful of bomber pilots to become a balloon buster, he was celebrated for his feats of visual and photographic reconnaissance under hazardous circumstances. Croye Rothes Pithey was born on 19 August 1895 in South Africa, he attended Maritzburg College, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa from 15th April 1907 to 18th June 1908. He worked as an accounting clerk in Johannesburg from June 1916 to May 1917, he joined the Royal Flying Corps. On 13 September 1917, he was appointed as a second lieutenant in the Royal Flying Corps. After training, he was posted to 152 Squadron, but his stay with them was truncated by his hospitalization. After recovery, he was assigned to 12 Squadron on 17 April 1918 as a Royal Aircraft Factory RE.8 pilot. He was wounded a week after his arrival, his first aerial success with his new unit came when he achieved the unusual feat of destroying an enemy observation balloon with a bomber on 7 May 1918.
He and his observer Hervey Rhodes repeated the feat on 4 June. A triple victory three days made them aces. Pithey was reported wounded on 15 August 1918; the crew of Pithey and Rhodes continued their victory streak through 3 September 1918, becoming the most successful aces to operate the clumsy and obsolete RE.8. On 27 September 1918, they were both wounded during a sortie, they had both earned a Distinguished Flying Cross, as well as each earning a Bar in lieu of a second award apiece. On 1 August 1919, he was granted a permanent commission in the reorganized Royal Air Force as a lieutenant. On 21 February 1920 at 1406 hours, Pithey launched in favorable weather from Shotwick, leading a ferry formation of three towards Dublin. All three planes were seen between Rhyl in Wales shortly after departure. Pithey crashed fatally shortly thereafter."R. A. F. Aeroplanes Missing THE Air Ministry regrets to announce that three aeroplanes which left Shotwick, near Chester, to fly to Baldonnel, near Dublin, on Saturday the 21st ultimo, are missing.
The machines left Shotwick at 2.6 p.m. and should have arrived at Baldonnel by 4.30 p.m. The pilots were Flying Officer C. R. Pithey, D. F. C. Flying-Officer H. L. Holland, Flying-Officer H. de W. Waller, all three experienced pilots. Flying-Officer Holland has made the trip previously; the machines were fitted with wireless, were tested by the pilots before leaving. The weather was reported favourable on both sides of the Irish Channel; the machines started in formation. Flying-Officer Pithey leading, were sighted between Denbigh and Rhyl shortly afterwards, but failed to arrive at Baldonnel. No further news was obtained until the morning of the 23rd ultimo, when a wireless message was received by the Admiralty from the master of the Norfolk Range dated the 21st ultimo, reporting that an aeroplane had come down in the sea 85 miles S. W. of the Scilly Islands at 4.35 p.m. on that date. The message stated that the lifeboat was launched and every effort made to rescue the pilot without success owing to a rough sea and strong wind" Flight Magazine March 4, 1920 p.265 at https://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1920/1920%20-%200265.html Pithey's name is inscribed along with those of other airmen missing at sea on the Hollybrook Memorial at Southampton, England.https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/13244527/pithey#source Text of citation for the Distinguished Flying Cross: When on reconnaissance 8,000 yards behind the enemy lines he saw a hostile balloon on the ground.
He completed his reconnaissance. On another occasion, when on photography work, he was attacked by nine hostile scouts. By skilful manoeuvring he enabled his observer to shoot down three, he displays determination in photographic and reconnaissance work. Text of citation for the Bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross: Lieut. Pithey and his observer, Lieut. Rhodes, have crashed five enemy aeroplanes and driven down five out of control. On 1st September, they attacked an enemy two-seater on contact patrol. Pithey, although his machine was badly shot about, continued his patrol and brought back a most valuable and accurate report. See Aerial victory standards of World War I Croye Pithey's observer/gunner for all victories was Hervey Rhodes. Franks, Norman. Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, the Belgian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914-1918. Grub Street. ISBN 978-1898697565
1964 United Kingdom general election
The 1964 United Kingdom general election was held on 15 October 1964, five years after the previous election, thirteen years after the Conservative Party, first led by Winston Churchill, had entered power. It resulted in the Conservatives, now led by its fourth leader, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, narrowly losing the election to the Labour Party, led by Harold Wilson, with Labour having an overall majority of four seats, it resulted in Labour ending its thirteen years in opposition and led to Wilson to become, at the time, the youngest Prime Minister in more than 150 years. Both major parties had changed leadership in 1963. Douglas-Home shortly afterwards disclaimed his title under the Peerage Act 1963 in order to lead the party from the Commons. Macmillan had led the Conservative government since January 1957. Despite initial popularity and a resounding election victory in 1959, he had become unpopular in the early-1960s, while it was for a while thought that the Conservatives would win the scheduled 1964 general election, albeit with a reduced majority, the emergence of the Profumo affair in March 1963 and Macmillan's handling of the matter all but destroyed the credibility of his government.
While he survived a vote of no confidence in June 1963, polling indicated that the Conservatives would lose the next election if Macmillan remained in power, along with health issues, caused Macmillan to announce his resignation in the autumn of 1963. Douglas-Home faced a difficult task in rebuilding the party's popularity with just a year elapsing between taking office and having to face a general election. Wilson had begun to try to tie the Labour Party to the growing confidence of Britain in the 1960s, asserting that the "white heat of revolution" would sweep away "restrictive practices... on both sides of industry". The Liberal Party enjoyed a resurgence after a virtual wipeout in the 1950s, doubled its share of the vote at the expense of the Conservatives. Although Labour did not increase its vote share the fall in support for the Conservatives led to Wilson securing an overall majority of four seats; this proved to be unworkable, Wilson called a snap election in 1966. The pre-election campaign was prolonged, as Douglas-Home delayed calling a general election to give himself as much time as possible to improve the prospects of his party.
The election campaign formally began on 15 September 1964 when Douglas-Home saw the Queen and asked for a dissolution of Parliament. The campaign was dominated by some of the more voluble characters of the political scene at the time. While George Brown, deputy leader of the Labour Party, toured the country making energetic speeches, Quintin Hogg was a leading spokesman for the Conservatives; the image of Hogg lashing out at a Wilson poster with his walking stick was one of the most striking of the campaign. Many party speakers at televised rallies, had to deal with hecklers; the election night was broadcast live by the BBC, was presented for the fifth and final time by Richard Dimbleby, with Robin Day, Ian Trethowan, Cliff Michelmore and David Butler. NOP: Lab swing 3.5% Gallup: Lab swing 4% Research Services: Lab swing 2.75% Daily Express: Lab swing of 1.75% The election resulted in a slim majority of four seats for the Labour Party, so they were in government for the first time since 1951.
Labour achieved a swing of just over 3%, although its vote rose by only 0.2%. The main shift was the swing from the Conservatives to the Liberals of 5.7%. The Liberals won nearly twice as many votes as in 1959 because they had 150 more candidates. Wilson became Prime Minister; the four-seat majority was not sustainable for a full Parliament, Wilson called another general election in 1966. In particular the small majority meant the government could not implement its policy of nationalising the steel industry, due to the opposition of two of its backbenchers, Woodrow Wyatt and Desmond Donnelly; this was the only election in Britain's recent history when all seats were won by the three main parties: no minor parties, independents or splinter groups won any seats. It was the last election in which one party, namely the Conservative Party, contested every single seat; the Conservatives had held off on contesting certain Liberal-held seats as per local-level agreements to avoid vote-splitting, but ended that policy at this election.
The resultant splitting of votes helped grant Labour a majority, by throwing two Liberal-held seats in northern England to Labour. All comparisons are with the 1959 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1964; such circumstances are marked with a †. Both BBC and ITV provid
Northern Europe is a general term for the geographical region in Europe, north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, about 54°N. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps. Countries which are central-western, central or central-eastern are not considered part of either Northern or Southern Europe; when Europe was dominated by the Roman Empire, everything not near the Mediterranean region was termed Northern Europe, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries, Austria. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, for example, discussions of the Northern Renaissance. Northern Europe might be defined as the British Isles, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland Northern Europe and the main European continent. Nations included within this region are Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Lithuania and Sweden, less the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia.
The area is mountainous, including the northern volcanic islands of Iceland and Jan Mayen, the mountainous western seaboard and Scandinavia, includes part of a large eastern plain, with Lithuania, Latvia and Finland. The entire region's climate is at least mildly affected by the Gulf Stream. From the west climates vary from maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are subarctic and temperate/continental. Just as both climate and relief are variable across the region, so too is vegetation, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south and temperate east. Countries included in their entirety within the region, by population count: United Kingdom 66,040,229 Sweden 10,067,744 Denmark 5,769,603 Finland 5,513,000 Norway 5,282,223 Ireland 4,813,608 Lithuania 2,827,721 Latvia 1,940,740 Estonia 1,317,800 Iceland 341,284Countries in Northern Europe have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world.
They score on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index. Aside from the United Kingdom, they have a small population relative to their size, most of whom live in cities. Most peoples living in Northern Europe are traditionally Protestant Christians, although many are non-practicing. There are growing numbers of non-religious people and people of other religions Muslims, due to immigration. In the United Kingdom, there are significant numbers of Indian religions such as Hindus and Sikhs, due to the large South Asian diaspora; the quality of education in much of Northern Europe is rated in international rankings, with Estonia and Finland topping the list among the OECD countries in Europe. The Hansa group in the European Union comprises most of the Northern European states. Media related to Northern Europe at Wikimedia Commons