click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Herzogtum Lauenburg

Herzogtum Lauenburg is the southernmost Kreis, or district, of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is bordered by the district of Stormarn, the city of Lübeck, the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the state of Lower Saxony, the city state of Hamburg; the district of Herzogtum Lauenburg is named after the former Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg. The district's territory comprises most of the former Duchy's territory north of the river Elbe, except of the Amt Neuhaus. All the former Saxe-Lauenburgian areas beyond the Elbe belong today to the Lower Saxon districts of Cuxhaven, Harburg and Lüneburg; the district's area contains a number of important towns, e.g. Lauenburg/Elbe, Mölln and Ratzeburg; this importance was due to one of the major medieval trade routes. Salt from the salt-works south of the Elbe river was transported northward to Lübeck; the transport of salt was the motive for constructing the oldest artificial waterway of Europe, the Stecknitz Canal. It was replaced in 1900 by the Elbe-Lübeck Canal.

The landscape is characterised by numerous lakes. The largest lake is the Ratzeburger See with an area of 16 km²; the district Herzogtum Lauenburg is named after the medieval Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, one of the remnants of the original Duchy of Saxony. The Duchy of Saxony was partitioned in a process started in 1269, nine years after in 1260 Albert II and John I had succeeded their father Albert I of Saxony. In 1269, 1272 and 1282, the brothers divided their governing competences within the three territorially unconnected Saxon areas along the Elbe river, thus preparing a partition. After John I's resignation in 1282, Albert II ruled with his still minor nephews Albert III, Eric I and John II, who by 1296 partitioned the duchy providing Saxe-Lauenburg for the brothers, Saxe-Wittenberg for their uncle Albert II; the last document, mentioning the brothers and their uncle Albert II as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295. A deed of 20 September 1296, circumscribing Saxe-Lauenburg, mentions the Vierlande, the Land of Ratzeburg, the Land of Darzing, the Land of Hadeln as the joint territory of the brothers, separate of Saxe-Wittenberg.

Saxe-Lauenburg was known as Lauenburg. While the territory of Saxe-Wittenberg changed drastically over the centuries, the Duchy of Lauenburg remained unchanged, until it lost its independence in 1689, when it was inherited by the Principality of Lüneburg. From 1815–1864 it was ruled in personal union by the Duke of Holstein, being King of Denmark. In 1864 it fell to Prussia after the Second Schleswig War. For a short period Lauenburg was still an autonomous entity, but in 1876 it was incorporated as a district into the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. Lauenburg upon Elbe was the first capital and name-giving to the Duchy, before it moved in 1619 to Ratzeburg, which remained the capital when the Duchy was downgraded to a district within Prussia. In 1937—by a territorial redeployment within the scope of the Greater Hamburg Act—the city of Geesthacht, some Mecklenburgian exclaves, including Ratzeburg's Cathedral immunity district, some Lübeckian exclaves within the district territory, were incorporated into the district.

In May 1945 British forces captured the district territory, which in September 1944 had been determined in the London Protocol to become part of the British Zone of Occupation. On November 13, 1945 the British general Colin Muir Barber and the Soviet general major Nikolay Grigoryevich Lyashchenko signed the Barber Lyashchenko Agreement in Gadebusch, redeploying some municipalities of the Duchy of Lauenburg District and neighbouring Mecklenburg part of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, thus some eastern suburbs of Ratzeburg, such as Ziethen in Lauenburg, Mechow, Bäk and Römnitz became part of the district, while the Lauenburgian municipalities of Dechow, Groß and Klein Thurow as well as Lassahn were ceded to Mecklenburg. The redeployment was accomplished on November 26, the respective occupational forces had until November 28 to withdraw to their respective new zonal territories. From 1873-82 the Hereditary Land Marshal was responsible for administration of the district and the appointment of offices.

The landrat, as a Prussian official, dealt only with the national administration. 1873 - 1874: Regierungsassessor Jungbluth 1874 - 1881: Graf Andreas von BernstorffAfter October 1, 1882, the Landrat became responsible for local administration, free from state control. 1882 - 1897: Oskar von Dolega-Kozierowski 1897 - 1900: Graf Finck von Finckenstein 1900 - 1907: Friedrich von Bülow 1907 - 1919: Emil Mathis 1919 - 1927: Kurt Schönberg 1927 - 1933: Gustav Voigt 1933 - 1938: Theodor Fründt, NSDAP 1939 - 1945: Erich Jüttner, NSDAPA change in government came about after the Second World War with the 1946 county statute issued by the British military government. The Landrat now temporarily functioned as an honorary head of the district council, which now dealt with the administration of the district directly. However, the Landrat took over the district administration again. 1945 - 1946: Ewald Raaz 1946 - 1948: Wilhelm Gülich, S

Alien Minds

Alien Minds is a science fiction novel by American writer E. Everett Evans, it was first published in 1955 by Fantasy Press in an edition of 1,417 copies. The book is a sequel to Man of Many Minds The novel concerns the adventures of George Hanlan, a secret service agent who has the ability to read minds, on the planet Estrella. Chalker, Jack L.. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. p. 240. Clute, John; the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. P. 393. ISBN 0-312-13486-X. Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 160. ISBN 0-911682-20-1. Alien Minds at Project Gutenberg

Hankou

Hankou, alternately romanized as Hankow, was one of the three towns whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan city, the capital of the Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Yangtze Rivers where the Han flows into the Yangtze. Hankou is connected by bridges to its triplet sister towns Wuchang. Hankou is the main port of Hubei province and the single largest port in the middle reaches of Yangtze; the city's name means "Mouth of the Han", from its position at the confluence of the Han with the Yangtze River. The name appears in a Tang Dynasty poem by Liu Changqing. Other historical names for the city include Xiakou and Lukou. Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing, was under the administration of the local government in Hanyang, although it was one of the four major national markets in Ming dynasty, it was not until 1899. Hankou was divided into four districts, which are Juren, Youyi and Dazhi; some of the names can still be found in modern-day Wuhan, where there are geographical names such as Xunlimen and Dazhimen.

In 1926, Hankou was established as a city, where its municipal government was built in Jianghan district. In the same year, the Northern Expedition reached Hankou, merged Hankou with adjacent Wuchang and Hanyang to make it the seat of the national capital, Wuhan, but in 1927, when Nanjing succeeded in the fight to be the national capital, Wuhan was returned to its original form, with Hankou being again a city by itself. This time Hankou was established as a "Special Municipality," which resembles a direct-controlled municipality in present day. Before 1949, Hankou has shifted between being a provincial city. In 1949, Hankou was merged with Hanyang and Wuchang to become Wuhan, when the communists arrived in Hankou on May 16. Hankou was the destination on the escape route of groups of missionaries fleeing the Boxers in the Northern provinces around 1900; the flight of some missionaries from the T'ai-yüan massacre in Shan-si is recorded in the work A Thousand Miles of Miracle in China, by Reverend A E Glover, one of the fleeing missionaries.

On 10 October 1911, a revolution to establish the Republic of China and replace the Qing dynasty led to the involvement of Hankou in the struggle between Hubei revolutionary forces and the Qing army, led by Yuan Shikai. Although the revolution began in Wuchang with a revolt started by members of the New Army, revolutionaries captured major strategic cities and towns throughout the province, including Hankou on October 12; the Qing Dynasty Army recaptured Hankou but as the revolution spread throughout China the town and the province came under control of the Republic of China. Hankou used to have five foreign concessions belonging to the United Kingdom, Russia and Japan; the German and Russian concessions ended in 1917 and 1920 and those areas were administered by the Chinese government as the First and the Second Special Area. Early in 1927, the British concession was occupied in the course of the revolutionary troubles that accompanied the Northern Expedition when the Chinese Kuomintang forces occupied the concession and showed no intention of withdrawing.

The Chen-O'Malley Agreement of February 1927 provided for a combined British-Chinese administration of the concession and in 1929 the British concession formally came to an end. From on it was administered by the Chinese authorities as the Third Special Area. In the 1920s and 30s, Hankou was one of the Yangtze River ports patrolled by the US Navy to keep the peace and maintain US interests in the area. Yangtze Patrol. Hankou was flooded in the 1931 China floods. Hankou was captured by the Japanese invaders in 1938; the Chinese-born writer Han Suyin’s novel Destination Chungking has a significant chapter at its beginning which describes the retreat from Hankou of China's Nationalist Government forces in front of Japan’s army and air force invasion in 1938, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It is autobiographical, as Han Suyin’s first husband was an officer with China Nationalist army. An important logistical center, the city was bombed in December 1944 by the US aircraft based in the Chengdu area.

The government of Vichy France relinquished the French concession in 1943, the restored French Republic relinquished it formally in 1946. The Japanese concession came to an end with the surrender of Japan in 1945. Before the Communist Revolution, Hankou was the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hankou, covering the province of Hubei; the dioceses in Wuchang and elsewhere in the province were subordinated to it. "Hankou" remains a used name for the part of Wuhan urban area north of the Yangtze and Han Rivers. The name was long preserved in the name of the old Hankou Railway Station, the original terminal of the Jinghan Railway. After the old Dazhimen station closed in 1991, the Hankou name was transferred to the new Hankou Railway Station, which opened in 1991 at a new location, farther away from central city. Railway passengers traveling to Wuhan need to purchase tickets to a particular station: the Hankou Railway Station, the Wuchang Railway Station, or the new Wuhan Railway Station (which opened in 2009 on the

Zoe Naylor

Zoe Naylor is an Australian actress as well as journalist, MC, keynote speaker, voice-artist and producer. Naylor was born in Sydney, Australia to Richard Naylor, a veterinarian, Neroli, an English and History teacher, she graduated from Loreto Normanhurst where she was School Captain while training with the Australian Theatre for Young People in Sydney attended Charles Sturt University in Bathurst under a Seven Network scholarship. Naylor attended University of Technology in Sydney for a year to complete her Bachelor of Arts in Communications degree, she was an announcer for Groove FM worked in television for A Current Affair, Escape with ET, The Footy Show, Gladiators, MTV Australia, National Nine News and SportsCafe. She has written for magazines such as Australian Traveller and Road Rider. After graduating from the Queensland University of Technology in 2002 with a Masters in Drama, she appeared in regional theatre productions. In 2005, she was cast as Regan McLeod in the television series McLeod's Daughters.

She was cast in the New Zealand series Orange Roughies. She appeared in films such as The Reef and Robotropolis. Naylor married James Trude on 12 May 2007, she divorced and began dating Aaron Jeffery. The couple welcomed their first child together, a daughter called Sophia Jade Jeffery, in 2012 and their second child, a son called Beau Charles Jeffery in 2016. 2011: Robotropolis 2010: The Reef 2005: Book of Revelation 2004: On the Lurk 2003: Evil Never Dies, Abby 2002: Sugar and Spice 2000: A Love Story 2000: The Product 1999: Fearless, Hetty 2016–2017, 2018: Home and Away, Nina Gilbert 2008: Gladiators, herself 2006: Orange Roughies, Jane Durant 2005–2009: McLeod's Daughters, Regan McLeod 2003: The Cooks, "Nights of Living Dangerously", Janie Naylor, Zoe. "Contributor". Laugh Even Louder!. By Camp Quality. Gosford, New South Wales: Scholastic Australia Pty Limited. ISBN 978-1-74169-022-4. Official website Zoe Naylor at The Global Townhall Zoe Naylor on IMDb

Tommy Black (footballer, born 1908)

Thomas "Tommy" Black was a Scottish footballer who played as a left half in the Football League for Plymouth Argyle and Southend United. He appeared for Arsenal in the FA Cup. Black was born in Holytown, he began his career as an amateur with Strathclyde before joining Football League club Arsenal in 1931. Having spent two seasons playing for the club's reserves, Black was called up to the first team by Herbert Chapman for an FA Cup third round match at Walsall in January 1933; the home side won 2–0, with the second goal coming from a penalty, given for a foul by Black. He was transfer-listed by Chapman and sold to Second Division club Plymouth Argyle within a week of the defeat. Black made nine appearances in his first two seasons with the club before establishing himself as their first-choice left half during the 1934–35 campaign. Argyle finished fifth in the league in the 1936–37 season, Black played in 41 games, a career best. After seven seasons with the club and 168 appearances in all competitions, Black moved to Third Division South team Southend United.

He played in the first three league games of the 1939–40 campaign before it was abandoned due to the Second World War

Cosmic Break

Cosmic Break is a free to play 3D MMO third-person shooter with big robots and colorful, explosive battles in an anime style. The game was developed and published by the Japanese company CyberStep, Inc. and has been released in several different countries, including Japan, Taiwan and North America, with other areas like the EU, Germany and France preparing for official release. CosmicBreak is the sequel to another game by CyberStep, called C21 Steel Battle Chronicles, but contains more anime-styled characters, deeper developed story lines and offers thus more immersion. Several story lines have been made into manga and short movies, which are connected to some of the quests in the game; as is the case with GetAmped2, Cosmic Break has various NPCs and playable characters voiced by famous Japanese voice-over artists. Among these are Rie Tanaka, Akio Ōtsuka, Takeshi Kusao, Asami Shimoda, Atsuko Tanaka and Daisuke Sakaguchi. In 2015, a sequel game, with different mechanics and cast, Cosmic Break 2 was announced for development and had a failed Kickstarter campaign was launched that raised less than half of its target.

Regardless, CosmicBreak 2 was released in the Summer of 2015 with a new cast of humanoid robots and an original story and was planned to continue service alongside its initial counterpart. Both games have shut down service in the U. S; the game is set in the distant future in a parallel dimension called the Cosmic Ark. There is a race of long-dormant, gigantic robots called Arks, which have awakened to find their galaxy being ruled by the evil Chaos. Since they lay dormant for aeons, the three remaining great Arks of Wisdom and Strength have been drained of their energy, now there is only enough energy remaining for one of them to be revived with the power to vanquish the evil Chaos. In order to accomplish this, three different Unions of followers of each of the great Arks have formed, each competing for the revival of their respective Ark and thereby, for the defeat of the Chaos and the fate of the world. Besides this overarching story, there are several backstories of characters of the game.

There is, for example, the background of Crimrose and Ivis, the story of Eihwaz, or the meeting between Eris and Resha among others. Upon entering the game for the first time, players were to choose one of three initial robots, as well as their Union, which they want to join - this has been changed, however. There are three Unions: Bladine – This Union values courage and loyalty above everything else, it is led by the Guardian Lios who has strong morals and an extraordinary sense of justice. Wizdom – Wizdom is led by the Guardian Icy, a sharp tactician who believes in the superiority of knowledge on the battlefield. Wizdom's members are apt at using strategy and tactics in the battlefield and are intelligent. Dostrex – Led by the Guardian Dracken who believes in sheer strength to overcome adversaries, yet in spite of their belief in their own power, members of Dostrex value honour and don't pick fights with those weaker than themselves. In the game, players build up an inventory of robots in their garage, from which they choose their Commando, which they will take into battle.

Players can choose from four different types of robots, each with different general attributes. Air robots feature better mid-air agility than any of the other types. Land robots excel in ground melee attacks, they are fast and maneuverable. Artillery robots are specialized in long-range firepower. Support robots are quite balanced without any major strengths or weaknesses, but they come with special repair skills. Robots come in different sizes and this should be taken into account when customizing and choosing new weapons and parts. There are Arena mode, Mission mode and Quest mode. In Arena mode, players can fight in matches of up to 60 people at the same time. Players can fight in Union Wars, which use preset rooms and automatic teams, or in Team Fights, where they can create their own rooms and form their own teams. Team Fights has practice and Capture the Flag modes. In Mission mode, players can go on missions and fight against NPCs of the evil Chaos Army, either by themselves or in teams of up to five people at the same time in the same mission.

These missions can be fought in five levels of difficulty. Quest mode gives players the opportunity to go treasure hunting on different planets, battle monsters and find their way through mazes. Several of the quests allow players to take on the role of one of the characters whose backstories are featured in the anime and manga. Cosmic Break offers players a lot of customization options. There are over 100 different robots to choose from. With the in-game Editor System, players can mix and match their robots, experiment with over 300 parts and weapons to assemble their robots. Many parts come with inbuilt abilities and/or weapons, which can be improved by tuning them up; the Skin Editor allows for customized texture painting of the robots and some parts, like the head, may be reshaped using the polygon editor. In Cosmic Break, players have access to a set of animated emoticons. There are voice chat and regular chat functions, which are available as a means of communicat