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Hesat is an ancient Egyptian goddess in the form of a cow. She was said to provide humanity with milk and in particular to suckle the pharaoh and several ancient Egyptian bull gods. In the Pyramid Texts she is said to be the mother of Anubis and of the deceased king, she was connected with Mnevis, the living bull god worshipped at Heliopolis, the mothers of Mnevis bulls were buried in a cemetery dedicated to Hesat. In Ptolemaic times she was linked with the goddess Isis. In Egyptian mythology, Hathor is one of the main cattle deities as she is the mother of Horus and Ra and associated with the role of royalty and kingship. Hesat is one of Hathor's manifestations portrayed as a white cow representing purity and the milk that she produces to give life to humanity. Other feminine bovine deities include Sekhat-Hor and Shedyt, their masculine counterparts include Apis, Sema-wer, Ageb-wer. While there are not many images of Hesat that are recorded and published, there are a few representations on pieces that belong to major museums world wide.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art has in its collection Scarab with the Representation of Hathor as a Cow. The hieroglyphs on this late period piece read ḥsȜt determined with a recumbent cow with the following hieroglyphs:This spelling of her name is using cryptographic substitution, which became established in the New Kingdom. Traditionally phonetic spellings of Hesat's name from earlier periods were written as follows

1977 in Scotland

Events from the year 1977 in Scotland. Monarch – Elizabeth II Secretary of State for Scotland and Keeper of the Great SealBruce Millan Lord AdvocateRonald King Murray Solicitor General for ScotlandLord McCluskey Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice GeneralLord Emslie Lord Justice ClerkLord Wheatley Chairman of the Scottish Land CourtLord Birsay 3 May – 1977 Scottish District Council elections held, with Labour making significant losses. 17 May – Queen Elizabeth II commences her Jubilee tour in Glasgow. 18 May – Queen Elizabeth II visits Cumbernauld and Stirling. 19 May – Queen Elizabeth II visits Perth and Dundee. 23–27 May – Queen Elizabeth II visits Edinburgh. 27 May – Queen Elizabeth II opens the new Air Terminal Building at Edinburgh Airport. 4 June – Scotland's 2–1 victory over England at Wembley is followed by a pitch invasion during which sections of pitch and crossbars are removed by fans. 10 August – Kenny Dalglish, 26-year-old Scotland striker, becomes Britain's most expensive footballer in a £440,000 transfer from Glasgow Celtic to Liverpool.

September last manufacture of coal gas on the U. K. mainland at Muirkirk. First part of St Fergus Gas Terminal in Aberdeenshire opens. 10 October – Scotland beat Wales 2–0 at Anfield to qualify for the 1978 World Cup finals. 15–16 October – "World's End Murders" of two 17-year-old girls in Edinburgh. 14 November – Tam Dalyell, Labour MP for West Lothian, asks what becomes known as the West Lothian question. Late? – Buchanan Street bus station opens in Glasgow. 19 March – Scott Wilson, footballer 30 March – Hugo Rifkind, journalist 18 April – Jonathan Rowson, chess grandmaster 12 May – Graeme Dott, snooker player 30 July – Derek Mackay, Member of Scottish Parliament and Government minister September – Jenni Fagan and poet 22 November – Neil McCallum, cricketer 28 November – Gavin Rae, international footballer 30 November – Rae Hendrie, television actress 6 October – Molly Urquhart, actress 30 November – Thomas Corbett, 2nd Baron Rowallan, soldier and chief scout 27 December – James Marshall, international footballer 19 August – Art punk band Skids, founded by Stuart Adamson, plays its first gig, in Dunfermline.

First St Magnus Festival of the arts held on Orkney, organised by local residents including English composer Peter Maxwell Davies and Orcadian poet George Mackay Brown. 1977 in Northern Ireland

Converge (band)

Converge is an American hardcore punk band formed by vocalist Jacob Bannon and guitarist Kurt Ballou in Salem, Massachusetts in 1990. During the recording of their seminal fourth album Jane Doe, the group became a four-piece with the departure of guitarist Aaron Dalbec and the addition of bassist Nate Newton and drummer Ben Koller; this lineup has remained intact since. They have released nine studio albums, three live albums, numerous EPs; the band's sound is rooted in both hardcore punk and heavy metal, they are considered pioneers of metalcore as well as its subgenre mathcore. Converge have enjoyed a high level of recognition. According to AllMusic, they are "regarded as one of the most original and innovative bands to emerge from the punk underground." Their popularity rose with the release of Jane Doe, ranked as the best album of the decade by Sputnikmusic, the best album of 2001 by Terrorizer and as the 61st best metal album of all time by Rolling Stone. Subsequently, Converge moved from Equal Vision Records to the larger label Epitaph Records and their records became more elaborate and expensive to produce.

Special releases have traditionally been handled by Deathwish Inc. established by Bannon in 1999. The band's ninth studio album, The Dusk in Us, was released in November 2017 through Deathwish and Epitaph. Converge was formed in the winter of 1990 by Bannon and Ballou, they were joined by high school friends Jeff Feinberg and Damon Bellorado in 1991, they started by playing covers of punk rock and heavy metal songs. The band soon graduated to playing live performances in mid-1991, after recording some demos on a 4-track recorder; the band started writing and playing what they consider "relevant" music in 1994. In 1994 the band became a five piece. In the year Converge released their debut album, Halo in a Haystack, released through Earthmaker Records; this was limited to 1000 copies. The album has not been reprinted since its release; the record was funded by Bannon through money he saved up from working at a nursing home. In 1995 Converge released their first compilation album and Killing; the album featured tracks from the band's early work from the years 1991 to 1994.

The album was released as a European exclusive through Lost & Found Records. However, Converge became dissatisfied with the way the label was handling the release and overcharging fans for their hard-to-find older songs; the album was re-released through Hydra Head Records on November 17, 1997 in America to "make an overpriced release obsolete". In 1996 Converge released a four-song EP, it was released through Ferret Music, was one of the earliest releases through the newly-formed label. That same year the record was re-released with four additional new tracks. Two years the record was reissued through Converge's new label Equal Vision Records on January 20, 1998; this version contained the previous eight tracks as well as three newly added live tracks, recorded during a radio broadcast. Due to the addition of the new tracks and sources consider this to be Converge's second studio album, while the band considers it a compilation album because it is a collection of songs recorded at different times.

In early 1997 the band's original bassist, left the band, was replaced with Stephen Brodsky. That year, the band signed to Equal Vision Records. On December 22, 1997, recording for the band's third studio album When Forever Comes Crashing began at Ballou's GodCity Studio. On April 14, 1998 Converge released. In 1998, Brodsky left the band and was replaced by Newton, who joined the band as a part-time member while he was still active in another band, Jesuit. Jesuit disbanded in 1999, allowing Newton to make Converge his main focus. In early 1999, the original drummer Bellorado left the band and was replaced with John DiGiorgio, who left the band in the same year. Koller joined Converge in late 1999. Ballou selected Koller to temporarily fill in while Converge searched for a more permanent replacement for Bellorado, as he was familiar with his work in previous bands, Force Fed Glass and Blue/Green Heart, a band that Ballou and Koller played in together. After working well with the band during some local shows in Boston, Converge made him an official member.

Newton and Koller remain in the band to this day. In mid-2000 Converge self-released a three-track demo record titled Jane Doe Demos; this was limited to 100 copies. It contained unreleased demo versions of "Bitter & Then Some" and "Thaw" from their upcoming album Jane Doe. Converge entered the studio to begin recording in the summer of 2001. On September 4, 2001, Converge released Jane Doe, it was met with immediate critical acclaim, with critics praising its poetic lyrics, dynamic range and production. The album was a commercial success in comparison to Converge's previous outings, both the band and the album have developed a cult following since its release, it is the band's first studio album to feature Newton and Koller, the last to feature Dalbec, asked to leave the band due to his devotion to his side project Bane. Converge's first tour in support of Jane Doe was in September, 2001 with Drowningman and Playing Enemy, however Drowningman dropped out of the tour to work on a new album. In 2002 a music video was released for the track/tracks "Concubine/Fault and Fracture" from the album Jane Doe.

On January 28, 2003 Converge released their second compilati

Utba ibn Ghazwan

Utba ibn Ghazwan al-Mazini was a well-known companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was the seventh person to convert to Islam and participated in the hijra to Abyssinia, but returned to stay with Muhammad in Mecca before making the second hijrah to Medina, he fought at the battle of Badr, the battle of Uhud, the Battle of the Trench and many others, including the battles of Yamamah. During the caliphate of Umar, Utba commanded a force of 2,000 men in a campaign against Ubullah which lasted from June through September 635. Once Uballah was occupied, Utba sent a force across the Tigris River which occupied the district of Furat, Baghdad|Furat, followed by Meisan and Abarqubaz, he was soon appointed governor of Basra by the caliph. In 639 Utba left for the Hijaz to perform hajj and to request Umar to relieve him of his office as governor. Umar refused, he was succeeded by al-Mughīrah ibn Shuʿbah as governor. Utba born c. 581, the son of Ghazwan ibn al-Harith ibn Jabir. He belonged to the Banu Mazin, a minor clan from the Mansur ibn Ikrima branch of the Qays tribe in the Hejaz.

Utba was a confederate of the Banu Nawfal clan of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. He became an early convert to companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, he was known to be the seventh person to embrace Islam and he participated in the two Muslim emigrations from Mecca to Abyssinia, as well as playing combat roles in the Battle of Badr and several of the raids led or ordered by Muhammad. Utba was married to a daughter of al-Harith ibn Kalada of the Banu Thaqif. During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, the Muslims led by Khalid ibn al-Walid may have launched their first campaigns against the Sasanian Persians in lower Mesopotamia, but these their gains were short-lived or limited. Abu Bakr's successor Umar dispatched Utba to this front from the capital at Medina, which marked the commencement of the definitive conquest of Iraq, his force was small, ranging from 300 to 2,000 men, according to the medieval Arabic sources. Its ranks were dominated by members of the Banu Thaqif,with whom Utba had marital links, consisted of nomadic Arab tribesmen who joined Utba's army while it was on the move.

Utba launched an assault against its 500-strong garrison of Persian cavalry. He set up camp at a nearby village called Khurayba bested Ubulla's defenders and occupied and plundered the town, he installed one of his lieutenants, his brother-in-law Nafi ibn al-Harith ibn Kalada, to guard the town, which he used as a base of operations against other Sasanian positions in the area. He and/or his lieutenant commanders al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba and Mujashi ibn Mas'ud al-Sulami thereafter captured the towns of al-Furat and Maysan and the districts of Abazqubadh and Dast Maysan, all located along the lower Tigris river banks. Bosworth, C. E.. "ʿUtba b. Ghazwān". In Bearman, P. J.. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume X: T–U. Leiden: E. J. Brill. P. 944. ISBN 90-04-11211-1. Donner, Fred M.. The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05327-8. Friedmann, Yohanan, ed.. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XII: The Battle of al-Qādisīyyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine.

SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0733-2

Chi (letter)

Chi is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, pronounced or in English. Its value in Ancient Greek was an aspirated velar stop /kʰ/. In Koine Greek and dialects it became a fricative along with Θ and Φ. In Modern Greek, it has two distinct pronunciations: In front of high or front vowels it is pronounced as a voiceless palatal fricative, as in German ich or like the h in some pronunciations of the English words hew and human. In front of low or back vowels and consonants, it is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative, as in German ach. Chi is romanized as ⟨ ch ⟩ in most systematic transliteration conventions. In addition, in Modern Greek, it is also romanized as ⟨h⟩ or ⟨x⟩ in informal practice. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 600. In ancient times, some local forms of the Greek alphabet used the chi instead of xi to represent the /ks/ sound; this was borrowed into the early Latin language, which led to the use of the letter X for the same sound in Latin, many modern languages that use the Latin alphabet.

Chi was included in the Cyrillic script as the letter Х, with the phonetic value /x/ or /h/. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the minuscule chi is the symbol for the voiceless uvular fricative. Chi is the basis for the name of chiasmus. In Plato's Timaeus, it is explained that the two bands that form the soul of the world cross each other like the letter Χ. Plato's analogy, along with several other examples of chi as a symbol occur in Thomas Browne's discourse The Garden of Cyrus. Chi or X is used to abbreviate the name Christ, as in the holiday Christmas; when fused within a single typespace with the Greek letter Rho, it is called the labarum and used to represent the person of Jesus Christ. These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style. In statistics, the term chi-squared or χ 2 has various uses, including the chi-squared distribution, the chi-squared test, chi-squared target models.

In algebraic topology, Chi is used to represent the Euler characteristic of a surface. In neuroanatomy, crossings of peripheral nerves are named for the letter Chi because of its Χ-shape. In chemistry, the mole fraction and electronegativity may be denoted by the lowercase χ. In physics, χ denotes magnetic susceptibility. In rhetoric, both chiastic structure and the figure of speech Chiasmus derive from their names from the shape of the letter Chi. In mechanical engineering, chi is used as a symbol for the reduction factor of relevant buckling loads in the EN 1993, a European Standard for the design of steel structures. In graph theory, a lowercase chi is used to represent a graph's chromatic number. Chi Х, х - Kha

Coastal plain cooter

The Coastal plain cooter or Florida cooter is a species of large herbivorous freshwater turtle in the genus Pseudemys. The species is found within the southeastern coastal plain of the United States, from extreme southeastern Virginia southward through all of Florida and westward to the vicinity of Mobile Bay, Alabama; the nominate race occupies most of the species' geographic range but is replaced in the Florida peninsula by the peninsula cooter, distinguished by differences in head markings. Both races can be distinguished from sympatric Pseudemys species by the immaculate yellow color of their plastrons and the lack of a U-shaped cusp in the upper jaw; the carapace length of the size ranges from 23 to 33 cm and the normal weigh is 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The record sized female measured 40 cm in carapace length; the cooter is herbivorous and inhabits lakes, ponds, slow-flowing streams, other still bodies of water with soft bottoms and abundant aquatic vegetation. However, it can be found in high densities in some Florida spring runs in vegetated areas with little flow.

This species is active spends a large portion of the day basking on logs. Coastal cooters are exported for consumption and the pet trade, with about 60% wild caught individuals and 40% captive bred. Recent protection by many southeastern states has curbed this exploitation but illegal harvest for local consumption may still threaten some populations. Ernst, C. H. R. W. Barbour and J. E. Lovich. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Washington, D. C. Smithsonian Institution Press. Hubbs, C. 1995. Springs and spring runs as unique aquatic systems. Copeia. 1995: 989-991. Reed, R. N. and J. W. Gibbons. 2004. Conservation status of live U. S. nonmarine turtles in domestic and international trade – a report to: U. S. Department of the Interior and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Aiken, SC, Savannah River Ecology Lab: 1-92. BibliographyRhodin, Anders G. J.. "Turtles of the World 2010 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy and Conservation Status". Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2010-12-15