Jorma Ludwik Kaukonen, Jr. is an American blues and rock guitarist. Kaukonen performed with Jefferson Airplane and still performs on tour with Hot Tuna, which started as a side project with bassist Jack Casady, as of early 2019 has continued for 50 years. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him #54 on its list of 100 Greatest Guitarists. Jorma Kaukonen was born in DC to Beatrice Love and Jorma Ludwig Kaukonen, Sr.. He had Russian Jewish ancestry on his mother's side. During his childhood, Jorma's family lived in Pakistan, the Philippines and other locales as he followed his father's State Department career from assignment to assignment before returning to the place of his birth; as a teenager in Washington, he and friend Jack Casady formed a band called The Triumphs, with Kaukonen on rhythm guitar and Casady on lead. Kaukonen departed Washington for studies at Antioch College, where friend Ian Buchanan taught him fingerstyle guitar playing. Buchanan introduced Kaukonen to the music of Reverend Gary Davis, whose songs have remained important parts of Kaukonen's repertoire throughout his career.
In 1962, Kaukonen enrolled at Santa Clara University. During this time, he taught guitar lessons at Benner Music Company in San Jose, he played as a solo act in coffee houses and accompanied Janis Joplin on acoustic guitar on the historic 1964 recording known as "The Typewriter Tapes" because of the obtrusive sound of Kaukonen's first wife, typing in the background. In 1965, friend and classmate Paul Kantner invited Kaukonen to join a rock band he was forming with Marty Balin; as a self-described blues purist, Kaukonen was reluctant, but found his imagination excited by the arsenal of effects available to electric guitar remarking that he was "sucked in by technology." With the group still looking for a name, Kaukonen suggested the name Jefferson Airplane, inspired by an eccentric friend who had given his dog the name "Blind Lemon Jefferson Airplane." When their original bass player was fired, Kaukonen recommended his friend Jack Casady as a replacement. Though never a prolific singer or songwriter during his Airplane tenure, Kaukonen contributed material to each of the group's albums.
In 1969–70, Kaukonen and Jack Casady formed Hot Tuna, a spinoff group that allowed them to play as long as they liked. An early incarnation of Hot Tuna included Jefferson Airplane vocalist Marty Balin and featured Joey Covington on drums and vocals; this grouping came to an end after an unsuccessful recording jaunt to Jamaica, the sessions of which have never been released. Pared down to Kaukonen and Casady, Hot Tuna lived on as a vehicle for Kaukonen to show off his Piedmont-style acoustic blues fingerpicking skills; the self-titled first album recorded live. With the dissolution of Jefferson Airplane in 1972, Hot Tuna went electric, with Airplane fiddler Papa John Creach joining for the next two albums. Hot Tuna scored an FM hit with "Ja Da" from Burgers. At this time, Kaukonen's songwriting began to dominate, as further evidenced by the next album, The Phosphorescent Rat, which featured only one cover song. Beginning with their fifth album, America's Choice, the addition of drummer Bob Steeler encouraged a rise in volume and a change of band personality —a rampaging, Cream-like rock with quasimystical lyrics by Kaukonen.
During this period, the power trio was known for its long live sets and instrumental jamming. Hot Tuna toured vigorously throughout the 1970s in both the United States and Europe, but with Hot Tuna's break up in 1978, the first phase of the band's career ended. Casady left to form the new wave band SVT, while Kaukonen played as a solo act at venues, booked for Hot Tuna's cancelled 1978 tour. Kaukonen began his solo career several years prior to the breakup, when he recorded the 1974 album Quah. Produced by Jack Casady, Quah featured string overdubs on some tracks, as well as several tracks written and sung by Kaukonen's friend Tom Hobson; the opening track "Genesis" is featured in the films Margot at Transcendence. The album's cover is on display at Donkey Espresso, a coffee shop in Athens, Ohio. In 1979, Kaukonen released Jorma; that year, he began touring with a number of bass/drum combinations, which included Hot Tuna drummer Bob Steeler. During this time, he experimented with a new image, with short, dyed hair and extensive tattoos adorning his body and arms.
He recorded the album Barbeque King, released in 1980. Kaukonen's traditional fan base did not warm to this new, perceived to be "punk" image, sales of the album were so disappointing that Jorma was soon dropped from RCA Records, he continued playing as a solo artist throughout the 1980s at such venues as The Chestnut Cabaret in Philadelphia, The Capitol Theater in Passaic, New Jersey, in Port Chester, New York. As in his Hot Tuna days, he played long sets beginning with an hour-long acoustic set followed by a long intermission and a two-hour electric set, sometimes accompanied by bass and drums. Having reformed for a tour in 1983 that closed with a farewell show at Jonathan Swift's in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 12/30/1983, Hot Tuna again reformed in
Lena Mary Calhoun Horne was an American singer, dancer and civil rights activist. Horne's career spanned over 70 years appearing in film and theater. Horne joined the chorus of the Cotton Club at the age of 16 and became a nightclub performer before moving to Hollywood. Returning to her roots as a nightclub performer, Horne took part in the March on Washington in August 1963 and continued to work as a performer, both in nightclubs and on television while releasing well-received record albums, she announced her retirement in March 1980, but the next year starred in a one-woman show, Lena Horne: The Lady and Her Music, which ran for more than three hundred performances on Broadway. She toured the country in the show, earning numerous awards and accolades. Horne continued recording and performing sporadically into the 1990s, disappearing from the public eye in 2000. Horne died of congestive heart failure on May 9, 2010, at the age of 92. Lena Horne was born in Bedford -- Brooklyn, she was descended from the John C. Calhoun family, both sides of her family were a mixture of African-American, Native American, European American descent and belonged to the upper stratum of middle-class, well-educated people.
Her father, Edwin Fletcher "Teddy" Horne Jr. a numbers kingpin in the gambling trade, left the family when she was three and moved to an upper-middle-class black community in the Hill District community of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Her mother, Edna Louise Scottron, was a granddaughter of inventor Samuel R. Scottron. Edna's maternal grandmother, Amelie Louise Ashton, was a Senegalese slave. Horne was raised by her grandparents, Cora Calhoun and Edwin Horne; when Horne was five, she was sent to live in Georgia. For several years, she traveled with her mother. From 1927 to 1929, she lived with her uncle, Frank S. Horne, dean of students at Fort Valley Junior Industrial Institute in Fort Valley, who served as an adviser to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. From Fort Valley, southwest of Macon, Horne moved to Atlanta with her mother, she attended Girls High School, an all-girls public high school in Brooklyn that has since become Boys and Girls High School. Aged 18, she moved to her father's home in Pittsburgh, staying in the city's Little Harlem for five years and learning from native Pittsburghers Billy Strayhorn and Billy Eckstine, among others.
In the fall of 1933, Horne joined the chorus line of the Cotton Club in New York City. In the spring of 1934, she had a featured role in the Cotton Club Parade starring Adelaide Hall, who took Lena under her wing. A few years Horne joined Noble Sissle's Orchestra, with which she toured and with whom she made her first records, issued by Decca. After she separated from her first husband, Horne toured with bandleader Charlie Barnet in 1940–41, but disliked the travel and left the band to work at the Cafe Society in New York, she replaced Dinah Shore as the featured vocalist on NBC's popular jazz series The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street. The show's resident maestros, Henry Levine and Paul Laval, recorded with Horne in June 1941 for RCA Victor. Horne left the show after only six months when she was hired by former Cafe Trocadero manager Felix Young to perform in a Cotton Club-style revue on the Sunset Strip in Hollywood. Horne had two low-budget movies to her credit: a 1938 musical feature called The Duke is Tops.
Horne's songs from Boogie Woogie Dream were released individually as soundies. Horne made her Hollywood nightclub debut at Felix Young's Little Troc on the Sunset Strip in January 1942. A few weeks she was signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In November 1944, she was featured in an episode of the popular radio series Suspense, as a fictional nightclub singer, with a large speaking role along with her singing. In 1945 and 1946, she sang with Billy Eckstine's Orchestra, she made her debut at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in Panama Hattie and performed the title song of Stormy Weather based loosely on the life of Adelaide Hall, which she made at 20th Century Fox, on loan from MGM. She appeared in a number of MGM musicals, most notably Cabin in the Sky, but was never featured in a leading role because of her race and the fact that her films had to be re-edited for showing in cities where theaters would not show films with black performers; as a result, most of Horne's film appearances were stand-alone sequences that had no bearing on the rest of the film, so editing caused no disruption to the storyline.
A notable exception was the all-black musical Cabin in the Sky, although one number from that film was cut before release because it was considered too suggestive by the censors: Horne singing "Ain't It the Truth" while taking a bubble bath. This scene and song are featured in the film That's Entertainment! III which featured commentary from Horne on why the scene was deleted prior to the film's release. Lena Horne was the first African-American elected to serve on the Screen Actors Guild board of directors. In Ziegfeld Follies, she performed "Love" by Ralph Blane. Horne lobbied for the role of Julie LaVerne in MGM's 1951 version of Show Boat but lost the part to Ava Gardner, a personal friend in real life. H
James Mercer Langston Hughes was an American poet, social activist, novelist and columnist from Joplin, Missouri. He moved to New York City as a young man. One of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry, Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City, he famously wrote about the period that "the negro was in vogue", paraphrased as "when Harlem was in vogue". Like many African Americans, Hughes had a complex ancestry. Both of Hughes' paternal great-grandmothers were enslaved African Americans and both of his paternal great-grandfathers were white slave owners in Kentucky. According to Hughes, one of these men was Sam Clay, a Scottish-American whiskey distiller of Henry County, said to be a relative of statesman Henry Clay; the other was a Jewish-American slave trader of Clark County. Hughes's maternal grandmother Mary Patterson was of African-American, French and Native American descent. One of the first women to attend Oberlin College, she married Lewis Sheridan Leary of mixed race, before her studies.
Lewis Leary subsequently joined John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in West Virginia in 1859, where he was fatally wounded. Ten years in 1869, the widow Mary Patterson Leary married again, into the elite, politically active Langston family, her second husband was Charles Henry Langston, of African-American, Euro-American and Native American ancestry. He and his younger brother John Mercer Langston worked for the abolitionist cause and helped lead the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1858. After their marriage, Charles Langston moved with his family to Kansas, where he was active as an educator and activist for voting and rights for African Americans, his and Mary's daughter Caroline became married James Nathaniel Hughes. They had two children. Langston Hughes grew up in a series of Midwestern small towns, his father left the family soon after the boy was born and divorced Carrie. The senior Hughes traveled to Cuba and Mexico, seeking to escape the enduring racism in the United States. After the separation, Hughes's mother traveled.
Langston was raised in Lawrence, Kansas, by his maternal grandmother, Mary Patterson Langston. Through the black American oral tradition and drawing from the activist experiences of her generation, Mary Langston instilled in her grandson a lasting sense of racial pride. Imbued by his grandmother with a duty to help his race, Hughes identified with neglected and downtrodden black people all his life, glorified them in his work, he lived most of his childhood in Lawrence. In his 1940 autobiography The Big Sea, he wrote: "I was unhappy for a long time, lonesome, living with my grandmother, it was that books began to happen to me, I began to believe in nothing but books and the wonderful world in books—where if people suffered, they suffered in beautiful language, not in monosyllables, as we did in Kansas."After the death of his grandmother, Hughes went to live with family friends and Auntie Mary Reed, for two years. Hughes lived again with his mother Carrie in Lincoln, Illinois, she had remarried.
The family moved to the Fairfax neighborhood of Cleveland, where he attended Central High School and was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, whom he found inspiring. His writing experiments began. While in grammar school in Lincoln, Hughes was elected class poet, he stated that in retrospect he thought it was because of the stereotype about African Americans having rhythm. I was a victim of a stereotype. There were only two of us Negro kids in the whole class and our English teacher was always stressing the importance of rhythm in poetry. Well, everyone knows, except us. During high school in Cleveland, Hughes wrote for the school newspaper, edited the yearbook, began to write his first short stories and dramatic plays, his first piece of jazz poetry, ``. Hughes had a poor relationship with his father, whom he saw when a child, he lived with his father in Mexico in 1919. Upon graduating from high school in June 1920, Hughes returned to Mexico to live with his father, hoping to convince him to support his plan to attend Columbia University.
Hughes said that, prior to arriving in Mexico, "I had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't understand it, because I was a Negro, I liked Negroes much." His father had hoped Hughes would choose to study at a university abroad, train for a career in engineering. On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son, but did not support his desire to be a writer. Hughes and his father came to a compromise: Hughes would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia, his tuition provided, Hughes left his father after more than a year. While at Columbia in 1921, Hughes managed to maintain a B+ grade average, he left in 1922 because of racial prejudice among teachers. He was attracted more to the African-American people and neighborhood of Harlem than to his studies, but he continued writing poetry. Harlem was a center of vibrant cultural life. Hughes worked at various odd jobs, before serving a brief tenure as a crewman aboard the S.
S. Malone in 1923, spending six months traveling to West Europe. In Europe, Hughes left the S. S. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris. There he met and had a romance with Anne Marie Coussey
Alfred Aloysous Bernard was an American vaudeville singer, known as "The Boy From Dixie", most popular during the 1910s through early 1930s. Born in New Orleans, Louisiana, he became a blackface singer in minstrel shows before starting his recording career around 1916, he was one of the first white singers to record blues songs. W. C. Handy credited Bernard with helping his own career by recording a number of his songs, notably "St. Louis Blues". Bernard recorded the song for nine different record labels, the most successful being what Handy called "the sensational Victor recording in which he sang with the Dixieland Jazz Band". From 1919, he recorded solo for Okeh Records, his songs included one called "Shake and Roll", about a dice game, wholly unrelated, except in title, to the rock and roll song. Bernard was sometimes billed as "The Singing Comedian", was the first American singer to record the song "Frankie and Johnny" in America, he recorded duets with Ernest Hare, in which Bernard took the female singing part, including his biggest hit, "I Want To Hold You In My Arms".
He recorded with songwriter J. Russel Robinson as "The Dixie Stars" and, with Robinson, wrote the Bessie Smith feature "Sam Jones Blues", he co-wrote songs with Jimmy Durante. He recorded with Vernon Dalhart. In 1925, inspired by Dalhart, he began recording hillbilly songs, his 1930 version of "Hesitation Blues", recorded with the Goofus Five, is considered to predict the western swing style, with an intriguing combination of country and western and Chicago blues feels. Bernard continued to record into the 1940s He died on March 6, 1949 in Manhattan, New York City
James Reese Europe
James Reese Europe, sometimes known as Jim Europe, was an American ragtime and early jazz bandleader and composer. He was the leading figure on the Black American music scene of New York City in the 1910s. Eubie Blake called him the "Martin Luther King of music". Europe was born in Alabama, to Henry J. and Loraine Europe. His family, which included his older siblings, Ida S. and John Newton, younger sister, Mary Loraine, moved to Washington, D. C. in 1889, when he was 10 years old. He moved to New York in 1904. In 1910, Europe organized a society for Black Americans in the music industry. In 1912, the club made history when it played a concert at Carnegie Hall for the benefit of the Colored Music Settlement School; the Clef Club Orchestra, while not a jazz band, was the first band to play proto-jazz at Carnegie Hall. It is difficult to overstate the importance of that event in the history of jazz in the United States — it was 12 years before the Paul Whiteman and George Gershwin concert at Aeolian Hall, 26 years before Benny Goodman's famed concert at Carnegie Hall.
The Clef Club's performances played music written by Black composers, including Harry T. Burleigh and Samuel Coleridge-Taylor. Europe's orchestra included Will Marion Cook, who had not been in Carnegie Hall since his own performance as solo violinist in 1896. Cook was the first black composer to launch full musical productions scored with a cast and story every bit as classical as any Victor Herbert operetta. In the words of Gunther Schuller, Europe "... had stormed the bastion of the white establishment and made many members of New York's cultural elite aware of Negro music for the first time". The New York Times remarked, "These composers are beginning to form an art of their own". Europe was known for his outspoken personality and unwillingness to bend to musical conventions in his insistence on playing his own style of music, he responded to criticism by saying, "We have developed a kind of symphony music that, no matter what else you think, is different and distinctive, that lends itself to the playing of the peculiar compositions of our race...
My success had come... from a realization of the advantages of sticking to the music of my own people." And "We colored people have our own music, part of us. It's the product of our souls; these recordings are some of the best examples of the pre-jazz hot ragtime style of the U. S. Northeast of the 1910s; these are some of the most accepted quotes that are in place to protect the idea that the Original Dixieland Jass Band recorded the first jass pieces in 1917 for Victor. Unlike Europe's post-War recordings, the Victor recordings were not called nor marketed as "jazz" at the time, were far from the first recordings of ragtime by Black American musicians. Neither the Clef Club Orchestra nor the Society Orchestra were small "Dixieland" style bands, they were large symphonic bands to satisfy the tastes of a public, used to performances by the likes of the John Philip Sousa band and similar organizations popular at the time. The Clef Orchestra had 125 members and played on various occasions between 1912 and 1915 in Carnegie Hall.
It is instructive to read a comment from a music review in the New York Times from March 12, 1914: "... the programme consisted of plantation melodies and spirituals these composers are beginning to develop an art of their own based on their folk material..." During World War I, Europe obtained a commission in the New York Army National Guard, where he fought as a lieutenant with the 369th Infantry Regiment when it was assigned to the French Army. He went on to direct the regimental band to great acclaim. In February and March 1918, James Reese Europe and his military band travelled over 2,000 miles in France, performing for British and American military audiences as well as French civilians. Europe's "Hellfighters" made their first recordings in France for the Pathé brothers; the first concert included a French march, the Stars and Stripes Forever as well as syncopated numbers such as "The Memphis Blues", according to a description of the concert by band member Noble Sissle "... started ragtimitis in France".
After his return home in February 1919 he stated, "I have come from France more convinced than that Negros should write Negro music. We have our own racial feeling and if we try to copy whites we will make bad copies... We won France by playing music, ours and not a pale imitation of others, if we are to develop in America we must develop along our own lines." In 1919 Europe made more recordings for Pathé Records. These include both instrumentals and accompaniments with vocalist Noble Sissle who, with Eubie Blake, would have great success with their 1921 production of Shuffle Along, which gives us the classic song "I'm Just Wild About Harry". Differing in style from Europe's recordings of a few years earlier, they incorporate blues, blue notes, early jazz influences. On the night of May 9, 1919, Europe performed for the last time, he wanted to go on with the concert. During the intermission Europe went to have
Samuel Blythe Price was an American jazz, boogie-woogie and jump blues pianist and bandleader. Price's is a less percussive pianist. Price was born in Honey Grove, United States. Price formally studied the piano with Portia Marshall Washington. In the mid-1920s, when he was employed in a Dallas music store, Price wrote to Paramount Records recommending Blind Lemon Jefferson to the label. During his early career, he was a dancer in local venues in the Dallas area. Price lived and played jazz in Kansas City and Detroit. In 1938 he was hired by Decca Records as a session sideman on piano, assisting singers such as Trixie Smith and Sister Rosetta Tharpe. Price was most noteworthy for his work on Decca Records with his own band, known as the Texas Bluesicians, that included fellow musicians Don Stovall and Emmett Berry, he was the accompanist on countless recording sessions for the Decca blues and rhythm-and-blues catalogs, featuring such singers as Trixie Smith, Blue Lu Barker, Cousin Joe. Price recorded under his own name, with gospel singers and with Lester Young, toured Europe with Jimmy Rushing, appeared at numerous jazz festivals, performed in a Broadway play starring Tallulah Bankhead.
Price had a decade-long partnership with Henry "Red" Allen. During the 1960s, he was active in the law and civil rights advocating for the homeless. In Harlem he was organizing street-level campaigns for Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, President Lyndon Johnson and Senator Bobby Kennedy. In his life, Price partnered with the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City, was the headline entertainment at the Crawdaddy Restaurant, a New Orleans themed restaurant in New York in the mid-1970s. Both Benny Goodman and Buddy Rich played with Price at this venue. In the 1980s he switched to playing in the bar of Boston's Copley Plaza, he died of a heart attack in April 1992, at home in Harlem, in New York City, at the age of 83. "The Goon Drag" Sammy Price at AllMusic MIDI sequences of 18 compositions and arrangements by Sammy Price Amazon.com