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Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks

Hetman of Zaporizhian Cossacks is a historical term that has multiple meanings. The post was known as Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host. With the creation of Registered Cossacks units their leaders were referred to as Senior of His Royal Grace Zaporozhian Host. Before 1648 and the establishment of Cossack Hetmanate there were numerous regional hetmans across the Dnieper-banks, who were starostas or voivodes; the first recognized hetman of Zaporizhia was Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, however several Polish starostas were added to the Hetman registry such as Lyantskoronsky and Dashkevych who led their own cossack formations. According to Mykola Hrushevsky they were not considered as hetman, at least by their contemporaries. Among other such starostas were Karpo Maslo from Cherkasy, Yatsko Bilous and many others. Princes Konstanty Ostrogski and Bohdan Hlinski were conducting Cossack raids on Tatar uluses; the commanders of Zaporozhian Host considered as hetmans in fact carried a title of Kosh Otaman. As from 1572, hetman was the unofficial title of commanders of the Registered Cossack Army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

From the 1648 Bohdan Khmelnytsky uprising, Hetman was the title of the head of the Cossack state, the Cossack Hetmanate. Cossack hetmans had broad powers and acted as supreme military commanders and executive leader. After the split of Ukrainian territory along the Dnieper River by the Polish-Russian Treaty of Andrusovo 1667, there was an introduction of dual leadership for each bank, or for each Ukraine of Dnieper. After the Treaty of Andrusovo there existed two different Cossack Hetmanates with two Hetmans the one in Poland being called Nakazny Hetman of His Royal Mercy of Zaporizhian Host and the Russian one titled Hetman of His Tsar's Mercy of Zaporizhian Host; the official state powers of Cossack Hetmans were diminished in the 18th century, abolished by Catherine II of Russia in 1764. Przecław Lanckoroński, not an actual hetman, he was a starosta of Khmilnyk Ostap Dashkevych, not an actual hetman, he was a starosta in charge of a defense force approved by the Sejm near Cherkasy. Dashkevych offered to create a defense force on the banks of the Lower Dnieper Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, the first recorded Hetman of Zaporizhia, first who created a Cossack garrison at the Nyz Dnieprovski on the island of Khortytsia in 1552 Bohdan Ruzhynsky, member of Volhynia princedom, a leader, sponsored by Moscow Ivan Svirgovsky Ivan Pidkova, leader Ivan Orishevsky Bogdan Mikoshinsky Kryshtof Kosynsky, otaman led the 1590 uprising after Janusz Ostrogski confiscated his lands near Bila Tserkva that were awarded to him by the Sejm Hryhory Loboda, Hetman of Zaporizhia Severyn Nalyvaiko, an Ostrogski recruit who fought against the Kosiński Uprising, led his own uprising in Podolie and Volhynia independent from Hryhory Loboda Lubny massacre, a massacre, conducted by the Polish army led by Hetman Zolkiewski.

After that battle the Cossack movement was reduced within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Krempski, Hetman of Zaporizhia, was elected during the siege near Lubny and managed to escape with a small number of other cossacks Vasylevych, Hetman of Zaporizhia Nechkovsky, Hetman of Zaporizhia Tykhin Baybuza, Hetman of Zaporizhia Samiylo Kishka, Hetman of Zaporizhia, managed to reinstate the rights of cossacks in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny led successful campaigns against the Tatars and the Turks, aided the Polish army at Moscow in 1618 and at the Battle of Khotyn in 1621. He saw Cossack interests in the independence of Ukraine from Poland. Mykhailo Doroshenko Hryhoriy Chorny, elected by Registered Cossacks Taras Fedorovych, elected by unregistered Cossacks Ivan Sulyma Ivan Petrizhitsky-Kulaga Tomilenko Savva Kononovych, former Pereyaslav polkovnyk Pavel Mikhnovych, better known as Pavel Pavluk, the leader of 1637 uprising Karp Skydan, Pavlyuk's assistant, headed the 1637 uprising while Pavlyuk returned to Zaporizhia Battle between Moshny and Ros on 6 December 1637 Ilyash Karaimovych, Mykola Potocki's appointee of Registered Cossacks, Bohdan Khmelnytsky was appointed a pysar of Karaimovych.

Dmytro Hunia, leader in Zaporizhia Historians such as Mykola Arkas question legitimacy of the Teteria's elections accusing the in corruption. Some sources claim election of Teteria being taken place in January 1663; the election of Teteria led to the Povoloch Regiment Uprising in 1663, followed by bigger number of unrest in the modern region of Kirovohrad Oblast as well as Polesie. Moreover, the political crisis that followed the Pushkar–Barabash Uprising divided the Cossack Hetmanate on both bank of Dnieper River. Coincidentally, on January 10, 1663 the Tsardom of Muscovy created the new Little Russian Office within its Ambassadorial Office. Vouched by Charles Marie François Olier, marquis de Nointel, Yuriy Khmelnytsky was freed from the Ottoman captivity and along with Pasha Ibragim was sent to Ukraine fight the Moscow forces of Samoilovych and Romadanovsky. In 1681 Mehmed IV appointed George Ducas the Hetman of Ukraine. Fol

Desire Caught by the Tail

Desire Caught by the Tail is a farcical play written by the painter Pablo Picasso. In the winter of 1941, soon after the Germans had occupied Paris, Picasso while ill spent three days writing a play. Written in French, the piece was entitled Le Désir attrapé par la queue, which translates to "Desire Caught by the Tail." However, it was not until 1944 that it had its first audience when it was given a reading in the Paris apartment of Michel Leiris. There the parts were read by such local literati as Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre, Valentine Hugo, Raymond Queneau and Picasso himself. Albert Camus directed the piece; the Living Theatre made the play a part of their first critical success, when three poetic plays were staged at the same time. It was called An Evening of Bohemian Theatre at Cherry Lane Theatre in Greenwich Village, 2 March 1952, included plays by Gertrude Stein and T. S. Eliot. In June, 1959, Lorees Yerby Dutton directed a version of the play at the Coffee House Positano in Malibu, California.

It premiered as a full staged production in St. Tropez, France; the show, rumored to have actors urinating on stage, was protested despite the town’s tolerant reputation. The central prop was a large black box, which served as a coffin and a bed. Desire Caught by the Tail was restaged in 1984 by the Guggenheim Museum, it has been produced since. Described as "surrealistic" and "simply weird," the play is produced due to sheer incomprehensibility. There is no plot to speak of; the play has abstractly named characters: besides the protagonist Big Foot and his love interest Tart, there are Onion, Round End, the Cousin, the two Bow-wows, Fat Anguish, Skinny Anguish and The Curtains. And the stage directions are impractical: the transparent doors light up and the dancing shadows of five monkeys eating carrots appear. Complete darkness. While the narrative is nonlinear and the meaning nearly impossible to decipher, the work has been praised despite its lack of message. Bernard Frechtman, who translated the work from the original French, writes in his Foreword, "It says nothing of human destiny or of the human condition.

In an age which has discovered man with a capital M, it is gratifying to advise the reader that Picasso has nothing to say of man, nor of the universe. This in itself is a considerable achievement." Eye and Ear Theater, 1984. Two day production in New York. Envision Theatre, 2002. Produced as a radio broadcast in the U. K. Banished? productions, 2006. D. C production featured characters portrayed by dancers and puppeteer-powered toilet bowls Luxe, 2016. Two day production in London

Ovonramwen

Ovonramwen Nogbaisi called Overami, was the Ọba of the Kingdom of Benin up until the British punitive expedition of 1897. Born in circa 1857, he was the son of Ọba Adọlọ, he took the name Ovọnramwẹn Nọgbaisi at his enthronement in 1888, every Ọba took a new name at his coronation, the name translates as Ovọnramwẹn meaning "The Rising Sun" and Nọgbaisi meaning "which spreads over all". At the end of the 19th century, the Kingdom of Benin had managed to retain its independence and the Ọba exercised a monopoly over trade which the British found irksome; the territory was coveted by an influential group of investors for its rich natural resources such as palm-oil and ivory. The kingdom was independent of British control, pressure continued from figures such as Vice-Consul James Robert Phillips and Captain Gallwey who were pushing for British annexation of the Benin Empire and the removal of the Ọba. A British invasion force headed by Phillips set out to overthrow the Ọba in 1896; the force's weapons were hidden with troops disguised as bearers.

Phillips plan was to gain access to Ovonramwen's palace by announcing. Ovonramwen's messengers issued several warnings not to violate Benin territorial sovereignty, claiming he was unable to see Phillips due to ceremonial duties. Having been warned on several further occasions on the way, Phillips sent his stick to the Ọba, a deliberate insult designed to provoke the conflict that would provide an excuse for British annexation. Phillip's expedition was ambushed and all but two were killed. Subsequently, a military operation against Benin in 1897 led by Harry Rawson resulted in the burning of Benin City, the destruction and looting of the royal palaces, the deaths of untold numbers of its inhabitants. Although the British had orders to hang the Ọba, Ovonramwen escaped, but returned to the city to formally surrender on 5 August 1897; when Ovọnramwẹn returned to the city, after six months spent in evading capture in the forest, he was richly dressed and laden with coral beads and accompanied by an entourage of seven hundred to eight hundred people.

He attempted to escape exile by offering Consul General Ralph Moor 200 puncheons of oil worth £1500 at that time and to disclose where his 500 ivory tusks were buried. However, this offer was dismissed as Moor had discovered them. Ovonramwen was exiled to Calabar with two of Queen Egbe and Queen Aighobahi, he was received and hosted in Calabar in a small town called “Essien Town” by Etinyin Essien Etim Offiong, the progenitor of Essien Town. He died in Calabar around the turn of the new year in 1914. Ovọnramwẹn was buried in the grounds of the royal palace in Benin City, he was succeeded by his first son and legitimate heir, Prince Aguobasimwin, who ruled as Eweka II. "Miscellaneous views in Calabar and Sierra Leone, circa 1912-1913 - King Ovonramwen of Benin and wives". Janus. Retrieved 2007-03-17. Edofolksandtradionalityofnigeria.com Antiquities from the city of Benin and from other parts of West Africa in the British Museum, a catalog from The British Museum, which contains material from the period Ovonramwen ruled