The Pliensbachian is an age of the geologic timescale and stage in the stratigraphic column. It is part of the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series and spans the time between 190.8 ± 1.5 Ma and 182.7 ± 1.5 Ma. The Pliensbachian is followed by the Toarcian; the Pliensbachian ended with the extinction event called the Toarcian turnover. During the Pliensbachian, the middle part of the Lias was deposited in Europe; the Pliensbachian is coeval with the Charmouthian regional stage of North America. The Pliensbachian takes its name from the hamlet of Pliensbach in the community of Zell unter Aichelberg in the Swabian Alb, some 30 km east of Stuttgart in Germany; the name was introduced into scientific literature by German palaeontologist Albert Oppel in 1858. The base of the Pliensbachian is at the first appearances of the ammonite species Bifericeras donovani and genera Apoderoceras and Gleviceras; the Wine Haven profile near Robin Hood's Bay has been appointed as global reference profile for the base.
The top of the Pliensbachian is at the first appearance of ammonite genus Eodactylites. The Pliensbachian contains five ammonite biozones in the boreal domain: zone of Pleuroceras spinatum zone of Amaltheus margaritatus zone of Prodactylioceras davoei zone of Tragophylloceras ibex zone of Uptonia jamesoniIn the Tethys domain, the Pliensbachian contains six biozones: zone of Emaciaticeras emaciatum zone of Arieticeras algovianum zone of Fuciniceras lavinianum zone of Prodactylioceras davoei zone of Tragophylloceras ibex zone of Uptonia jamesoni Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Howart, M. K.. Geology Series 58, p. 81–152, Cambridge University Press, The Natural History Museum, Meister, C.. A.. P.. W.. D.. Oppel, C. A.. GeoWhen Database - Pliensbachian Lower Jurassic timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Jurassic, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
The Aalenian is a subdivision of the Middle Jurassic epoch/series of the geologic timescale that extends from about 174.1 Ma to about 170.3 Ma. It was succeeded by the Bajocian; the Aalenian takes its name from the town of Aalen, some 70 km east of Stuttgart in Germany. The town lies at the northeastern end of the Swabian Jura; the name Aalenian was introduced in scientific literature by Swiss geologist Karl Mayer-Eymar in 1864. The base of the Aalenian is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite genus Leioceras first appears; the global reference profile is located 500 meters north of the village of Fuentelsaz in the Spanish province of Guadalajara. The top of the Aalenian is at the first appearance of ammonite genus Hyperlioceras. In the Tethys domain, the Aalenian contains four ammonite biozones: zone of Graphoceras concavum zone of Brasilia bradfordensis zone of Ludwigia murchisonae zone of Leioceras opalinum Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Cresta, S.. L.. R.. J.. A..
L.. J.. Mayer-Eymar, K.. 1 Tabelle, Zürich. Sepkoski, J.. GeoWhen Database - Aalenian Lower Jurassic timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Upper and Lower Jurassic, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
In the geologic timescale the Bathonian is an age and stage of the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from 168.3 Ma to around 166.1 Ma. The Bathonian age precedes the Callovian age; the Bathonian stage takes its name from Bath, a spa town in England built on Jurassic limestone. The name was introduced in scientific literature by Belgian geologist d'Omalius d'Halloy in 1843; the original type locality was located near Bath. The French palaeontologist Alcide d'Orbigny was in 1852 the first to define the exact length of the stage; the base of the Bathonian is at the first appearance of ammonite species Parkinsonia convergens in the stratigraphic column. The global reference profile for the base of the Bathonian was ratified as Ravin du Bès, Bas-Auran area, Alpes de Haute Provence, France in 2009; the top of the Bathonian is at the first appearance of ammonite genus Kepplerites. In the Tethys domain, the Bathonian contains eight ammonite biozones: zone of Clydoniceras discus zone of Hecticoceras retrocostatum zone of Cadomites bremeri zone of Morrisiceras morrisi zone of Tulites subcontractus zone of Procerites progracilis zone of Procerites aurigerus zone of Zigzagiceras zigzagRocks of Bathonian age are well developed in Europe: in the northwest and southwest oolite limestones are characteristically associated with coral-bearing and other varieties, with certain beds of clay.
In the north and northeast, etc. clays and ferruginous oolites prevail, some of the last being exploited for iron. They occur in the extreme north of North America and in the Arctic regions, Franz Josef Land, etc.. The well-known Caen stone of Normandy and "Hauptrogenstein" of Swabia, as well as the "Eisenkalk" of northwest Germany, "Klaus-Schichten" of the Austrian Alps, are of Bathonian age. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. D'Omalius d'Halloy, J. B. J.. GeoWhen Database - Bathonian Jurassic-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Upper Jurassic, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
The Tethys Ocean called the Tethys Sea or the Neotethys, was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period. The name stems from the mythological Greek sea goddess Tethys and consort of Oceanus, mother of the great rivers and fountains of the world and of the Oceanid sea nymphs; the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean is sometimes referred to as Eastern Tethys. The western part of the Tethys Ocean is called Tethys Sea, Western Tethys Ocean, or Paratethys or Alpine Tethys Ocean; the Black and Aral seas are thought to be its crustal remains, though the Black Sea may, in fact, be a remnant of the older Paleo-Tethys Ocean. The Western Tethys was not a single open ocean, it covered many small plates, Cretaceous island arcs, microcontinents. Many small oceanic basins were separated from each other by continental terranes on the Alboran and Apulian plates; the high sea level in the Mesozoic flooded most of these continental domains.
As theories have improved, scientists have extended the "Tethys" name to refer to three similar oceans that preceded it, separating the continental terranes: in Asia, the Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys, Ceno-Tethy are recognized. Neither Tethys Ocean should be confused with the Rheic Ocean, which existed to the west of them in the Silurian Period. To the north of the Tethys, the then-land mass was called Angaraland and to the south of it, it was called Gondwanaland. From the Ediacaran into the Devonian, the Proto-Tethys Ocean existed and was situated between Baltica and Laurentia to the north and Gondwana to the south. From the Silurian through the Jurassic periods, the Paleo-Tethys Ocean existed between the Hunic terranes and Gondwana. Over a period of 400 million years, continental terranes intermittently separated from Gondwana in the Southern Hemisphere to migrate northward to form Asia in the Northern Hemisphere. About 250 Mya, during the Triassic, a new ocean began forming in the southern end of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.
A rift formed along the northern continental shelf of Southern Pangaea. Over the next 60 million years, that piece of shelf, known as Cimmeria, traveled north, pushing the floor of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean under the eastern end of northern Pangaea; the Tethys Ocean formed between Cimmeria and Gondwana, directly over where the Paleo-Tethys used to be. During the Jurassic period about 150 Mya, Cimmeria collided with Laurasia and stalled, so the ocean floor behind it buckled under, forming the Tethyan Trench. Water levels rose, the western Tethys shallowly covered significant portions of Europe, forming the first Tethys Sea. Around the same time and Gondwana began drifting apart, opening an extension of the Tethys Sea between them which today is the part of the Atlantic Ocean between the Mediterranean and the Caribbean; as North and South America were still attached to the rest of Laurasia and Gondwana the Tethys Ocean in its widest extension was part of a continuous oceanic belt running around the Earth between about latitude 30°N and the Equator.
Thus, ocean currents at the time around the Early Cretaceous ran differently from the way they do today. Between the Jurassic and the Late Cretaceous, which started about 100 Mya, Gondwana began breaking up, pushing Africa and India north across the Tethys and opening up the Indian Ocean; as these land masses crowded in on the Tethys Ocean from all sides, to as as the Late Miocene, 15 Mya, the ocean continued to shrink, becoming the Tethys Seaway or second Tethys Sea. Throughout the Cenozoic, global sea levels fell hundreds of meters, the connections between the Atlantic and the Tethys closed off in what is now the Middle East. During the Oligocene, large parts of central and eastern Europe were covered by a northern branch of the Tethys Ocean, called the Paratethys; the Paratethys was separated from the Tethys with the formation of the Alps, Dinarides and Elburz mountains during the Alpine orogeny. During the late Miocene, the Paratethys disappeared, became an isolated inland sea. In 1885, the Austrian palaeontologist Melchior Neumayr deduced the existence of the Tethys Ocean from Mesozoic marine sediments and their distribution, calling his concept Zentrales Mittelmeer and described it as a Jurassic seaway, which extended from the Caribbean to the Himalayas.
In 1893, the Austrian geologist Eduard Suess proposed the theory that an ancient and extinct inland sea had once existed between Laurasia and the continents which formed Gondwana II. He named it the Tethys Sea after the Greek sea goddess Tethys, he provided evidence for his theory using fossil records from the Africa. He proposed the concept of Tethys in his four-volume work Das Antlitz der Erde. In the following decades during the 20th century, "mobilist" geologists such as Uhlig and Daque regarded Tethys as a large trough between two supercontinents which lasted from the late Palaeozoic until continental fragments derived from Gondwana obliterated it. After World War II, Tethys was described as a triangular ocean with a wide eastern end. From 1920s to the 1960s, "fixist" geologists, regarded Tethys as a composite trough, which evolved through a series of orogenic cycles, they used the terms'Paleotethys','Mesotethys', and'Neotethys' for the Caledonian and Alpine orogenies, respe
Ichthyosaurs are large extinct marine reptiles. Ichthyosaurs belong to the order known as Ichthyopterygia. Ichthyosaurs thrived during much of the Mesozoic era. During the early Triassic period, ichthyosaurs evolved from a group of unidentified land reptiles that returned to the sea, in a development similar to how the mammalian land-dwelling ancestors of modern-day dolphins and whales returned to the sea millions of years which they came to resemble in a case of convergent evolution. Ichthyosaurs were abundant in the Triassic and early Jurassic periods, until they were replaced as the top aquatic predators by another marine reptilian group, the Plesiosauria, in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. In the Late Cretaceous, ichthyosaurs were hard hit by the Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event, their last lineage became extinct for unknown reasons. Science became aware of the existence of ichthyosaurs during the early nineteenth century, when the first complete skeletons were found in England. In 1834, the order Ichthyosauria was named.
That century, many excellently preserved ichthyosaur fossils were discovered in Germany, including soft-tissue remains. Since the late twentieth century, there has been a revived interest in the group, leading to an increased number of named ichthyosaurs from all continents, with over fifty valid genera being now known. Ichthyosaur species varied from one to over sixteen metres in length. Ichthyosaurs resembled dolphins, their limbs had been transformed into flippers, which sometimes contained a large number of digits and phalanges. At least some species possessed a dorsal fin, their heads were pointed, the jaws were equipped with conical teeth that could help to catch smaller prey. Some species had larger, bladed teeth with; the eyes were large useful when deep diving. The neck was short, species had a rather stiff trunk; these had a more vertical tail fin, used for a powerful propulsive stroke. The vertebral column, made of simplified disc-like vertebrae, continued into the lower lobe of the tail fin.
Ichthyosaurs were air-breathing, warm-blooded, bore live young. They may have had a layer of blubber for insulation; the first known illustrations of ichthyosaur bones and limb elements were published by the Welshman Edward Lhuyd in his Lithophylacii Brittannici Ichnographia of 1699. Lhuyd thought. In 1708, the Swiss naturalist Johann Jakob Scheuchzer described two ichthyosaur vertebrae assuming they belonged to a man drowned in the Universal Deluge. In 1766, an ichthyosaur jaw with teeth was found at Weston near Bath. In 1783, this piece was exhibited by the Society for Promoting Natural History as those of a crocodilian. In 1779, ichthyosaur bones were illustrated in John Walcott's Descriptions and Figures of Petrifications. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, British fossil collections increased in size; those of the naturalists Ashton Lever and John Hunter were acquired in their totality by museums. The bones had been labelled as belonging to fish, dolphins, or crocodiles; the demand by collectors led to more intense commercial digging activities.
In the early nineteenth century, this resulted in the discovery of more complete skeletons. In 1804, Edward Donovan at St. Donats uncovered a four metres long ichthyosaur specimen containing a jaw, ribs, a shoulder girdle, it was considered to be a giant lizard. In October 1805, a newspaper article reported the find of two additional skeletons, one discovered at Weston by Jacob Wilkinson, the other, at the same village, by Reverend Peter Hawker. In 1807, the last specimen was described by Joseph Hawker; this specimen thus gained some fame among geologists as'Hawker's Crocodile'. In 1810, near Stratford-upon-Avon, an ichthyosaur jaw was found, combined with plesiosaur bones to obtain a more complete specimen, indicating that the distinctive nature of ichthyosaurs was not yet understood, awaiting the discovery of far better fossils. In 1811, in Lyme Regis, along what is now called the Jurassic Coast of Dorset, the first complete ichthyosaur skull was found by Joseph Anning, the brother of Mary Anning, who in 1812 while still a young girl, secured the torso of the same specimen.
Their mother, Molly Anning, sold the combined piece to squire Henry Henley for £23. Henley lent the fossil to the London Museum of Natural History of William Bullock; when this museum was closed, the British Museum bought the fossil for a price of £47.5s. It has been identified as a specimen of Temnodontosaurus platyodon. In 1814, the Annings' specimen was described by Professor Everard Home, in the first scientific publication dedicated to an ichthyosaur. Intrigued by the strange animal, Home tried to locate additional specimens in existing collections. In 1816, he described ichthyosaur fossils owned by James Johnson. In 1818, Home published. In 1819, he wrote two articles about specimens found by Henry
Ichthyosaurus is a genus of ichthyosaurs from the late Triassic and early Jurassic of Europe and Asia. It is among the best known ichthyosaur genera. Ichthyosaurus was smaller than most of its relatives, with individuals measuring up to 3.3 metres in length. Hundreds of well-preserved, fossilised skeletons have been found in Jurassic rock at Holzmaden, Germany; some of the bones were still articulated. Some fossils still had baby specimens inside them. Similar finds in the related Stenopterygius show this; the German fossils featured the outline of Ichthyosaurus's skin, revealing that it had a fleshy dorsal fin on its back and a large caudal fin. Other ichthyosaur fossils showed. Ichthyosaurus was the first complete fossil to be discovered in the early 19th century by Mary Anning in England. I. Anningae, described in 2015 from a fossil found in the early 1980s in Dorset, was named after Anning; the fossil was acquired by Doncaster Museum and Art Gallery, where it was misidentifed as a plaster cast.
In 2008, Dean Lomax, from the University of Manchester, recognised it as genuine and worked with Judy Massare, of the State University of New York, to establish it as a new species. This cladogram below follows the topology from a 2010 analysis by Patrick S. Druckenmiller and Erin E. Maxwell. Ichthyosaurus ear bones were solid transferring water vibrations to the inner ear. So, anatomical features demonstrate that it was a visually-oriented predator. Coprolites of Ichthyosaurus reveal that its diet squid, it was believed that Ichthyosaurus laid eggs on land, but fossil evidence shows that in fact the females gave birth to live young. As such, they were well-adapted to life as pelagic organisms; the babies were born tail first to prevent them from drowning in the water. Joseph Victor von Scheffels poem Der Ichthyosaurus describes its extinction in humouristic verses. A monument on Hohentwiel cites it as well; the poem has been translated among others by Charles Godfrey Leland Some of the stanzas: List of ichthyosaurs Timeline of ichthyosaur research