North Dakota Senate
The North Dakota Senate is the upper house of the North Dakota Legislative Assembly, smaller than the North Dakota House of Representatives. North Dakota is divided into between 40 and 54 legislative districts apportioned by population as determined by the decennial census; the 2000 redistricting plan provided with one senator elected from each district. Senators serve 4-year terms. Elections are staggered such; the Senate Chamber is located in the North Dakota State Capitol in North Dakota. 66th Legislative Assembly List of Presidents pro tempore of the North Dakota Senate List of Majority Leaders of the North Dakota Senate North Dakota Legislative Assembly official website North Dakota Senate at Ballotpedia Legislature of North Dakota at Project Vote Smart North Dakota campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Richard Alan Berg is an American politician who served as the U. S. Representative for North Dakota's at-large congressional district from 2011 to 2013. Berg served on the House Ways and Means Committee, he is a member of the Republican Party. Before his election to Congress in 2010, he served in the state House of Representatives, with stints as Majority Leader and Speaker. On May 16, 2011, Berg announced his run for the United States Senate seat being vacated by Democratic incumbent Kent Conrad but lost narrowly to Heidi Heitkamp on November 6, 2012. Berg was raised on a farm in Hettinger, his father was a large animal veterinarian and his mother was a writer. His grandfather immigrated to the United States from Norway. Berg graduated from Hettinger High School, he earned a wrestling scholarship to the North Dakota State College of Science. He attended for a year before transferring to North Dakota State University, where he graduated with a B. A. in Agricultural Economics. In 1982, after college he co-founded Midwest Management Company, a real-estate management firm in Fargo.
In 1987 he moved on to an affiliate commercial real estate company spun off from Midwest. In 1996 along with other early partners in Midwest he founded Goldmark Commercial Corporation which has since been renamed to Goldmark Schlossman Commercial Real Estate. At the time of his election, Berg was the 13th wealthiest member of Congress. Berg first ran for the North Dakota House of Representatives in 1984 in the 10th House District, based in Fargo, he won and was re-elected every four years after, until his congressional run in 2010. In 2002, after redistricting, he decided to run in the newly redrawn 45th House District, won a seat with 31%. In 2006, he won re-election with 28%. In 1991, he became the Chairman of the House Republican caucus. In 1993, he served as Speaker of the House. In 2003, he became the House Majority Leader; as Speaker, he proposed a controversial new education funding system aimed at making payments more equitable. Berg supported President George W. Bush's plan to privatize Social Security through private accounts in 2005.
In 2009, he earned the Petroleum Council’s Legislator of the Year and the North Dakota Chamber of Commerce's Greater North Dakotan award. 61st Assembly Appropriations Budget Section Industry and Labor Legislative Audit and Fiscal Review Water-Related Topics60th Assembly Budget Section Committees Delayed Bills Economic Development Legislative Council Legislative Management59th Assembly Budget Section Committees Delayed Bills Economic Development Legislative Management Tribal and State Relations58th Assembly Budget Section Committees Delayed Bills Economic Development Legislative Management Rules57th Assembly Agriculture Budget Committee on Health Care Commerce Industry and Labor Regulatory Reform Review56th Assembly Agriculture Commerce and Labor Industry and Labor Legislative Management55th Assembly Budget Education Finance Industry and Labor On January 20, 2010 Berg announced he was seeking the GOP endorsement to run for the United States House of Representatives. In March 2010, Berg won the GOP nomination at the Republican state convention to challenge incumbent Democratic Representative Earl Pomeroy for the state's at-large seat in the United States House of Representatives.
In the general election Berg defeated the incumbent with 55% of the vote to represent North Dakota's at-large congressional district. Berg's biggest donor during the campaign was Inc.. As of 2011, Berg worked at Goldmark since 1981 and was promoted to Senior Vice President of Goldmark Schlossman Commercial Real Estate Services in 2005. Berg voted for the Paul Ryan budget, which would restructure Medicaid. Berg supports a balanced-budget amendment to the Constitution, he voted in favor of the National Right-to-Carry Reciprocity Act and has received "A" and "A+" ratings from the National Rifle Association Political Victory Fund for his stance on gun rights. Berg joined 60 other members of Congress in a letter to the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction that urged committee members not to cut the critical access hospital program; the CAH program provides assistance to rural hospitals. 36 CAHs exist in North Dakota, including one in Berg's hometown. Berg has voted to curtail EPA regulations, stating: "In North Dakota, we know the damaging effects that overreaching government regulations can have on our small businesses and their ability to create jobs."
He has proposed drilling for oil in federal lands, including North Dakota's own Theodore Roosevelt National Park, as a way to provide funding for Social Security. In 2009, he was presented with the Greater North Dakotan Award by the North Dakota Chamber of Commerce for his support of business interests. Berg is pro-life and has voted to prohibit federal funds from being used for health care plans that cover abortions, he is a member of the Congressional Prayer Caucus. Berg is against same-sex marriage. In 2007 Berg voted on ND House Bill 1489, which proposed making abortion a class AA felony in the case of rape and incest. Berg was a member of the U. S. House Ways & Means Committee. Caucus MembershipsCongressional Western Caucus Unmanned Systems Caucus General Aviation Caucus Coal Caucus Friends of Norway Caucus Job Creators Caucus E-911 Caucus National Archives Caucus Rural Health Care Coalition Sportsman Caucus Sugar Caucus Congressional Prayer Caucus House National Guard and Reserve Caucus On May 16, 2011, Berg announced that he woul
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
Hettinger, North Dakota
Hettinger is a city in, the county seat of, Adams County, North Dakota, United States. The population was 1,226 at the 2010 census. North Dakota State University operates a livestock research station near Hettinger, which partners with South Dakota State University's Antelope Range and Livestock Research Station for sheep research. Hettinger was founded in 1907 along the Milwaukee Road's transcontinental rail line known as the Pacific Extension; the city and its surrounding township were named by popular demand in recognition of Hettinger County, from which Adams County was created in 1907. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.86 square miles, of which 0.85 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hettinger has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,307 people, 584 households, 345 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,556.6 people per square mile.
There were 720 housing units at an average density of 857.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.78% White, 0.15% African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.38% of the population. There were 584 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.8% were non-families. 38.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.76. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 28.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,689, the median income for a family was $32,917. Males had a median income of $26,172 versus $19,674 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,148. About 5.4% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 13.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,226 people, 587 households, 316 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,442.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 704 housing units at an average density of 828.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.4% White, 0.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 587 households of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.2% were non-families.
42.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.70. The median age in the city was 48 years. 19.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 43.2% male and 56.8% female. Hettinger High School Radio stationsKNDC and KNDH-FM are the two local stations in town. Rick Berg, U. S. Congressman Patrick Daniel Norton, U. S. Congressman Steve Tomac, North Dakota state legislator City of Hettinger Map showing Forest Service lands just south of Hettinger
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k