Jongno District is a gu, or district, in central Seoul, South Korea. It takes its name from a major local street, which means "Bell Street". Jongno District has been the center of the city for 600 years, since it is where the Joseon dynasty established its capital city. Jongno District is referred to as the face and heart of Korea because of its important roles in the politics, economics and history as the capital city. Jongno District is home to palaces in which the kings used to reside and work, such as Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeok Palace and Unhyeon Palace; the South Korean president's current residence, the Cheongwadae, is located in Jongno District. With the historical value and cultural properties, Jongno District attracts visitors' attention; these include the restored Cheonggyecheon stream, the traditional neighborhood of Insa-dong, the Jongmyo shrine. Art Center Nabi and Gahoe Museum, a relics museum is located in the district. A number of colleges and universities are located here. Jongno District is home to Jogyesa, the chief temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.
The area is home to the Gwanghwamun Plaza a public open space on Sejongno and is part of the Seoul Metropolitan Government's plans for environmentally friendly renovation projects such as the Cheonggye Stream and Seoul Plaza. It is of historical significant as the location for royal administrative buildings and features statues of the Admiral Yi Sun-sin of Joseon Dynasty and King Sejong the Great of Joseon. Jongno district has been included in capital of Joseon dynasty for 600 years. Hanyang, the capital of Joseon included Jung district. In October, 1394, Taejo Lee Seong-gye moved his capital from Gagyeong to Hanyang; the capital of Goryeo, had a strong base of traditional forces against Lee Seong-gye. In addition, the topography divination theory says that the new dynasty was unlucky due to its failure, that it moved to Hanyang with regard to water transport of rice and military geographical conditions. Following the relocation of the capital city, the Joseon government pushed for the construction of Hanyang, starting with the construction of Jongmyo.
The construction of the main palace, Gyeongbok Palace and the separate palace, Changdeok Palace was done. In 1395, it was renamed as Hanyang Department. In 1399, the capital was moved to Gagyeong for a while because of the Prince’s rebellion but, in 1405, the capital changed back to Hanyang; the city grew into a large city with about 200,000 people at King Sejong’s time. As the traditional heart of Seoul, Jongno is still an important business center. Notable companies based in Jongno include Kyobo Life. Lotte Group, SK Group, Hyundai Engineering & Construction, Daewoo E&C, Daelim Group, East Asia Daily and many more; the headquarters of South Korean skincare retailer The Face Shop is located in the LG Gwanghwamun Building on sinmunno 2-ga. The head office of Air Seoul is in the Kumho Asiana Main Tower in Jongro Gu. Jongno district is called as the most important district in politics, it is located in the heart of the Republic of Korea, which includes Cheong Wa Dae, Seoul City Hall and three large squares, is the first to appear in the National Election Commission's election statistics.
Therefore, it is the first among the local districts in the exit investigation. Because of the symbolism, all political parties are concerned about the nomination of candidates for the district, most minor parties choose local constituencies in Jongno. Three presidents used to be the politician of Jongno district. Yun Posun,No Muhyeon, Lee Myungbak used to be the politician of Jongno district, it has been regarded as a Conservative area in Seoul due to its villages and native areas such as Pyeongchang, Samcheong-dong, Sajik-dong, Jongro 1 and 4, but now it is changing into a stronger democrats due to the votes of Sungkyunkwan University students in Hyehwa-dong. Until the early and mid-2010s, conservative influences were strong, but now it has become a super strong democratic area. The politician of Jongno district is Chung Syekyun and the head of Jongno-gu Office is Kim Youngjong The headquarters of the Ministry of Security and Public Administration is located in the Seoul Government Complex in Jongno District.
The third and fourth floors of the same building house the Ministry of Unification. The headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is located in the MOFA Building in Jongno District; the Ministry of Education had its headquarters in the Central Government Complex in Jongno District. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism had its headquarters in Jongno District; the Ministry of Health and Welfare had its headquarters in the Hyundai Building. The offices of those ministries have moved to Sejong City. Before merged into another ministry in 2008, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries was located in Jongro-gu, it was re-established in Sejong City. Those are some of the district administrative dongs. For a complete list, see here. There are various historical attractions in Jongno-gu, because Jongno-gu was the capital of Joseon for 500 years; the three most famous palaces, Heunginjimun Gate, Jongmyo Shrine, Sungkyunkwan University are among other historical attractions. First of five palaces built during the Joseon Dynasty, it is the royal palace of the Joseon Dynasty.
One of the palaces of Joseon Dynasty in Seoul. It was listed as a UNESCO Wo
Seoul Metropolitan Subway
The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a metropolitan railway system consisting of 22 rapid transit, light metro, commuter rail and people mover lines located in northwest South Korea. The system serves most of the Seoul Metropolitan Area including the Incheon metropolis and satellite cities in Gyeonggi province; some regional lines in the network stretch out to rural areas in northern Chungnam province and western Gangwon province that lie over 100 km away from the capital as well as Suwon. The network consists of numbered lines 1–9, which serve Seoul City proper and its surroundings and named regional railways that serve the greater metropolitan region and beyond. Most of the system is operated by three companies – Seoul Metro and Metro 9. However, there are several other lines stretching out to regional provinces, its first metro line, Line 1, started construction in 1971 and opened in 1974, with through-operation to Korail suburban railways. Today, the network is one of the largest and most efficient urban railway systems in the world, with 331.5 km of track on lines 1–9 alone.
Under the Japanese ODA loans, the first line of the Seoul Subway network started construction in 1971. The first section of subway was cover construction method. Line 1 opened in 1974 with through services joining surrounding Korail suburban railway lines similar to the Tokyo subway. Today, many of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway's lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national passenger and freight railway operator; this is similar to Europe and Japan, where the national railroad operates local mainline urban railways, such as the S-Bahns in Germany, operated by subsidiaries of Deutsche Bahn, or JR East in Japan, which operates many other urban rail systems in Japanese cities. It has been described as the world's longest multi-operator metro system by route length; the system was rated as one of the world's best subway systems by CNN, Jalopnik It is notable for its cleanliness and ease of use along with advanced technology such as 4G LTE, WiFi, DMB, WiBro accessible in all stations and trains.
Nearly all stations have platform screen doors installed. By 2017, Korail will install screen doors in every station and platform; the world's first virtual mart for smartphone users opened at Seolleung station in 2011. All directional signs in the system are written in Korean and Hanja. In trains there are in addition many LCD screens giving service announcements, upcoming stop names, YTN news, stock prices and animated shorts. There are prerecorded voice announcements that give the upcoming station, any possible line transfer, the exiting side in Korean, followed by English. At major stations, this is followed by Japanese Mandarin Chinese, as well. Seoul Subway uses full-color LCD screens at all stations to display real-time subway arrival times, which are available on apps for smartphones. Most trains have digital TV screens, all of them have air conditioning and climate controlled seats installed that are automatically heated in the winter. In 2014, it became the world's first metro operator to use transparent displays for ads when it installed 48 transparent displays on major stations of Line 2 in Gangnam District.
All lines use the T-money smart payment system using RFID and NFC technology for automatic payment by T-money smart cards, smartphones, or credit cards and one can transfer to any of the other line within the system for free. Trains on numbered lines run on the right-hand track, while trains on the named lines run on the left-hand track; the exceptions are the trains on Line 1, as well as those on Line 4 south of Namtaeryeong station. These lines run on the left-hand track because these rail lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national railway operator; the system is organised such that numbered lines, with some exceptions, are considered as urban rapid transit lines located within the Seoul National Capital Area, whereas wide-area commuter lines operated by Korail provide a metro-like commuter rail service that extends far beyond the boundaries of the SNCA, rather similar to the RER in Paris. The AREX is an airport rail link that links Incheon International Airport and Gimpo Airport to central Seoul, offers both express service directly to Incheon International Airport and all-stop commuter service for people living along the vicinity of the line.
While operating hours may vary depending on the line in question, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway operates from 5.30 am until 1 am on weekdays, from 5.30 am until midnight on weekends. Line 1, from Seongbuk station to Incheon station and Suwon station, opened on 15 August 1974. On 9 December 1978, the Yongsan-Cheongnyangni line was added to Line 1. Line 2 opened on 10 October 1980. In 1985, the fare system changed from charging by distance to zone and the Edmondson railway ticket changed to a magnetic paper ticket. Line 4 opened on 20 April 1985, Line 3 on 12 July. On 1 April 1994, the Indeogwon-Namtaeryeong extension of Line 4 opened; the Bundang Line, from Suseo station to Ori station, opened on 1 September. On 15 November 1995, Line 5 opened; the Jichuk-Daehwa extension of Line 3 opened on 30 January 1996. On 20 March, the Kkachisan-Sindorim extension of Line 2 opened. Line 7 opened on 11 October, Line 8 on 23 November. On 6 October 1999, Incheon Subway Line 1 opened. Seoul Subway Line 6 opened on 7 August 2000.
In 2004 the fare system reverted to charging by distance, free bus transfers were introduced. The
Seoul Subway Line 4
Seoul Subway Line 4 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a long line crossing from the southwest to the northeast across the Seoul National Capital Area. The central section in Seoul City is operated by Seoul Metro with through trains to Korail's Ansan and Gwacheon Lines; the southern terminus is in Jeongwang 4-dong, Siheung City, the northern terminus is in Sanggye 4-dong, Nowon-gu, northern Seoul. All northbound trains terminate at Danggogae, except during night time where they short-turn at various stations. Half of the southbound services short-turn at Sadang, another half head to Oido or Ansan. Express train service stops at all stations between Danggogae and Sanbon at Sangnoksu, Jungang and all stations to Oido; the express service only operates during rush hours on weekdays. 1985: April 20: Line 4 is opened from Sanggye to Samseon-gyo.1993: April 21: The line is extended northward from Sanggye to Danggogae.1994: April 1: The line is extended southward from Sadang to Ansan when a section of the Gwacheon Line and Namtaeryeong Station open.2000: July 28: The line is extended westward from Ansan to Oido.2003 July 18: Surisan Station opens as an in-fill station on the Ansan Line section.2010 Ansan Line AM express service is launched in the northbound direction only.2014 September 1: Southbound PM express service is launched.2017 July 7: Express service is extended to Oido.
The Transportation and Construction Committee of the National Assembly approved an extension from the northern end of Line 4 to Jinjeop, Namyangju. Construction began on December 10, 2014 with completion date in 2023. Turnback siding after Danggogae Station Changdong Depot Connecting track to Line 3 before Chungmuro Station Dongjak Bridge Chongshin Univ. – Sadang scissors crossover Hanyang University, ERICA Campus Turnback siding after Sadang Station Namtaeryong–Seonbawi track crossing point The voltage/current switches between DC 1,500 V ↔ AC 25,000 V Ansan Depot Siheung Depot The largest scale of shell mounds in the South Korean west coast in Oido Seoul Metro 4000 series MELCO VVVF-GTO inverter controlled electric car GEC-Alsthom VVVF-GTO inverter controlled electric car Toshiba VVVF-IGBT inverter controlled electric car Dawonsys VVVF-IGBT inverter controlled electric car Korail Class 341000 Seoul Metro 4000 series Wide-width GEC Chopper resister controlled electric car Korail Class 1000 Subways in South Korea Seoul Metropolitan Subway
Gwanghuimun is one of The Eight Gates of Seoul in the Fortress Wall of Seoul, South Korea, which surrounded the city in the Joseon Dynasty. The gate is known as Namsomun, it was called Sugumun "Water Channel Gate." Gwanghuimun was built in 1396, was rebuilt from 1711-1719. It was the only gate to be left untouched during the Japanese Occupation. However, it was destroyed during the Korean War, but was restored in 1976; the name Gwanghuimun means “Bright Light Gate.” Gwanghuimun is located in Jung-gu, Gwanghui-dong 2-ga, Seoul, at the intersection of Geumhodong-gil and Toegye-ro. The current gate is located further south than the original gate, due to road construction; the gate can be accessed from the Dongdaemun History & Culture Park Station, located on both subway line 2 and subway line 4. It is located about 1/2 block south from subway line 2, exit 3. Visitors to the gate today are not allowed access above the gate, but can go through the gate and circle the section of the Fortress Wall it is connected to
Changuimun is one of the Eight Gates of Seoul in the Fortress Wall of Seoul, South Korea, which surrounded the city in the Joseon Dynasty. The gate is known as Buksomun, Jahamun. Changuimun was built in 1396. Along with Hyehwamun, Changuimun served as a major portal for those exiting the walled city of Seoul known as Hanyang to travel north; the wooden gatehouse above Changuimun was burned down during the 16th century invasions by Japan, but was rebuilt in 1740 or 1741. The gatehouse is the oldest gatehouse of those on the “Four Small Gates” in the Fortress Wall of Seoul; the name Changuimun means “Showing the Correct Thing Gate.” Changuimun is located in Buam-dong, Seoul. It can be accessed via taking subway line 1 to Jonggak Station exit 3 taking bus 7022 at Jeil Bank, getting off at Jahamun Tunnel. Visitors to the gate today are allowed access to the front and the back of the gate, under the gate itself. Visitors may carefully view the wooden gatehouse above the gate, but are not allowed inside, should not approach too due to a laser alarm system.
If approaching the gate from the west, visitors notice there is a gate-like tunnel leading up to the gate itself. The gate is known for being in a early state of preservation, compared with the rest of the Eight Gates of Seoul; the wooden rafters on the interior of the gate are decorated with chickens, which were known as enemies of the centipede. This is in contrast to Hyehwamun, whose rafters are decorated with the phoenix, enemies of small birds. Close to Changuimun are memorials to two people who lost their lives defending South Korea during the Blue House Raid on January 21, 1968: Superintendent General Choi Gyu-sik. Visitors can walk through the passageway to view gate. People are allowed to go up the stairs
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong