click links in text for more info


In chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms. The chemical formula for all hexoses is C6H12O6, their molecular weight is 180.156 g/mol. Like some other monosaccharides, hexoses exist in two forms, open-chain or closed-chain, that convert into each other in water solutions; the linear form of a hexose, which exists only in solutions, has the general structure H–n−1–C–4−n–H, where n is 1, 2, or 3. Namely, five of the carbons have one hydroxyl functional group each, connected by a single bond, one has an oxygen atom connected by a double bond, forming a carbonyl group; the remaining bonds of the carbon atoms are satisfied by seven hydrogen atoms. The carbons are numbered 1 to 6 starting at the end closest to the carbonyl. Hexoses are important in biochemistry, both as isolated molecules and as building blocks of other compounds such as starch and glycosides. Hexose sugars can form dihexose sugars with a condensation reaction that creates 1,6-glycosidic bond; when the carbonyl is in position n = 1, forming an aldehyde group H2C–, the sugar is called an aldohexose, a special case of aldose.

Otherwise, if the carbonyl position n is 2 or 3, the sugar is a derivative of a ketone, is called a ketohexose, a special case of ketose. However, the 3-ketohexoses have not been observed in nature, are difficult to synthesize. In the linear form, there are 16 aldohexoses and eight 2-ketohexoses, stereoisomers that differ in the spatial position of the hydroxyl groups; these species occur in pairs of optical isomers. Each pair has a conventional name, the two members are labeled "D-" or "L-", depending on whether the hydroxyl in position 5, in the Fischer projection of the molecule, is to the right or to the left of the axis, respectively; these labels are independent of the optical activity of the isomers. In general, only one of the two enantiomers occurs and can be metabolized by animals or fermented by yeasts; the term "hexose" sometimes is assumed to include deoxyhexoses, such as fucose and rhamnose: compounds with general formula C6H12O6-y that can be described as derived from hexoses by replacement of one or more hydroxyl groups with hydrogen atoms.

The aldohexoses are a subclass of the hexoses which, in the linear form, have the carbonyl at carbon 1, forming an aldehyde derivative with structure H–C–5–H. The most important example is glucose. In linear form, an aldohexose has four chiral centres, which give 16 possible aldohexose stereoisomers,comprising 8 pairs of enantiomers; the linear forms of the eight D-aldohexoses, in the Fischer projection, are Of these D-isomers, all except D-altrose occur in living organisms, but only three are common: D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose. The L-isomers are absent in living organisms; the chemist Emil Fischer is said to have devised the following mnemonic device for remembering the order given above, which corresponds to the configurations about the chiral centers when ordered as 3-bit binary strings: All altruists gladly make gum in gallon tanks.referring to allose, glucose, gulose, galactose, talose. When drawn in this order, the Fischer projections of the D-aldohexoses can be identified with the 3-digit binary numbers from 0 to 7, namely 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111.

The three bits, from left to right, indicate the position of the hydroxyls on carbons 4, 3, 2, respectively: to the right if the bit value is 0, to the left if the value is 1. The Fischer diagrams of the eight L-aldohexoses are the mirror images of the corresponding L-isomers. A ketone has a structure RCR', where R' are carbon-containing substituents. By International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry nomenclature standards the "2-" indicates the position of the functional group, the carbonyl. Therefore, a 2-ketohexose is a 2-ketone derivative with the structure H–CHOH–C–4–H. Biologically, the most important example is fructose. In the linear form, the 2-ketohexoses have three chiral centers and therefore eight possible stereoisomers, comprising four pairs of enantiomers; the four D-isomers are: The corresponding L forms have the hydroxyls on carbons 3, 4,and 5 reversed. Below are depiction of the eight isomers in an alternative style: In theory, the ketohexoses include the 3-ketohexoses, which have the carbonyl in position 3.

However, these compounds are not known to occur in nature, are difficult to synthesize. In 1897, an unfermentable product obtained by treatment of fructose with bases, in particular lead hydroxide, was given the name glutose and was claimed to be a 3-ketohexose. However, subsequent studies showed; the unequivocal synthesis and isolation of a 3-ketohexose, xylo-3-hexulose, through a rather complex route, was first reported in 1961 by G. Yuen and J. Sugihara. Like most monosaccharides with five or more carbons, each aldohexose or 2-ketohexose exists in one or more cyclic forms, derived from the open-chain form by an internal rearrangement between the carbonyl group and one of the hydroxyl groups; the reaction turns the =O group into an hydroxyl, the hydroxyl into an ether bridge between the two carbon atoms, thus creating a ring with one oxygen atom and four or five carbons. If the cycle has f


The Drúedain are a fictional race of Men which were counted amongst the Edain, who made their way into Beleriand in the First Age, were friendly to the Elves. They are part of the Middle-earth legendarium created by J. R. R. Tolkien. In The Lord of the Rings, they assist the Riders of Rohan to avoid ambush on the way to the Battle of the Pelennor Fields; the Drúedain are based on the mythological woodwoses, the wild men of the woods of Britain and Europe. Within Tolkien's fiction, the Drúedain called themselves Drughu; when the Drúedain settled in Beleriand, the Sindarin Elves adapted this to Drû and added the suffix -adan "man", resulting in the usual Sindarin form Drúadan. Tolkien used the form Drûg, with a regular English plural Drûgs. Drughu became Rú in Quenya, with the suffixed form Rúatan; the Orcs called the Drúedain Oghor-hai. The word used for them by the Rohirrim during the Third Age was represented by Tolkien as Púkel-men; this includes the Old English word pūcel "goblin, troll", which survives in Shakespeare's Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream, in two forms in Kipling's Puck of Pook's Hill).

In Westron, the Common Tongue of western Middle-earth, the Drúedain were called the Wild Men, or the Woses. The Tolkien critic Tom Shippey notes that Tolkien's office when he was at Leeds University was near Woodhouse Moor, which as "would not have escaped Tolkien" was a modern mis-spelling of Wood-Wose, Old English wudu-wāsa; the Drúedain somewhat resemble Dwarves in endurance. According to the Elves and other Men, they had "unlovely faces": wide and expressionless with deep-set black eyes that glowed red when angered, they had "horny" brows, flat noses, wide mouths, sparse, lank hair. They had no hair lower than the eyebrows, except for a few men who had a tail of black hair on the chin, they had a deep hatred of Orcs. They sat still in meditation for long periods; the Drûgs were the first to migrate from Hildórien, the land where the race of Men awoke in the east of Middle-earth. They headed south, into Harad, but they turned north-west, becoming the first Men to cross the great river Anduin.

Many of them settled in the White Mountains. Some of the Drúedain continued north-west. There a band lived among the Second House of Men, the Haladin, in the First Age in the forest of Brethil, whence the Elves came to know and love them. Aghan the Drûg is a protagonist in "The Faithful Stone", a short story set in Beleriand in the First Age. Although a number of the Drúedain came with the Edain to Númenor, they had left or died out before the Akallabêth, as had the Púkel-men of Dunharrow. At the end of the Third Age the Drûgs still lived in the Drúadan Forest of the White Mountains, on the long cape of Andrast west of Gondor; the region north of Andrast was still known as Drúwaith Iaur, or "Old Drûg land". The term Púkel-men used by the Rohirrim was applied to the statues constructed by the Drúedain to guard important places and homes; because of their ugly appearance and frightening statues the Drúedain were feared and loathed by other Men of the region. The Drúedain of Ghân-buri-Ghân's clan came to the aid of the Rohirrim during the War of the Ring.

A large company of Orcs had been sent to the Drúadan Forest to waylay the host of Rohan as it made its way to the aid of Gondor. It was the "woodcrafty beyond compare" Drúedain who held off the Orcs with poisoned arrows whilst they guided the Rohirrim through the forest by secret paths. Without their help the Rohirrim would not have arrived at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Sauron would have triumphed; this action earned the Drúedain the respect of other Men, King Elessar granted them the Drúadan Forest "forever" in thanks. Ghân-buri-Ghân is perceived as a "leftover," a prehistoric type of human surviving in the modern world. Like the rest of his people, Ghân has a flat face, dark skin and eyes, wears only a grass skirt, he is seen as a good man with a kind of a classic example of the noble savage. He is by no means stupid, he "refuses to be patronized." Susan Pesznecker describes the "Wodwoses", including Tolkien's, as a variant of the medieval Green man, which she calls "a Pagan symbol of fertility and rebirth".

The medievalist and Tolkien scholar Verlyn Flieger comments. Ghân-Buri-Ghân talks like a Hollywood Tarzan" using short broken phrases like "Wild Men live here before Stone-houses" and "kill orc-folk", she compares him with the "Wild Hobbit" Gollum, psychotic, haunted by voices, who uses "baby-talk", like "cruel little hobbitses": in her view, the Wild Man is "evolutionarily regressive", whereas Gollum is "psychologically regressive". Ghân-buri-Ghân is featured in the promotional expansion card set of The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game and in the Lord of the Rings board game; the image for the latter was designed by illustrator John Howe. He is portrayed on a Decipher card by Wii Kuki Kaa, a New Zealand actor from the Maori tribes of Ngati Porou and Ngati Kahungunu. Kaa was chosen to play Ghân-buri-Ghân in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, but his character did not make the shooting phase. Weta Workshop subsequently designed the decipher card; this list identifies each item's location in Tolkien's writings.

Tolkien, J. R. R

Señorita Curaçao

Señorita Curaçao is a national beauty pageant in Curaçao. This pageant is unrelated to the Miss Miss International Curaçao pageant. Early for Curaçao at International pageant from Miss Curaçao; the pageant started in 1963 and since it had sent contestants to the Miss World pageants. The organization started with the creation of the Curaçao Youth Beauty Contest Organization. Since 2007, a national winner is selected for this international pageant, current titleholder is Stephanie Rose-Chang and competed at Miss World. Color key Curaçao was debuted at the Miss World occurred in 1975; the 1st Runner-up or hand-picked delegate is sent as the national representative. Of all representatives from the island, 1 of them placed in the semifinals in 2002 and two won special awards in 2000 and 2008. Since 2007, a national winner is selected for this international pageant, current titleholder is Stephanie Rose-Chang; the second title of Señorita Curaçao will compete at Miss Earth. Curaçao made a debut in 2006.

The runner-up or some delegates will pick by Miss Curaçao to compete at the Miss Earth, an annual international beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness. 2000 Jozaine Marianella WallJozaine Marianella Wall is one of the two Miss Curaçao that did not attend the Miss Universe pageant. She was 17 years old at the time she won the national pageant which unabled her to compete at this pageant whose minimum age is 18. After a legal battle with the organizers, Jozaine was sent to the Miss World 2000 pageant in London, United Kingdom, she did not place in the Top Ten. 2002 Ayanette Mary-Ann Ileana StatiaAyanette Mary-Ann Ileana Statia competed at Miss Universe 2002 celebrated in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Since her election Ayanette became a strong favorite considered as the best black contestant of the pageant, but Curaçao's name was not called in the semifinals of Miss Universe 2002. After Miss Universe, Ayanette was sent to Miss World 2002 held in Nigeria where she became Curaçao's first and only semifinalist so far in Miss World.

2003-2004 Angeline Fernandine Da Silva GoesAngeline Fernandine Da Silva Goes was the first runner-up of the 2003 Miss Curaçao pageant won by Vanessa Maria Van Arendonk. With her placement she had the duty to represent Curaçao at the Miss World 2003 pageant held in Sanya, People's Republic of China. After her performance in Miss World, a group of fans and friends from around the world made a formal petition to Sheida Wever, president of the national pageant, to send her to the Miss Universe pageant. Angeline was chosen as Curaçao's representative to the Miss Universe 2004 pageant held in Quito, Ecuador. Angeline went to the two most important international beauty pageants in the world without winning the national pageant. 2008 Norayla FranciscoNorayla Maria Francisco received the title of Miss World Curaçao on 2008 earning the right to represent the island in Miss World 2008 in Johannesburg, South Africa. In the Miss World Top Model competition held in Soweto, Norayla placed in the Top 10 out of 109 contestants.

Miss World

Built by Blood

Built By Blood is the debut full-length album released by the alternative rock/post-hardcore band Bleed The Dream, released in 2005 on Warcon Enterprises. The CD/LP was released with a promotional DVD that featured music videos, game demos, video clips and interviews of Warcon Enterprises artists; the CD release party for this album took place in Baltimore, Maryland at The Ottobar on April 23, 2005. An appropriate homecoming show for the release, Brandon Thomas and Keith Thompson are from the Baltimore area. "Legends Die" - 2:18 "Should Have Known" - 3:54 "Confessions" - 4:00 "Who's Killing Who" - 4:15 "Just Like I Remember" - 3:06 "Taste the Change" - 3:31 "Emotion Regression" - 5:18 "Say G'night" - 3:45 "Black Sky's" - 3:45 "Broken Wings" - 5:16 "Destroying Something Beautiful" - 3:46

School Prayer (poem)

"School Prayer" is a poem written by American poet and naturalist Diane Ackerman. "School Prayer" is a pledge to revere nature, in every form it may appear. The poem was discussed by Garrison Keillor on his daily podcast The Writer's Almanac. "School Prayer" consists of 23 lines of varying length and is written in free verse, therefore lacking any rhyme scheme or regular meter. The natural speech pattern that School prayer obtains from its free verse prose allows the poem to read like a prayer or a pledge. Joseph Kelly of The Seagull Book of Poems makes note of the pledge-like qualities of "School Prayer", suggests that the poem is meant to be compared to ritual pledges such as the Pledge of Allegiance; this suggestion is bolstered by the title of the poem, as the Pledge of Allegiance is said in American schools at the beginning of the day, making it a sort of school prayer. The content of "School Prayer" consists of Ackerman pledging to protect and revere nature in a secular, yet spiritual, way.

Writer Maria Popova on her Brain Pickings blog, notes this notion of secular spirituality in "School Prayer", concludes that School Prayer succeeds in drawing attention to the presence and "the world's fullness". Ackerman herself talks about the importance of developing spirituality, not in reference to a god, but in reference to personal values. Ackerman has said that her writing is about nature and human nature, lending more support to the concept that School Prayer is commenting on the idea of a secular spirituality, it adds credence to the notion that "School Prayer" is melding together nature and human nature, is setting up all forms of nature as something to be respected and worshiped. There has been some critical interest in Ackerman's I Praise My Destroyer, "School Prayer" in particular. John Taylor, writing for Poetry, finds that though "School Prayer" has honorable intention behind it,it falls a bit short, saying that the poem calls to attention a warning from André Gide: "it is with noble sentiments bad literature gets made".

However, not all view "School Prayer" in a negative light. Maria Popova declares the poem a "powerful invitation" to be aware of nature and participate in its beauty. "School Prayer" found its way to Women's voices for Change, where it was described as a guiding source for school children


Lathropus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae. It has been the subject of recent taxonomic study. Lathropus species are minute flattened beetles with short, clubbed antennae, closed mesocoxal cavities dense surface sculpture, dorsal pubescence composed of bifurcate setae. Recognized valid species are: Lathropus chickcharnie Thomas Lathropus jamaicensis Thomas Lathropus minimus Champion Lathropus parvulus Grouvelle Lathropus pictus Schwarz Lathropus pubescens Casey Lathropus rhabdophloeoides Thomas Lathropus robustulus Casey Lathropus sepicola Lathropus striatus Casey, 1916 Lathropus vernalis CaseyAll but one of the known species of Lathropus are indigenous to the New World; the one exception, L. sepicola, is found in Europe. Adults and larvae are associated with dead trees and feed on fungi