Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
"Comfortably Numb" is a song by the English rock band Pink Floyd, released on their eleventh album, The Wall. It was released as a single in 1980 with "Hey You" as the B-side; the chorus progression and guitar solos were written by guitarist David Gilmour, while the lyrics and verse progression were written by bassist Roger Waters. "Comfortably Numb" is one of Pink Floyd's most famous songs, renowned for its two guitar solos. In 2004, it was ranked number 314 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. In 2005, it became the last song to be performed by Waters, keyboardist Richard Wright, drummer Nick Mason together. An early version of the song was included on the 2012 Wall "Immersion Box Set"; the Wall is a concept album about an embittered and alienated rock star. In "Comfortably Numb", Pink is medicated by a doctor; the verses are composed in the key of B minor, while the chorus is in that key's relative major, D major. The song, together with "Mother", is one of two tracks on The Wall which are free-standing and do not fade into or out of an adjacent track.
It is the longest song on the album at 6:21, followed by "Mother", 5:32. An afterthought from Gilmour's first solo album, the music first existed as a wordless demo. According to Gilmour, "I never get to the'I have become comfortably numb' bit, because Roger said he wanted to put that line in as a lyric, I had to write the extra bit there and then."The lyrics were inspired by Waters's experience of being injected with tranquilizers for stomach cramps before a Pink Floyd show in Philadelphia on the 1977 In the Flesh tour. "That was the longest two hours of my life," Waters said, "trying to do a show when you can hardly lift your arm." The song had the working title "The Doctor". Waters and Gilmour disagreed about. Gilmour would say, "We argued over'Comfortably Numb' like mad. Had a big fight, went on for ages." In the end, Waters' preferred opening to the song and Gilmour's final solo were used on the album. For the chorus and session player Lee Ritenour used a pair of acoustic guitars strung to Nashville tuning, but with the low E string replaced with a high E string, two octaves higher than standard tuning.
This tuning was used for the arpeggios in "Hey You". "Comfortably Numb" features two guitar solos by Gilmour. The first bridges the first chorus and second verse, is played over the prechorus structure; the longer outro solo is played over the verse structure. The solo was pieced together from several other solos that Gilmour was experimenting with at the time. Gilmour used a Big Muff delay effects on the solos. During the 1980/81 The Wall tour, where a giant wall was constructed across the stage during the performance, the song was performed with Roger Waters dressed as a doctor at the bottom of the wall, David Gilmour singing and playing guitar from the top of the wall on a raised platform with spotlights shining from behind him, it was the first time. According to Gilmour, the final solo was one of the few opportunities during those concerts that he was free to improvise completely. Gilmour said: It was a fantastic moment, I can tell, to be standing up on there, Roger's just finished singing his thing, I'm standing there, waiting.
I'm in pitch darkness and no one knows I'm there yet. And Roger's down and he finishes his line, I start mine and the big back spots and everything go on and the audience, they're all looking straight ahead and down, there's all this light up there and they all sort of—their heads all lift up and there's this thing up there and the sound's coming out and everything; every night there's this sort of "" from about 15,000 people. And that's quite something, let me tell you. After Waters had left the band, Gilmour revised the verses to his preferred grungier approach during live performances; the verse vocals were arranged for three-part harmonies. In both 1987 -- 88 and 1994, the verses were sung by Guy Pratt and Jon Carin. In December 1988, a video of the live performance from Delicate Sound of Thunder reached number 11 on MTV's Top 20 Video Countdown; the video was two minutes shorter than the album version and the video clip had different camera angles from the home video version. Pink Floyd performed the song at Knebworth Park on June 30th 1990, published on Knebworth: The Album and on Live At Knebworth 1990.
A 10-minute version of "Comfortably Numb" was performed at Earls Court, London on 20 October 1994, as part of The Division Bell tour. The Pulse video release edited out 1:20 minutes of the ending solo, whereas the original pay-per-view video showed the unedited version. Pink Floyd, complete with Waters, reunited to perform at the Live 8 concert in Hyde Park, London in July 2005; the set consisted of four songs. After leaving Pink Floyd, Waters first performed "Comfortably Numb" at the 1990 concert staging of The Wall – Live in Berlin on 21 July 1990; the event's purpose was to commemorate the fall of the Berlin Wall. Waters sang lead, Van Morrison sang Gilmour's vocal parts backed by Rick Danko and Levon Helm of The Band, with guitar solo by Rick Di Fonzo and Snowy White, backup by the Rundfunk Orchestra & Choir; this version was used in the Academy Award-winning 2006 film The Departed, directed by Martin Scorsese. It is heard in the TV show episode of The Sopranos, titled "Kennedy and Heidi", when Christopher Moltisanti plays The Departed sound
Richard Wright (musician)
Richard William Wright was an English musician, composer and songwriter. He was a founder member and vocalist of the progressive rock band Pink Floyd, performing on all but one of the group's albums including The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here and The Division Bell, playing on all of their tours. Wright grew up in Hatch End and met future Pink Floyd bandmates Roger Waters and Nick Mason while studying at the Regent Street Polytechnic. After being joined by frontman and songwriter Syd Barrett, the group found commercial success in 1967 before Barrett's instability led to him being replaced by David Gilmour and Wright taking over songwriting duties with Waters. A straightforward singer/songwriter, Wright acted as an arranger to Waters and Gilmour's compositions, he began to contribute less towards the end of the 1970s and left the band after touring The Wall in 1981. He rejoined the band as a session player in 1987 for A Momentary Lapse of Reason, became a full-time member again for The Division Bell in 1994.
Sessions with Wright during this period were released on the album The Endless River. Away from Pink Floyd, Wright recorded two solo albums, including a collaboration with Anthony Moore on Broken China, formed the duo Zee. After rejoining Waters and Gilmour as Pink Floyd for Live 8 in 2005, he became part of Gilmour's regular solo touring band, singing occasional lead on songs such as "Arnold Layne", before his death in September 2008. Overshadowed by bandmates Barrett and Gilmour, Wright was the quietest and most reserved member of Pink Floyd, his contributions have sometimes been overlooked, but his death brought a reappraisal and recognition of his talents. His jazz and improvisation influences and keyboard performances were an important part of the Pink Floyd sound; as well as being a prominent player of the Farfisa and Hammond organs and the Kurzweil synthesizer, Wright sang in the band and took the lead vocal on Pink Floyd songs such as "Time", "Remember a Day" and "Wearing the Inside Out".
Wright, whose father was head biochemist at Unigate Dairies, grew up in Hatch End and was educated at the Haberdashers' Aske's School. He taught himself to play guitar and piano at age 12 after he was recuperating from breaking a leg, his mother encouraged him to play the piano. He took private lessons in musical theory and composition at the Eric Gilder School of Music and became influenced by the trad jazz revival, learning the trombone and saxophone as well as the piano. Uncertain about his future, he enrolled in 1962 at the Regent Street Polytechnic, incorporated into the University of Westminster. There he met fellow musicians Roger Waters and Nick Mason, all three joined a band formed by classmate Clive Metcalf called Sigma 6. Wright's position in the band was tenuous to begin with, as he did not choose a definitive instrument, playing piano if a pub had one, otherwise settling on the trombone or rhythm guitar, he moved in with Waters and Mason to a house in Stanhope Gardens and they began serious rehearsals to become a professional group.
Although Mason and Waters were competent students, Wright found architecture of little interest and after only a year of study moved to the London College of Music. He travelled to Greece for a sabbatical, their landlord, Mike Leonard, purchased a Farfisa organ and replaced Wright in the band. However, the organ became Wright's main instrument. Through a friend, he arranged the fledgling group's first recording session in a West Hampstead studio, just before Christmas 1964. Guitarists Bob Klose and Syd Barrett joined the band. Pink Floyd had stabilised with a line-up of Barrett, Waters and Wright by mid-1965, after frequent gigging that year became regulars on the underground live circuit in London. While Barrett was the dominant member, writing most material, singing most lead vocals and playing lead guitar, Wright played a supportive role, playing keyboards and singing, with occasional lead, writing his own material; as the most qualified musician, Wright was responsible for tuning guitars, would tune Waters' bass for him in concert.
On, he had a Strobotuner to tune guitars silently during gigs. In the band's early days, before acquiring a full-time road crew, Wright was responsible for unloading the gear at the end of each gig. While not credited for vocals on The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, he sang lead on Barrett-penned songs like "Astronomy Domine" and "Matilda Mother". Examples of his early compositions include "Remember a Day", "See-Saw", "Paint Box" and "It Would Be So Nice". Wright was close friends with Barrett, at one point the pair shared a flat in Richmond. After Barrett left the group in 1968 owing to mental health issues, Wright considered leaving and forming a group with him, but realised it would not have been practical. Following Barrett's departure and replacement by David Gilmour, Wright took over writing duties with Waters but became less involved as a singer and songwriter as the band's career progressed, his organ playing remained an important part of the band's live set, including "Interstellar Overdrive", "Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun" and "Careful with That Axe, Eugene" and he contributed musical themes for film scores.
He made significant contributions to Pink Floyd's long, epic compositions such as "Atom Heart Mother", "Echoes" and "Shine On You Crazy Diamond". On 1973's The Dark Side of the Moon he composed the music for "The Great Gig in the S
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
James Guthrie (record producer)
James K. A. Guthrie is an English recording engineer and record producer best known for his work with the progressive rock band Pink Floyd, serving as a producer and engineer for the band since 1978, he is the operator of das boot recording in Lake Tahoe, California. Guthrie began his career on 1 October 1973 at Mayfair Studios in London, as a trainee tape operator and assistant engineer trained by studio owner John Hudson. A year he moved to Audio International studios, working under Richard Millard, his earliest credits are as an assistant engineer on the first two albums by glam rock singer Alvin Stardust. During this time he first worked with Greg Walsh, whom Guthrie asked to join his FOH production team for the live performances of Pink Floyd's The Wall in 1980 and 1981. By 1976 Guthrie was employed as one of the engineering team at Utopia Studios which included John Mackswith and Ian Cooper. During his tenure he worked as the engineer on The Bay City Rollers' Wouldn't You Like It? release, for producer Barry Blue on Breakout by The Dead End Kids as well as the first two albums for London-based R&B band Heatwave, which would yield the hit singles "Boogie Nights", "Always and Forever" and "The Groove Line".
Utopia was where he first worked with Andy Jackson, whom Guthrie introduced to Pink Floyd and was hired as the band's primary engineer. In addition, Guthrie is credited with suggesting Jon Carin as a keyboard player for Roger Waters' touring band, arranged for Kashmir lead vocalist and guitarist Kasper Eistrup to audition for the same tour, as well as introducing vocalist Rachel Brennock to Pink Floyd, she joined the touring band from 1987 to 1989. Guthrie worked at other London-area studios such as The Manor and Britannia Row, his initial producer credits would be for Fury. Guthrie's connection with GTO Records landed him engineering and production duties on the second and third albums for The Movies. After producing the Judas Priest track "Better By You, Better Than Me" for the album Stained Class, he was selected to produce their follow-up album Hell Bent For Leather. By 1980, Guthrie's body of work in regards to engineering and production would include a total of six hit singles on both the British and American charts: the first three singles from Heatwave, Marshall Hain's "Dancing in the City", Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall" and The Pointer Sisters' "He's So Shy".
In mid-1978, Guthrie received a request from Pink Floyd's manager, Steve O'Rourke, to meet with him regarding potential production projects. First was a pitch to produce singer/songwriter Tom Robinson; the other was for Pink Floyd, about to embark on their new project, a concept album, titled The Wall. Based on his previous production credits and after meeting with Guthrie, Roger Waters believed he would be a good fit. Guthrie accepted the assignment with the request that he would be allowed to engineer the record himself. Guthrie was the only member of the production team to be awarded by NARAS for his contributions, receiving the 1980 Grammy award for Best Engineered Recording, Non-Classical. A case can be made for Guthrie's involvement as an important element of the timeless sound Pink Floyd was able to achieve with The Wall. David Gilmour stated in a March 2000 interview with Record Collector, regarding the contributors, "Another crucial figure is James Guthrie; the album's wonderfully clear and punchy, modern-sounding."
Nick Mason acknowledged Guthrie's contribution in regards to the drum sound in an interview with TapeOp magazine: "James Guthrie was great on The Wall – I thought he did a great job." Guthrie's initial involvement with Pink Floyd was to last nearly five years. Guthrie received a British Academy of Film and Television Arts award for Best Film Sound in 1982 for his work on the film, he was asked to co-produce The Final Cut, the last release of Waters-era Pink Floyd. According to Andy Jackson, who served as engineer for the recording along with Guthrie, the use of the name "Max" in the songs "Th
A double album is an audio album which spans two units of the primary medium in which it is sold records and compact disc. A double album is though not always, released as such because the recording is longer than the capacity of the medium. Recording artists think of double albums as comprising a single piece artistically. Another example of this approach is Works Volume 1 by Emerson Lake and Palmer, where side one featured Keith Emerson, side two Greg Lake, side three Carl Palmer, side four was by the entire group. Since the advent of the compact disc, albums are sometimes released with a bonus disc featuring additional material as a supplement to the main album, with live tracks, studio out-takes, cut songs, or older unreleased material. One innovation was the inclusion of DVD of related material with a compact disc, such as video related to the album or DVD-Audio versions of the same recordings; some such discs were released on a two-sided format called DualDisc. Due to the limitations of the gramophone record, many albums released on the format were under 40 minutes long.
This has led to record labels re-releasing two of these albums on one CD, thus making a double album. The same principles apply to the triple album. Packages with more units than three are packaged as a box set; the first double album was recordings from the Carnegie Hall Concert headlined by Benny Goodman, released in 1950 on Columbia Records, that label having introduced the LP two years earlier. Studio recordings of operas have been released as double, triple and quintuple albums since the 1950s; the first rock double album was Bob Dylan's Blonde on Blonde released on May 16, 1966. It was soon followed by Frank Zappa & the Mothers Of Invention's debut record, Freak Out!, released on June 27, 1966. The best-selling double album of all time is Michael Jackson's HIStory: Past and Future, Book I with over 33 million copies sold worldwide; the second best-selling double album and best-selling concept double album is Pink Floyd's The Wall with over 30 million copies worldwide. Other best-selling double albums are The Beatles' White Album, The Rolling Stones' Exile on Main St.
Billy Joel's Greatest Hits I & II, Bob Dylan's Blonde on Blonde, The Smashing Pumpkins' Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness. The double album has become less common since the decline of the vinyl LP and the advent of compact discs. A single LP had two sides, each of which had a capacity of up to 30 minutes, for a maximum of 60 minutes per record. A single CD has a capacity of 80 minutes: accordingly, many old double albums on LP have been re-released as single albums on CD. However, other double albums on LP are re-released as double albums on CD, either because they are too large for a single CD, or to retain the structure of the original. There are double-LP albums, such as Mike Oldfield's Incantations and Chick Corea's My Spanish Heart, for which some tracks were removed or shortened for a single 74-minute CD release, though both were re-released in their entirety when 80-minute CDs were developed. Though the average album length has increased since the days of LPs, it remains rare for an artist to produce more than 80 minutes of studio material for one album.
Thus, the double album is now more seen in formats other than studio albums. Live albums that either present all or most of a single concert, or material from several concerts, are released as double albums. Compilations such as greatest hits records can often comprise double albums. Soundtracks and scores are commonly released on two CDs; the double album format is frequently used for concept albums. The double album is not obsolete when it comes to studio albums, however; some artists still produce a large enough quantity of material to justify a double album. For example, progressive rock band The Flower Kings have released four double albums out of eleven studio albums. Barenaked Ladies recorded 29 songs for their first original album following the completion of their contract with Reprise Records, including several songs that were cut from past albums under that contract. Without needing to get a label's approval, they were able to release a 25-track "deluxe edition" double album Barenaked Ladies Are Me, as well as releasing the album as two separate single albums, as well as a variety of other formats.
Guns N' Roses famously insisted on releasing their Use Your Illusion I & II albums but separately so as not to burden their fans with the expense of having to buy a double CD set. Nellie McKay fought with her label to get her debut album, Get Away from Me released as a double album though the material would have fit on a single disc, she has been said to be the first female artist to have a double album as a debut. A recent development is the release of a double studio album in which the two discs contain different mixes of the sam