Lagâri Hasan Çelebi
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi was an Ottoman aviator who, according to a sole account written by traveller Evliya Çelebi, made a successful manned rocket flight. Evliya Çelebi reported that in 1633, Lagari Hasan Çelebi launched in a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka of gunpowder from Sarayburnu, the point below Topkapı Palace in Istanbul; the flight was said to be undertaken at the time of the birth of sultan Murad IV's daughter. As Evliya Celebi wrote, Lagari proclaimed before launch "O my sultan! Be blessed, I am going to talk to Jesus!". Jesus sends his regards to you!". Evliya Çelebi wrote of Lagari's brother, Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi, making a flight by glider a year earlier. Istanbul Beneath My Wings is a 1996 film about the lives of Lagari Hasan Çelebi, his brother and fellow aviator Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi, Ottoman society in the early 17th century as witnessed and narrated by Evliya Çelebi; the legend was addressed in an experiment by the television show MythBusters, on November 11, 2009, in the episode "Crash and Burn".
Although the re-imagined rocket rose, it exploded midflight. Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi Wan Hu
Üsküdar, traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari, is a large and densely populated district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus. It is bordered on the north by Beykoz, on the east by Ümraniye, on the southeast by Ataşehir, on the south by Kadıköy, on the west by the Bosphorus, with the areas of Beşiktaş, Beyoğlu, Eminönü on the opposite shore, it is home to about half a million people. Üsküdar is the usual name for the historic center of the municipality. Üsküdar was called "Skoutarion" during the Byzantine Empire. This word may have been used to describe the scutum shields that guards used that were made of leather; this is believed because the word scutari means "raw tanned leather." Others who visited the area called it Escutaire. Üsküdar was founded in the 7th century BC by ancient Greek colonists from Megara as Chrysopolis, a few decades before Byzantium was founded on the opposite shore. According to an ancient Greek geographer, the city received the name Chrysopolis because the Persian empire had a gold depository there or because it was associated with Agamemnon and Chryseis' son, Chryses.
On the other hand, according to an 18th-century writer, it received the name because of the excellence of its harbor. The city was used as a harbor and shipyard and was an important staging post in the wars between the Greeks and Persians. In 410 BC Chrysopolis was taken by the Athenian general Alcibiades, the Athenians used it thenceforth to charge a toll on ships coming from and going to the Black Sea. Long overshadowed by its neighbor Chalcedon during the Hellenistic and Roman period, it maintained its identity and increased its prosperity until it surpassed Chalcedon. Due to its less favorable location with respect to the currents of the Bosporus, however, it never surpassed Byzantium. In AD 324, the final battle between Constantine I, Emperor of the West, Licinius, Emperor of the East, in which Constantine defeated Licinius, took place at Chrysopolis; when Constantine made Byzantium his capital, together with Chalcedon, became suburbs. Chrysopolis remained important throughout the Byzantine period because all trade routes to Asia started there, all Byzantine army units headed to Asia mustered there.
During the brief usurpation of the Armenian general Artabasdos, his eldest son, was defeated with his forces at Chrysopolis by the army of Constantine V, before Artabasdos was deposed by the legitimate emperor Constantine and blinded. For this reason, because of its location across from Constantinople, it was a natural target for anyone aiming at the capital. In the 8th century AD it was taken by a small band of Arabs, who caused considerable destruction and panic in Constantinople, before withdrawing. In 988, a rebellion that nearly toppled Basil II began in Chrysopolis, before he was able to crush with the aid of Russian mercenaries. In the 12th century, the city changed its name to Skoutarion, the name deriving from the Emperor's Skoutarion Palace nearby. In 1338 the Ottoman leader Orhan Gazi took Skoutarion, giving the Ottomans a base within sight of Constantinople for the first time. In the Ottoman period Üsküdar was one of the three communities outside the city walls of Constantinople.
The area was a major burial ground, today many large cemeteries remain, including Karacaahmet Mezarlığı, Bülbülderesi Mezarlığı, a number of Jewish and Christian cemeteries. Karacaahmet Mezarlığı is one of Istanbul's largest cemeteries; the Bülbülderesi cemetery is next to Fevziye Hatun mosque. The neighborhood suffered during the ethnic-religious violence of the September 6, 1955, Istanbul pogrom. Shops were looted, women raped, many Greeks and Armenians left; the district of Üsküdar is one of Istanbul's oldest-established residential areas. It is directly opposite the old city of Eminönü and transport across the Bosphorus is easy by boat or bridge. So there are well-established communities here, many retired people, many residents commute to the European side for work or school. During the rush-hour, the waterfront is bustling with people running from ferryboats and motorboats onto buses and minibuses. Üsküdar has the smell of the sea, the sound of foghorns and seagulls and one of the best views of the city.
As of 2006, the central square is being dug up for a tunnel under the Bosphorus which will carry an underground railway. However, this is predictably continuously running into artifacts of great archaeological value; the area behind the ferry dock is a busy shopping district, with many restaurants and a number of important Ottoman mosques. However, there are few cafes, billiard halls, places for youth to congregate; the private Üsküdar University, founded by the Human Values and Mental Health Foundation, has a campus here. Uskudar has two public libraries: Selimiye Public Library. Üsküdar is a municipality within borders of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The municipality is subdivided into neighborhoods; the boundaries and names of the official neighborhoods change from time to time and sometimes do not correspond to recognized neighborhoods or to residents' own perceptions. The most prominent neighborhood is Üsküdar's historic center, centered on the ferry docks and corresponding to the current Mimar Sinan neighborhood (former
Sarayburnu is a promontory quarter separating the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara in Istanbul, Turkey. The area is where the renowned Topkapı Gülhane Park stand. Sarayburnu is included in the historic areas of Istanbul, added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985; the first settlement on the Sarayburnu goes back to Neolithic, c. 6600 BC. The settlement lasted for a millennium before being inundated by the rising level of the sea; the artifacts from this settlement recovered during excavations display some of the distinct features of other artifacts found in other excavations in northwestern Turkey. Another settlement on the Sarayburnu, named Lygos, was founded by Thracian tribes between the 13th and 11th centuries BC, along with the neighbouring Semistra, which Pliny the Elder had mentioned in his historical accounts. Only a few walls and substructures belonging to Lygos have survived to date, near the location where the famous Topkapı Palace now stands. During the period of ancient Byzantium, the Acropolis used to stand where the Topkapı Palace stands today.
According to a legend, in 667 BC ancient Greek settlers from Megara under the command of King Byzas established Byzantium at the Sarayburnu. In 685 BC, the Megarans had established Chalcedon on the Anatolian shore, across the Bosporus; the oldest settlements in present-day Istanbul are found on the Anatolian side. In nearby Kadıköy, a large port settlement dating from the Phoenicians has been discovered. In antiquity there were two natural harbours in the area close to Sarayburnu where the present-day Sirkeci and Eminönü quarters stand Because of this formation, the point of Sarayburnu was more conspicuous than it is today. In periods the area was the convergence point for the Sea Walls of the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara. In the Byzantine period, the area was known in Greek as Hagios Demetrios. During the railway construction of the late Ottoman period, in 1871, the city walls of the Sarayburnu area were demolished, but they are still intact in some areas - close to the Topkapı Palace, built in the 15th century for the Ottoman Sultans.
The notable Gülhane Park is located right next to the palace. Geography of Istanbul Turizm.net - Brief history of Istanbul Köroğlu, Gülgün. İstanbul'daki Bizans İmparatorluk Sarayları. OB Archive & Research Center, 2006. "web page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29
Istanbul Atatürk Airport
Istanbul Atatürk Airport is an international airport in Istanbul. As of 6 April 2019, the airport is open only for cargo, maintenance/technical, general aviation, air taxi, business flights and state and diplomatic aircraft while commercial passenger flights are all handled at the newly built Istanbul Airport.. First opened in 1912 in Yeşilköy as a military airfield, on the European side of the city, it is located 24 km west of the city centre; the airport was named Yeşilköy Airport. In the 1980s, it was renamed Istanbul Atatürk International Airport in honour of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey, it served more than 60 million passengers in 2015, making it the 11th-busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic and the 10th-busiest in the world in terms of international passenger traffic. In 2017, it was Europe's 5th-busiest airport after London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt Airport and Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, having fallen from third place after a decline in passengers due to security fears.
Istanbul Atatürk Airport was replaced by the newly constructed Istanbul Airport, in April 2019, in order to meet Istanbul's growing domestic and international air traffic demand as a source and transit point. Both airports were used in parallel for five months from late 2018, with the new airport expanding to serve more domestic and regional destinations.. On 6 April 6 2019, Atatürk's IST IATA airport code was inherited by Istanbul Airport and Atatürk Airport was assigned the code ISL after the full transfer of all scheduled passenger activities to the new airport was completed; the final commercial flight, Turkish Airlines Flight 54, left Ataturk Airport on 6 April 2019 at 2.44am for Singapore. Istanbul Atatürk Airport featured two passenger terminals linked to each other; the former Domestic Terminal is the older and smaller of the two terminals and handled domestic flights within Turkey. It featured its own check-in and airside facilities on the upper floor, with twelve departure gates equipped with jet bridges.
And five baggage reclaim belts on the ground level.. The former International Terminal was used for all international flights, it featured a large main hall containing eight check-in isles and a wide range of airside facilities such as shops and restaurant, 34 gates equipped with jetbridges and 7 bus-boarding stands. The arrivals floor had 11 baggage reclaim belts.. In addition, there is a general aviation Terminal to the northwest of the passenger terminals; the airport features a dedicated cargo terminal including facilities for the handling of radioactive and refrigerated freight. Turkish Airlines has its headquarters in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building, located within the airport campus. Onur Air has its headquarters in Technical Hangar B. Prima Aviation Services Inc. has its MRO Facilities in new technical site at the air side Gate A. As of April 2019, the airport no longer handles scheduled passenger flights but remains open for freight operations. Below is the passenger data and development for Istanbul Atatürk Airport for the years 2002–2017: Istanbul Atatürk Airport ranked 17th in ACI statistics at the end of 2011 in terms of international traffic with 24 million international passengers.
It ranked 29th in the world in terms of total passenger traffic with over 37.4 million passengers in 2011. Its total traffic within the last decade more than tripled, its international traffic quadrupled.. According to data from FlightStats in 2012, the İstanbul Atatürk Airport had the most flight delays in Europe, was ranked second in flight cancellations. On 30 January 1975, Turkish Airlines Flight 345, crashed into the Sea of Marmara during its final approach to the airport. All 42 passengers and crew on board were killed. On 25 April 2015, Turkish Airlines Flight 1878, operated by A320-200, TC-JPE was damaged in a landing accident; the aircraft aborted the first hard landing, which inflicted gear damage. On the second attempt at landing, the right gear collapsed and the aircraft rolled off the runway spinning 180 degrees. All on board evacuated without injury. On 28 June 2016, three terrorists killed 44 civilians by gunfire and subsequent suicide bombings, along with 239 civilians injured; the three men arrived in a taxi cab, opened fire at a terminal.
The three men blew. The airport has X-ray scanners at the entrance to the terminal but security checks for cars are limited; the Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers lists İstanbul Atatürk Airport as one of the fifty civil engineering feats in Turkey, a list of remarkable engineering projects completed in the first 50 years of the chamber's existence. In the 2013 Air Transport News awards ceremony, İstanbul Atatürk Airport was named Airport of the Year; the airport was named Europe's Best Airport in the 40-50 million passenger per year category at the 2013 Skytrax World Airport Awards. This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Istanbul Atatürk Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Istanbul Atatürk Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for LTBA at NOAA/NWS Accident history for IST at Aviation Safety Network
A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of subject areas, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title was published in 1603 by Johann von Wowern, a Hamburg philosopher. Von Wowern defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies ranging through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them". Von Wowern lists erudition, philology and polyhistory as synonyms; the related term, polyhistor, is an ancient term with similar meaning. Polymaths include the great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science, engineering and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance, the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will". Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as as possible.
This is expressed in the term "Renaissance man" applied to the gifted people of that age who sought to develop their abilities in all areas of accomplishment: intellectual, artistic and physical. The term entered the lexicon in the 20th century and has now been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance. "Renaissance man" was first recorded in written English in the early 20th century. It is now used to refer during, or after the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci has been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". Many notable polymaths lived during the Renaissance period, a cultural movement that spanned the 14th through to the 17th century that began in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and spread to the rest of Europe; these polymaths had a rounded approach to education that reflected the ideals of the humanists of the time. A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal.
The idea of a universal education was essential to achieving polymath ability, hence the word university was used to describe a seat of learning. At this time, universities did not specialize in specific areas, but rather trained students in a broad array of science and theology; this universal education gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship toward becoming a master of a specific field. When someone is called a "Renaissance man" today, it is meant that rather than having broad interests or superficial knowledge in several fields, the individual possesses a more profound knowledge and a proficiency, or an expertise, in at least some of those fields; some dictionaries use the term "Renaissance man" to describe someone with many interests or talents, while others give a meaning restricted to the Renaissance and more related to Renaissance ideals. Aside from "Renaissance man" as mentioned above, similar terms in use are homo universalis and uomo universale, which translate to "universal man".
The related term "generalist"—contrasted with a "specialist"—is used to describe a person with a general approach to knowledge. The term "universal genius" or "versatile genius" is used, with Leonardo da Vinci as the prime example again; the term is used for people who made lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which they were involved and when they took a universality of approach. When a person is described as having encyclopedic knowledge, they exhibit a vast scope of knowledge. However, this designation may be anachronistic in the case of persons such as Eratosthenes whose reputation for having encyclopedic knowledge predates the existence of any encyclopedic object. Although polymathy and similar constructs like multipotentiality and multiple talents have gained wider coverage in the popular domain, polymathy, as a field of scientific study, is still at an early stage of development, with some researchers calling for more studies to further advance this construct and shed new light on topics such as creativity and education.
At present, researchers studying this topic come from backgrounds as diverse as psychology, mathematics and education. Although incipient, the extant studies can demonstrate the importance of polymathy as a concept that can help enhance our understanding of human diversity and of the elements that underlie one of the most human of traits: creativity; this section presents an overview of the contributions of six contemporary scholarly authors to the understanding of the phenomenon of polymathy. The criterion to choose the authors included in this article was the existence of publications in academic outlets focusing on the concept of polymathy itself. Robert Root-Bernstein is considered the principal responsible for rekindling the interest on polymathy in the scientific community, he is a professor of physiology at Michigan State University and has been awarded the MacArthur Fellowship, known as a "Genius Grant", a prize awarded to those who have shown "extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction" and are citizens or res
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire, of the Byzantine Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire, until falling to the Ottoman Empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, dedicated on 11 May 330; the city was located in what is now the core of modern Istanbul. From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe; the city was famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns and the True Cross. Constantinople was famed for its complex defences; the first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, surrounded the city on both land and sea fronts. In the 5th century, the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front; this formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the'seven hills' of Rome; because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents and two seas.
Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years. In 1204, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, the first known name of a settlement on the site of Constantinople was Lygos, a settlement of Thracian origin founded between the 13th and 11th centuries BC; the site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium in around 657 BC, across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the Latin Byzantium, are not clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas; the Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men and Antes, though this was more just a play on the word Byzantion. The city was renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus, who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender in the civil war and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, popularly known as Caracalla; the name appears to have been forgotten and abandoned, the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. Byzantium took on the name of Kōnstantinoupolis after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital as Nova Roma'New Rome'.
During this time, the city was called'Second Rome','Eastern Rome', Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, its wealth and influence grew, the city came to have a multitude of nicknames; as the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the 4th–13th centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean basin, Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as Basileuousa and Megalopol