Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus. Versions of the A330 have a range of 5,000 to 13,430 kilometres and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry 70 tonnes of cargo; the A330's origin dates to the mid-1970s as one of several conceived derivatives of Airbus's first airliner, the A300. The A330 was developed in parallel with the four-engine A340, which shared many common airframe components but differed in number of engines. Both airliners incorporated fly-by-wire flight control technology, first introduced on an Airbus aircraft with the A320, as well as the A320's six-display glass cockpit. In June 1987, after receiving orders from various customers, Airbus launched the A330 and A340; the A330 was Airbus's first airliner that offered a choice of three engine types: General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, Rolls-Royce Trent 700. The A330-300, the first variant, took its maiden flight in November 1992 and entered passenger service with Air Inter in January 1994.
Airbus followed up with the shorter A330-200 variant in 1998. Subsequently-developed A330 variants include a dedicated freighter, the A330-200F, a military tanker, the A330 MRTT, a corporate jet, ACJ330; the A330 MRTT formed the basis of the proposed KC-45, entered into the US Air Force's KC-X competition with Northrop Grumman, where after an initial win, on appeal lost to Boeing's tanker. Since its launch, the A330 has allowed Airbus to expand market share in wide-body airliners. Competing twinjets include the Boeing 767 and 777, along with the 787; the long-range Airbus A350 XWB was planned to succeed both the A330 and A340. Airbus intends to replace the current A330 with the A330neo, which includes new engines and other improvements; as of February 2019, A330 orders stand at 1,734, of which 1,441 have been delivered and 1,405 remain in operation. The largest operator is Turkish Airlines with 66 A330s in its fleet. Airbus's first airliner, the A300, was envisioned as part of a diverse family of commercial aircraft.
Pursuing this goal, studies began in the early 1970s into derivatives of the A300. Before introducing the A300, Airbus identified nine possible variations designated B1 through B9. A tenth variant, the A300B10, was conceived in 1973 and developed into the longer range Airbus A310. Airbus focused its efforts on single-aisle studies, conceiving a family of airliners known as the Airbus A320 family, the first commercial aircraft with digital fly-by-wire controls. During these studies Airbus turned its focus back to the wide-body aircraft market working on both projects. In the mid-1970s, Airbus began development of the A300B9, a larger derivative of the A300, which would become the A330; the B9 was a lengthened A300 with the same wing, coupled with the most powerful turbofan engines available. It was targeted at the growing demand for high-capacity, medium-range, transcontinental trunk routes. Offering the same range and payload as the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 but with 25 per cent more fuel efficiency, the B9 was seen as a viable replacement for the DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijets.
It was considered as a medium-ranged successor to the A300. At the same time, a 200-seat four-engine version, the B11 was under development; the B11 was planned to take the place of narrow-body Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s in commercial use, but would evolve to target the long-range, wide-body trijet replacement market. To differentiate from the SA series, the B9 and B11 were re-designated as the TA9 and TA11, with TA standing for "twin aisle". Development costs were reduced by the two aircraft using the same fuselage and wing, with projected savings of US$500 million. Another factor was the split preference of those within Airbus and, more those of prospective customers. Airbus found that most potential customers favoured four engines due to their exemption from existing twinjet range restrictions and their ability to be ferried with one inactive engine; as a result, development plans prioritised the four-engined TA11 ahead of the TA9. The first specifications for the TA9 and TA11, aircraft that could accommodate 410 passengers in a one-class layout, emerged in 1982.
They showed a large underfloor cargo area that could hold five cargo pallets or sixteen LD3 cargo containers in the forward, four pallets or fourteen LD3s in the aft hold—double the capacity of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar or DC-10, 8.46 metres longer than the Airbus A300. By June 1985, the TA9 and TA11 had received more improvements, including the adoption of the A320 flight deck, digital fly-by-wire control system, side-stick control. Airbus had developed a common cockpit for their aircraft models to allow quick transition by pilots; the flight crews could transition from one type to another after only one week's training, which reduces operator costs. The two TAs would use the vertical stabiliser and circular fuselage sections of the A300-600, extended by two barrel sections. Airbus considered the variable camber wing, a concept that requires changing the wing profile for a given phase of flight. Studies were carried out at Hatfield and Bristol. Airbus estimated this would yield a two per cent improvement in aerodynamic efficiency, but the feature was rejected because of cost and difficulty of development.
A true laminar flow wing was conside
Azores Airlines known as SATA Internacional, is a Portuguese airline based in the municipality of Ponta Delgada, on the island of São Miguel in the autonomous archipelago of the Azores. A subsidiary of SATA Air Açores, the airline operates as the international arm of the regional network, connecting the archipelago with Europe and North America, from its hub at João Paulo II International Airport; the airline was first established in December 1990 under the name of OceanAir and in 1991 was authorized to operate air transport services as a non-scheduled carrier. SATA Air Açores became the major shareholder when OceanAir suspended service in 1994, it became the sole owner, on 20 February 1998 it was re-branded as SATA Internacional, resuming operations on 8 April 1998. The airline's original livery consisted of an all white fuselage with the name SATA Internacional in ocean blue over the front windows, a dark blue tail with the company logo. Before this the livery had an idealised logo featuring the bands of crashing waves, superimposed by a sun-disk, with the calligraphic lettering "Fly Azores" below.
This tourist-friendly logo was retired at the end of the 20th century, to be replaced with a more corporate image. The airline became a wholly owned subsidiary of Grupo SATA. Following its bid by public tender, SATA Internacional was awarded scheduled routes from Ponta Delgada to Lisbon, Madeira Island and Porto. SATA owns two tour operators in North America: SATA Express in Canada and Azores Express in the United States. After May 2009, SATA adopted a new brand image and a new logo, applied to its first new Airbus A320-200, registered CS-TKO and named "Diáspora"; the symbol, called BIA, consisted of nine geometrical shapes, representing the nine islands of the Azores assembled to form the mythical Açor of Portuguese legend. The "açor" or northern goshawk was thought to have been the bird found circling the islands of the Azores when Portuguese sailors first discovered the archipelago; this form appeared on the tail fin, in addition to a portion located just ahead of the wings on the fuselage.
The new scheme was adopted by both SATA Internacional and SATA Air Açores during the fleet upgrades beginning at the end of the 1990s and lasted until 2015. In January 2015, the airline announced strategic plans to reduce its debts from €179 m to €40 m by 2020 by reducing its fleet and workforce. Under the plan it would be renamed Azores Airlines. In October 2015, SATA Internacional subsequently announced a major rebranding including a name change to Azores Airlines and a change of the colour scheme from blue tones to green tones. At the same time, a fleet renewal with Airbus A330 aircraft had been announced; the first A330 commercial flight took place on 25 March 2016 from Ponta Delgada to Boston. In September 2016, the airline announced a change of plans regarding their fleet renewal. While plans to phase in a second Airbus A330 have been cancelled, Azores Airlines ordered two Airbus A321neo on interim lease for 2017-2019 and four Airbus A321LR which will be delivered in 2019 to replace the interim A321neos.
The A310 fleet phase-out was completed in the first months of 2018. Azores Airlines operates scheduled flights to the Madeira Islands, mainland Portugal and other destinations in Europe and North America, as well as charter flights. Domestic destinations are covered by SATA Air Açores; this is a list of the airports served as of June 2017: As of January 2019, Azores Airlines operates an all-Airbus fleet: Smaller aircraft are operated by parent SATA Air Açores under its own license. On 4 August 2009, a SATA Internacional Airbus A320-200 operating flight S4-129 from Lisbon to Ponta Delgada bounced off the runway subsequently experienced a severe hard landing of 4.86G, causing damage to the landing gear. Nothing was written in the aircraft's technical maintenance log, both flight crew and maintenance staff were unable to interpret the hard landing report and despite the damage, the aircraft was not removed from service and flew back to Lisbon in customer service as well as flying an additional 6 sectors.
SATA said in a statement that the hard landing/load reports are not a mandatory requirement for the aircraft type and drew attention to the amount of time Airbus took to confirm to them the interpretation of the load report. Both landing gear legs subsequently had to be replaced. In their final report the Portuguese accident investigation authority the Aviation Accidents Prevention and Investigation Department determined that the primary cause of the incident was the ground spoilers deploying in flight after the aircraft had bounced 12 ft off the runway. Contributing factors were the failure of the pilot to go-around after the bounce, the failure of the pilot to release the thrust levers before the first touchdown and the pilot providing insufficient flare input. Airbus subsequently introduced a new software standard for the A320 in July 2010 to modify the ground spoiler deployment logic. Aviation in the Azores Media related to SATA Internacional at Wikimedia Commons Media related to SATA Internacional at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Saudia known as Saudi Arabian Airlines, is the national carrier airline of Saudi Arabia, based in Jeddah. The airline's main operational base is at King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah, King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh and King Fahd International Airport in Dammam are secondary hubs; the airline is the third largest in the Middle East in terms of revenue, behind Emirates and Qatar Airways. It operates domestic and international scheduled flights to over 85 destinations in the Middle East, Asia and North America. Domestic and international charter flights are operated during the Ramadan and the Hajj season. Saudia is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization and joined the SkyTeam airline alliance on 29 May 2012; when U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt presented a Douglas DC-3 as a gift to King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud in 1945, the event marked the kingdom's gradual development of civil aviation; the nation's flag carrier, was founded as Saudi Arabian Airlines on September 1945 as a owned government agency under the control of the Ministry of Defense, with TWA running the airline under a management contract.
The now-demolished Kandara Airport, close to Jeddah, served as the flag carrier's main base. Among the airline's early operations was a special flight from Lydda in Palestine, a British Mandate at that time, to carry Hajj pilgrims to Jeddah; the airline used five DC-3 aircraft to launch scheduled operations on the Jeddah-Riyadh-Hofuf-Dhahran route in March 1947, followed by its first international service between Jeddah and Cairo in the same month. Service to Damascus and Beirut followed in early 1948; the following year the first of five Bristol 170s was received. These aircraft offered the airline the flexibility of carrying cargo. In 1962, the airline took delivery of two Boeing 720s, becoming the fourth Middle Eastern airline to fly jet aircraft, after Middle East Airlines and Cyprus Airways with the de Havilland Comet in 1960 and El Al with the Boeing 707 in 1961. On 19 February 1963, the airline became a registered company, with King Faisal of Saudi Arabia signing the papers that declared Saudia a independent company.
DC-6s and Boeing 707s were bought, the airline joined the AACO, the Arab Air Carriers Organization. Services were started to Sharjah, Khartoum, Tripoli, Rabat, Geneva and London. In the 1970s, a new livery was introduced; the carrier's name was changed to Saudia on 1 April 1972. Boeing 737s and Fokker F-28s were bought, with the 737s replacing the Douglas DC-9; the airline operated their first Boeing 747s service in 1977 when three Jumbo Jets were leased from Middle East Airlines and deployed on the London sector. The first all-cargo flights between Saudi Arabia and Europe were started, Lockheed L-1011s and Fairchild FH-27s were introduced. New services, including the Arabian Express'no reservation shuttle flights' between Jeddah and Riyadh; the Special Flight Services was set up as a special unit of Saudia, operates special flights for the royal family and government agencies. Service was started to Rome, Muscat and Stockholm; the Pan Am/Saudia joint service between Dhahran and New York City started on 3 February 1979.
In the 1980s services such as Saudia Catering began. Flights were started to Jakarta Athens, Dhaka, Nairobi, New York City, Singapore, Delhi, Seoul, Amsterdam, Nice, Brussels, Kuala Lumpur and Taipei. Horizon Class, a business class service, was established to offer enhanced service. Cargo hubs were built at Taipei. Airbus A300s, Boeing 747s, Cessna Citations were added to the fleet, the Citations for the SFS service. In 1989 services to Larnaca and Addis Ababa began. On 1 July 1982, the first nonstop service from Jeddah to New York City was initiated with Boeing 747SP aircraft; this was followed by a Riyadh-New York route. In the 1990s, services to Orlando, Asmara, Washington, D. C. Johannesburg, Milan, Málaga, Sanaa were introduced. Boeing 777s, MD-90s and MD-11s were introduced. New female flight attendant uniforms designed by Adnan Akbar were introduced. A new corporate identity was launched on 16 July 1996, featuring a sand colored fuselage with contrasting dark blue tailfin, the center of which featured a stylized representation of the House of Saud crest.
The Saudia name was dropped with Saudi Arabian Airlines name used. On 8 October 2000, Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the Saudi Minister of Defense and Aviation, signed a contract to conduct studies for the privatization of Saudi Arabian Airlines. In preparation for this, the airline was restructured to allow non-core units—including Saudia catering, ground handling services and maintenance as well as the Prince Sultan Aviation Academy in Jeddah—to be transformed into commercial units and profit centers. In April 2005, the Saudi government indicated that the airline may lose its monopoly on domestic services. In 2006, Saudia began the process of dividing itself into Strategic Business Units. In August 2007, Saudi Arabia's Council of Ministers approved the conversion of strategic units into companies, it is planned that ground services, technical services, air cargo and the Prince Sultan Aviation Academy, medical division, as well as the catering unit, will become subsidiaries of a holding company.
The airline reverted to its abbreviated English brand name Saudia from Saudi Arabian Airlines (histor
Oman Air is the national airline of Oman. Based at Muscat International Airport in Seeb, Muscat. Oman Air is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization. Oman Air can trace its root back to 1970; the company became a civil aircraft ground handling provider at Beit Al Falaj Airport. In 1972, OIS moved its operations to the new terminal at Seeb International Airport; the company took over Gulf Air's Light Aircraft Division in 1977, before establishing Aircraft Engineering Division in the same year. Expanding civil aviation industry of Oman led OIS to the building of several facilities – including hangars, workshops and in-flight catering – to cater for the increase in activity. In 1981, Oman Aviation Services became a joint-stock company. OAS purchased 13 aircraft from Gulf Air, allowing the company to replace its turboprops Fokker 27-600 with the −500 series; the following year, Oman Aviation Services jointly commenced jet services, along with Gulf Air, to Salalah. From 1983 to 1993, the company purchased new equipment, including the Cessna Citation, new facilities to help it improve its services.
In 1993, Oman Air was founded. The airline's start was in March, when a wet-leased Boeing 737-300 from Ansett Worldwide Aviation Services flew from Muscat to Salalah. In July of the same year, the airline's first international flight was operated to Dubai using a Boeing 737–300. Flights to other destinations followed, with Trivandrum services starting in November and Karachi in January 1994, Colombo in October. In 1995, two Airbus A320s were wet-leased from Region Air of Singapore to replace the 737s. From 1995 to 1997, services were commenced to Mumbai, Abu Dhabi and Chennai. In October 1998, Oman Air was admitted in the international aviation industry trade group International Air Transport Association. By the end of the following year, Peshawar, Jeddah and Al-Ain were included in the airline's ever-expanding route network, although the former two, along with a host of other destinations, were withdrawn in 2000. In March 2007, the Omani government recapitalised the airline, which saw the government increasing its shareholding from 33 to 80 percent.
It was announced that Oman Air would be re-evaluating its strategic plans, with a possibility of entering the long-haul market. This culminated in the announcement by the government in May 2007 that it would be pulling out of Gulf Air, would instead concentrate on developing Oman Air. Oman Air commenced its long-haul services on 26 November 2007 by launching flights to Bangkok and London. On 2 April 2007, Oman Air announced it had placed a firm order with Airbus for 5 Airbus A330 aircraft for delivery in 2009. At the 2009 Dubai Air Show, Oman Air finalized the order, which involved 3 A330-300s and 2 A330-200s. Deliveries started during the third quarter of 2009. In February 2009, Oman Air announced intentions to lease another 2 A330-200s from Jet Airways. During the 2009 Dubai Air Show, Oman Air Air finalised an order for five Embraer 175 aircraft with another 5 options, which the airline received from 2011. In March 2010, Oman Air became the first airline in the world to offer both mobile phone and Wi-Fi Internet services on selected routes.
By November 2010, the Omani government held a 99.8 percent stake in the airline. In 2011, Oman Air won the Gold award for the "Airline of the Year" at France's Laurier d'Or du Voyage d'Affaires. During September 2013 the CEO was quoted as saying that Oman Air was studying to move to a 50 aircraft strong fleet by 2017. In April 2015, Oman Air announced it would phase out its smaller aircraft to focus on an all Airbus and Boeing fleet; the 2 ATR 42-500 aircraft were withdrawn by the end of 2015 while the 4 Embraer 175 and the Boeing 737-700 aircraft will be retired by the end of 2016. In April 2017 Oman Air announced plans to replace the A330s with Airbus Boeing 787s. In compliance with Islamic dietary laws, all meals served on board Oman Air are prepared according to Halal guidelines. Special meals are available by request. Alcoholic beverages are only available on international flights except for Saudi Arabia and Iran routes, in which alcohol is prohibited in both countries by Islamic law. Airbus A330-300 and Boeing 787 aircraft are equipped with Wi-Fi and mobile network portability on board.
The inflight magazine of Oman Air is called Wings Of Oman and is available to all classes of travel on both domestic and international flights in both English and Arabic. Sindbad is Oman Air's frequent flyer program, launched in 2007, it is a three tier frequent flyer program managed directly by Oman Air. The three tiers are Sindbad Blue, Sindbad Silver which requires 25,000 Tier miles or flown 20 segments on Oman Air in a calendar year and will require 20,000 Tier miles or 15 Tier segments in a calendar year to maintain the Sindbad Silver Tier level, Sindbad Gold which requires 50,000 Tier miles or 40 Tier segments in a calendar and will require 30,000 Tier miles or 30 Tier segments in a calendar year to maintain the Sinbad Gold Tier. Sindbad has a partnership agreement with the respective program of Etihad Airways and miles can be earned through a number of Sindbad partners. Oman Air became the Presenting Sponsor for the 2015 NBO Golf Classic Grand Final. Orphaned Palestinian children have visited Al Khoudh child welfare centre.
This visit has been sponsored by Dar Al Atta'a. Oman Air was taken to court wherein it promised low fare and on did not honor the fare citing technical glitch; as of September 2018, Oman Air operates a network of 50 destinations in 27 countries out
The Airbus A310 is a medium- to long-range twin-engined wide-body jet airliner, developed and manufactured by Airbus a consortium of European aerospace manufacturers. It was the second airliner to be produced by the company, the first being the A300; the A310 is a smaller derivative of the A300, which held the distinction of being the first twin-engined widebody airliner. The origin of the A310 lies within design studies conducted for the earlier A300 program the smaller A300B10MC design. During the flight testing stage of the A300 program, a number of airlines approached Airbus, expressing that there was a sizable market for a smaller aircraft, leading to the company commencing studies on producing a separate airliner to produce such an aircraft; the design settled on for the tentative airliner designated as the A310, was a fuselage shrink of the A300, furnished with a new wing and a lighter landing gear configuration to suit the smaller scale of the aircraft. It shared a high level of commonality with the A300 in terms of the cockpit and subsystems.
These similarities enabled both aircraft to be manufactured upon the same production line. On 7 July 1978, Airbus decided to launch the A300B10 program, which it had re-designated as the A310; the company planned to produce two distinct versions of the A310, these being the regional A310-100 and the transcontinental A310-200, the former being unsuccessful due to lack of demand, with the latter being capable of longer-range flights. On 3 April 1982, the first prototype A310 conducted the type's maiden flight. In April 1983, the A310 entered revenue service with launch customer Swissair. From an operational perspective, the cockpit of the A310 and the A300-600 share such commonality that a dual type rating could be achieved, easing the training of flight crews for both airliners, it was produced between 1983 and 1998, having been succeeded by the Airbus A320, a newer narrow-body aircraft. On 26 September 1967, the British and West German governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding to commence the joint development of the 300-seat Airbus A300.
This collaborative effort resulted in the production of the consortium's first airliner, known as the Airbus A300. The A300 was a wide-body medium-to-long range passenger liner; the design was revolutionary for its time and featured a number of industry firsts, making the first use of composite materials on a commercial aircraft. The A300 would be produced in a range of models and sold well to airlines across the world reaching a total of 816 delivered aircraft during its production life. During the development of the earlier A300, a range of different aircraft size and capacity were studied by the consortium; when the A300B1 prototypes emerged, a number of airlines issued requests for an aircraft with greater capacity, which resulted in the initial production A300B2 version. As the A300 entered service, it became apparent that there was a sizable market for a smaller aircraft. At the same time, there was great pressure for Airbus to validate itself beyond the design and manufacture of a single airliner.
In response to these desires, Airbus explored the options for producing a smaller derivative of the A300B2. In order to minimise the associated research & development costs for the tentative project, Airbus chose to examine several early design studies performed during the A300 program; the company chose to prioritise its focus on one option, which became known as the A300B10MC. As envisioned, the airliner's capacity was reduced to a maximum of 220 passengers, viewed at the time as being a desired capacity amongst many airlines. However, such a design would have resulted in a small fuselage being mated to a comparatively large wing and oversized undercarriage. Another problem for the program was presented in the form of inflation, the rate of which in the United Kingdom was around 35 per cent during 1979–80; this factor was responsible for raising the program's development costs and, as a knock-on effect, increase the per-unit cost of the resulting airliner. During the development of the A300, British manufacturer Hawker Siddeley Aviation had been appointed as the subcontractor to perform the manufacturing of the wing of the aircraft.
During 1977, HSA subsequently merged with three other British aircraft companies, resulting in the formation of British Aerospace. By this point, the British government had publicly indicated its intentions to rejoin the Airbus program. During May 1976, the French government entered into a series of discussions on cooperation, during which its representatives stated that the placing of an order by British Airways was a condition for the re-admission of the United Kingdom into Airbus Industrie as a full partner. However, both BA and Rolls-Royce had