Gustavus Adolphus College
Gustavus Adolphus College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in St. Peter, Minnesota. A four-year, residential institution, Gustavus Adolphus College was founded in 1862 by Swedish Americans and is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; the college retains its Swedish and Lutheran heritage. The premier event on campus is the annual Nobel Conference, which features Nobel Laureates and other scholars explaining their expertise to a general audience. In 2015, Gustavus Adolphus College ranked as the 64th best liberal arts college in the United States; the predecessor to the college was founded in 1862 as a Lutheran parochial school in Red Wing by Eric Norelius. The school offered classes for grade-school children. Named Minnesota Elementarskola, it moved the following year to East Union, an unincorporated town in Dahlgren Township. In 1865, on the 1,000th anniversary of the death of St. Ansgar, known as the "Apostle of the North", the institution was renamed and incorporated as St. Ansgar's Academy.
In April 1873, the college was to be renamed Gustavus Adolphus Literary & Theological Institute in honor of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden once the final location and buildings were secured. A delegation of residents from St. Peter won favor from the founders to relocate there as a result of an economic crisis and the town's offer of $10,000 and donation of acreage for a larger campus. Courses were to start in the fall of 1875 but slow progress on the construction of the first campus building, Old Main, delayed the opening. On October 16, 1876, Gustavus Adolphus College opened at the location, it is the oldest of several Lutheran colleges founded in Minnesota. It was founded as a college of the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church. In 1962 it became affiliated with the Lutheran Church in America, when the Augustana Synod merged into that body; the Lutheran Church in America merged in 1988 to create the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. During World War II, Gustavus Adolphus College was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
The annual Nobel Conference was established in the mid-1960s when college officials asked the Nobel Foundation for permission to name the new science building the Alfred Nobel Hall of Science as a memorial to the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel. Permission was granted, the facility's dedication ceremony in 1963 included officials from the Nobel Foundation and 26 Nobel Laureates. Following the 1963 Nobel Prize ceremonies in Stockholm, college representatives met with Nobel Foundation officials, asking them to endorse an annual science conference at the College and to allow use of the Nobel name to establish credibility and high standards. At the urging of several prominent Nobel laureates, the foundation granted the request, the first conference was held at the college in January 1965. Eric Norelius, 1862–63, Founder Andrew Jackson, principal 1863–73, acting principal 1874–76 John J. Frodeen, principal 1873–74 Jonas P. Nyquist, 1876–81 Matthias Wahlstrom, 1881–1904 Peter A. Mattson, 1904–11 Jacob P. Uhler, acting president 1911–1913, 1927 Oscar J. "O.
J." Johnson, 1913–42 Walter Lunden, 1942–43 O. A. Winfield, acting president 1943–44 Edgar M. Carlson, 1944–1968 Albert Swanson, acting president 1968–69 Frank Barth, 1968–75 Edward A. Lindell, 1975–80 Abner W. Arthur, acting president 1980–81 John S. Kendall, 1981–91 Axel D. Steuer, 1991–2002 Dennis J. Johnson, interim president 2002–03 James L. Peterson, 2003–08 Jack R. Ohle, 2008–14 Rebecca M. Bergman, 2014–present Students choose from over 70 programs of study with 75 majors in 25 academic departments and three interdisciplinary programs, ranging from physics to religion to Scandinavian studies. Gustavus has been among the top 10 liberal-arts institutions nationally as the baccalaureate origin of physics PhDs; the college has 170 faculty. The student-to-faculty ratio is 11:1, creating an average class size of 15; the College's Writing Across the Curriculum program fosters writing skills in all academic disciplines. Since 1983, the college has had a chapter of the academic honor society Phi Beta Kappa.
The school offers an alternative interdisciplinary general education program known as the Three Crowns Curriculum. The college instituted a test-optional admission policy, making it the first private college in Minnesota to forgo the ACT/SAT score requirement on its application. Since its founding, Gustavus Adolphus College has produced various Fulbright, Marshall, Truman, National Science Foundation, NCAA Postgraduate fellowship winners and scholars. In 2017, Gustavus Adolphus College was ranked 77th in the national liberal arts college category and 45th in the Best Value Schools category by U. S. News & World Report; the Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College Rankings placed Gustavus 48th on its list of the top 100 liberal arts colleges in the United States in 2017, third among Minnesota private colleges after academic "rivals" Carleton and Macalester. Gustavus placed 140th out of 1,061 institutions measured, including private colleges; the 2016 edition of the Washington Monthly college rankings placed Gustavus 58th among liberal arts colleges.
In 2016, Gustavus Adolphus College ranked 74th of universities in MONEY magazine. The college ranked 23rd on the magazine's list of the 50 Best Liberal Arts Colleges; the New York Times ranked Gustavus #35 in the United States in their third annual College Access
A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries: many community colleges have an “open enrollment” for students who have graduated from high school; the term refers to a higher educational institution that provides workforce education and college transfer academic programs. Some institutions maintain athletic dormitories similar to their university counterparts. In Australia, the term "community college" refers to small private businesses running short courses of a self-improvement or hobbyist nature. Equivalent to the American notion of community colleges are Tertiary and Further Education colleges or TAFEs. There are an increasing number of private providers, which are colloquially called "colleges". TAFEs and other providers carry on the tradition of adult education, established in Australia around the mid-19th century, when evening classes were held to help adults enhance their numeracy and literacy skills. Most Australian universities can be traced back to such forerunners, although obtaining a university charter has always changed their nature.
In TAFEs and colleges today, courses are designed for personal development of an individual and/or for employment outcomes. Educational programs cover a variety of topics such as arts, languages and lifestyle, they are scheduled to run two, three or four days of the week, depending on the level of the course undertaken. A Certificate I may only run for 4 hours twice a week for a term of 9 weeks. A full-time Diploma course might have classes 4 days per week for a year; some courses may be offered in the weekends to accommodate people working full-time. Funding for colleges may come from government grants and course fees. Many are not-for-profit organisations; such TAFES are located in metropolitan and rural locations of Australia. Education offered by TAFEs and colleges has changed over the years. By the 1980s many colleges had recognised a community need for computer training. Since thousands of people have increased skills through IT courses; the majority of colleges by the late 20th century had become Registered Training Organisations.
They offer individuals a nurturing, non-traditional education venue to gain skills that better prepare them for the workplace and potential job openings. TAFEs and colleges have not traditionally offered bachelor's degrees, instead providing pathway arrangements with universities to continue towards degrees; the American innovation of the associate degree is being developed at some institutions. Certificate courses I to IV, diplomas and advanced diplomas are offered, the latter deemed equivalent to an undergraduate qualification, albeit in more vocational areas; some TAFE institutes have become higher education providers in their own right and are now starting to offer bachelor's degree programs. In Canada, colleges are adult educational institutions that provide higher education and tertiary education, grant certificates and diplomas; as well, in Ontario, the 24 colleges of applied arts and technology have been mandated to offer their own stand-alone degrees as well as to offer joint degrees with universities through "articulation agreements" that result in students emerging with both a diploma and a degree.
Thus, for example, the University of Guelph "twins" with Humber College and York University does the same with Seneca College. More however, colleges have been offering a variety of their own degrees in business and technical fields; the academic and economic value of the college degree is still being tested in the marketplace. Each province has its own educational system, as prescribed by the Canadian federalism model of governance. In the mid-1960s and early 1970s, most Canadian colleges began to provide practical education and training for the emerging baby boom generation, for immigrants from around the world who were entering Canada in increasing numbers at that time. A formative trend was the merging of the separate vocational training and adult education institutions. Canadian colleges are either publicly funded or private post-secondary institutions. There are 150 institutions that are equivalent to the US community college in certain contexts, they are referred to as "colleges" since in common usage a degree-granting institution is exclusively a university.
In addition to graduate degrees, universities grant Associate's degrees and Bachelor's degrees, but in some regions and/or courses of study and universities collaborate so college students can earn transfer credits toward undergraduate university degrees. University degrees are attained through four years of study; the term associate degree is used in western Canada to refer to a two-year college arts or science degree, similar to how the term is used in the United States. In other parts of Canada the term advanced degree is used to indicate a 3- or 4-year college program. In the province of Quebec, three years is the norm for a university degree because a year of credit is earned in the CEGEP system; when speaking in English, people refer to all colleges as Cégeps, however the term is an acronym more applied to the French-language public system: Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel. The word College can refer to a private High School in Quebec. Canadian community college systemsList of colleges in Canada Colleges and Institutes Can
University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are 3 miles apart, the St. Paul campus is in neighboring Falcon Heights, it is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 50,943 students in 2018-19. The university is the flagship institution of the University of Minnesota system, is organized into 19 colleges and schools, with sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth and Rochester; the University of Minnesota is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. Founded in 1851, The University of Minnesota is categorized as a Doctoral University – Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Minnesota is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked 14th in research activity with $881 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.
The University of Minnesota faculty and researchers have won 30 Nobel Prizes and three Pulitzer Prizes. Notable University of Minnesota alumni include two Vice Presidents of the United States, Hubert Humphrey and Walter Mondale, Bob Dylan, who received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature; the university organization structure consists of 19 colleges and other major academic units: The university has six university-wide interdisciplinary centers and institutes whose work crosses collegiate lines: Center for Cognitive Sciences Consortium on Law and Values in Health and the Life Sciences Institute for Advanced Study at University of Minnesota Institute for Translational Neuroscience Institute on the Environment Minnesota Population Center In 2018, Minnesota was ranked 37th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015 ranks Minnesota 46th in the world; the Center for World University Rankings ranked the university 35th in the world and 25th in the United States in 2018.
In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Minnesota 34th in the world based on research publication data from 2015. In 2015, Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 11th in the world for mathematics; the University of Minnesota is ranked 14 overall among the nation's top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance. The university's research and development expenditures ranked 13th–15th among U. S. academic institutions in the 2010 through 2015 National Science Foundation reports. The U. S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings placed the undergraduate program of the university as the 69th-best National University in the United States, it ranked the Chemical Engineering program third-best, the Doctor of Pharmacy program third best, the Economics PhD program tenth, Psychology eighth, Statistics sixteenth, Audiology ninth, the University of Minnesota Medical School 6th for primary care and 34th for research. The Law School recognized as a'Top Law School' by U.
S. News & World Report, is ranked 20th in the nation, is a national leader in commercial law, international law, clinical education. Additionally, nineteen of the university's graduate-school departments have been ranked in the nation's top-twenty by the U. S. National Research Council. In 2008 and 2012 U. S. News & World Report ranked the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. 2016 U. S. News & Report now rank the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. In 2011, U. S. News & World Report ranked the School of Public Health 8th in the nation, home to the 2nd ranked program for the Master of Healthcare Administration degree; the University of Minnesota ranked 19th in NIH funding in 2008. Minnesota is listed as a "Public Ivy" in 2001 Greenes' Guides The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the Nursing Informatics program of University of Minnesota as 2nd best in the nation; the university is known for innovation in research. The inventions by students and faculty have ranged from food science to health technologies.
Most of the public research funding in Minnesota is funneled to the University of Minnesota as a result of long standing advocacy by the university itself. The university developed Gopher, a precursor to the World Wide Web which used hyperlinks to connect documents across computers on the internet. However, the version produced by CERN was favored by the public since it was distributed and could more handle multimedia webpages; the university houses the Charles Babbage Institute, a research and archive center specializing in computer history. The department has strong roots in the early days of supercomputing with Seymour Cray of Cray supercomputers; the university became a member of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory in 2007, has led data analysis projects searching for gravitational waves – the existence of which were confirmed by scientists in February 2016. Puffed rice – Alexander P. Anderson led to the discovery of "puffed rice", a starting point for a new breakfast cereal advertised as "Food Shot From Guns".
Transistorized cardiac pacemaker – Earl Bakken founded Medtronic, where he developed the first external, battery-operated, wearable artificial pacemaker in 1957. ATP synthase – Paul D. Boyer elucidated the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, leading to a Nobel Prize in 1997
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Dunwoody College of Technology
Dunwoody College of Technology is a private, non-profit technology school in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Dunwoody offers Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Architecture and Associate of Applied Science degrees. Dunwoody College was founded as a technical institute in 1914, when Minneapolis businessman William Hood Dunwoody left three million dollars in his will to "provide for all time a place where youth without distinction on account of race, color or religious prejudice, may learn the useful trades and crafts, thereby fit themselves for the better performance of life's duties." When his widow, Kate L. Dunwoody, died a year she left additional funds to keep the college moving forward. In the spring of 1916, the Dunwoody Trustees purchased six city blocks, 3 long and 2 deep, facing the parade grounds; the Minneapolis City Council closed the streets and alleys that traversed the area creating a site of 16 acres. Hewitt and Brown Architects and Engineers were contracted to design a school building.
Their draft included nine buildings which were composed of six shop buildings and a three-story administration facility with an auditorium on one side and a gymnasium building on the other. Three years from the school’s inception, the first two buildings were opened in August 1917 and have remained throughout the century. In issues of the Artisan from this period, the Minneapolis Public Library had one of its branches on the campus offering its services the campus’s students. Located across from St. Mary’s Basilica and Loring Park, just west of downtown, the new facility was dedicated on October 31, 1917 and the space at the Minneapolis Central High School facility was left empty. Dr. Marion L. Burton, president of the University of Minnesota, gave the address. Dr. Prosser’s commencement address in May 1918 contrasted the new facility with the old one used in cooperation with the Minneapolis school district, “Roughly four years ago we were quartered in an old, tumble-down building that, with the kindness of the board of education, served us well in time of need.”
When the University of Minnesota perceived its need for preparing instructors to teach in this new emerging area of vocational education, they began to look for partnerships. On April 22, 1920, Fred Snyder, President of the University of Minnesota, entered into a cooperative agreement with William Hood Dunwoody Institute allowing students who were enrolled at the University in teacher training courses to spend a portion of their class time at the institute to receive experiences related to observations and practice of all types of trade and industrial education; the reciprocity of this agreement allowed Dunwoody instructors to enroll and receive credit for any courses offered by the College of Education at the University that were a part of the teacher training authorized by the Smith Hughes Act. These matriculations were considered scholarships and did not encumber the University or the Institute in monetary exchanges, only the awarding of credits. There were no other recognizable post-secondary technical institutes or colleges at this time in the state of Minnesota.
In 1953, the era of the international perspective of Dunwoody Industrial Institute became manifest when Dunwoody was provided a grant by the Ford Foundation for the purpose of sending representatives to consult with the Indonesian Ministry of Education. Under the leadership of Dunwoody Industrial Institute’s second Director J. R. Kingman, an Indonesian Technical Teacher Training Institute was to be established in Ban dung, Java. An American, Dr. Milton G Towner was the director for the center, he was on leave as director of the Staff College of the Federal Civil Defense Administration in Washington, DC. Six American teachers from Dunwoody were sent with Dr. Towner to work with indigenous Indonesians in making training available to prospective and interested teachers in the Indonesian technical school system. Seven Indonesian teachers were sent to Dunwoody for training so they could return and support the efforts being directed by Dr. Towner. On November 27, 1953, Dr. K. Nagaraja Rao, a graduate of the University of Mysore, became the head of Dunwoody Industrial Institute’s new International Services Division.
He was a native of India who taught at the Illinois Institute of Technology and the Korean Technical Institute, where he opened a department of chemical engineering. His job was to be the liaison between the Ford Foundation. Since 1951, he had been a consultant to the Government of Indonesia for the development of indigenous industries. Mr. Phillip S. Van Wyck became the senior advisor of the Government Technical Institute in Insein, Burma; the development and operation of this government Technical Institute was funded by the Ford Foundation and assisted with staffing from Dunwoody. In 1956, Dunwoody Industrial Institute began its third technical assistance program in the Union of Burma, establishing the first technical high school in Rangoon. In a government-sponsored building, four Dunwoody employees assisted the local Burmese in developing shops and demonstration materials. Burmese instructors were delivered the curriculum; the Annual Report of the Ford Foundation noted Dunwoody Institute's efforts at Rangoon.
It it noted that a second Teacher’s Institute was started in Djakarta. The Central Training Institute in Bombay India was opened in March 1963 with the assistance of a five-member team from Dunwoody, the Indian Government and the US Department of Education. In the Dunwoody News March 29, 1963 issue, a facsimile of the formal invitation indicating that Prime Minister Nehru of India would be addressing the inauguration ceremony of the Institute is found; that year another project began in Khartoum, Sudan, to establish the K
Minnesota College Athletic Conference
Minnesota College Athletic Conference Minnesota Community College Conference is junior college collegiate athletic conference. Its sixteen member institutions are located in the Midwest, stretching from Northern Minnesota into Western Wisconsin; the conference competes in the National Junior College Athletic Association. The MCCC was established in the fall of 1967. North Dakota State College of Science and Dakota College joined the conference in football only beginning with the 2014 season. Official website
Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system
The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system or Minnesota State System branded as MnSCU, comprises 30 state colleges and 7 state universities with 54 campuses throughout Minnesota. The system is the largest higher education system in Minnesota and the fourth largest in the United States, educating over 375,000 students annually, it is governed by a 15-member board of trustees appointed by the governor, which has broad authority to run the system. The Minnesota State system office is located in the Wells Fargo Place building in Saint Paul, Minnesota. In 2016, the Board of Trustees approved a rebranding of the system to the shortened Minnesota State; this change was met with criticism as this is the nickname attributed to Minnesota State University, Mankato. The change affected branding but did not alter the legal name of the organization, identified in state statute; the system is now being referenced in media as the Minnesota State System, while the institution in Mankato is being referenced as Minnesota State.
In 1991, the Minnesota Legislature issued legislation which founded the creation of the Minnesota State system. Through this process the then-existing Minnesota state university system, community college system and technical college system were combined into a single higher education system; this was to be accomplished by 1995 but due to statewide opposition it wasn't until 1997 that a Central Office was formed and individual institutions began to operate under centralized direction. The members of the University of Minnesota could not be compelled by the legislature to be part of the new system because it had sued for independence in the form of constitutional autonomy from legislative oversight; this autonomy was affirmed by the Minnesota Supreme Court after the State of Minnesota was formed and was a response to lobbying demands from a newly formed Alumni Association of the University of Minnesota in the early 19th century. This difference in independence and power has led to significant differences in the way in which the State system operates and educates students.
Through this legislation the State system was given the ad-hoc role of educating all students outside of the doctoral research role that the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities campus provides. In addition, individual university and college members have, by comparison smaller endowments, receive less funding from the state government of Minnesota than comparable members of the University of Minnesota system. An appropriation by the state of Minnesota was supposed to cover 66% of the cost to educate students, as of 2014 the state provides about 50%. Minnesota State Colleges and Universities offer a wide range of collegiate programs from associates degrees to applied doctorates. All of the system's two-year community and technical colleges have an open admissions policy, which means that anyone with either a high school diploma or equivalent degree may enroll; the system runs an online collaborative called Minnesota Online, a gateway to the online course offerings of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities.
More than 150 academic programs are available or predominantly online. About 93,300 students took online courses during the 2009-2010 academic year; the economic impact of the Minnesota State system is estimated to be $8 billion per year, with a return of twelve dollars for every dollar invested. Tuition at Minnesota State Colleges and Universities is lower than tuition at the University of Minnesota, private universities, or private trade schools. More than 80 percent of graduates stay in Minnesota to continue their education; the job-placement rate based on the last available data at two-year colleges is 88.0 percent in 2006, meaning that 88.0 percent of graduates find jobs in their chosen fields. The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system has not designated an official flagship institution, Minnesota State University and Saint Cloud State University have been referred to as the system flagship at various points in time. 4-Year State UniversitiesBemidji State University Metropolitan State University Minnesota State University, Mankato Minnesota State University Moorhead Southwest Minnesota State University St. Cloud State University Winona State University2-Year Community and Technical Colleges: Alexandria Technical and Community College Anoka Technical College Anoka-Ramsey Community College Cambridge Campus Coon Rapids Campus Central Lakes College Brainerd Campus Staples Campus Century College White Bear Lake Campus Mahtomedi Campus Dakota County Technical College Rosemount Campus Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College Cloquet Campus Hennepin Technical College Brooklyn Park Campus Eden Prairie Campus Inver Hills Community College Inver Grove Heights Campus Lake Superior College Duluth Campus Minnesota State Community and Technical College Detroit Lakes Campus Fergus Falls Campus Moorhead Campus Wadena Campus Minnesota State College Southeast Red Wing Campus Winona Campus Minneapolis Community and Technical College Minnesota West Community and Technical College Canby Campus Granite Falls Campus Jackson Campus Pipestone Campus Worthington Campus Normandale Community College Bloomington Campus North Hennepin Community College Brooklyn Park Campus Northeast Higher Education District Hibbing Community College Itasca Community College Grand Rapids Campus Mesabi Range College Virginia Campus Eveleth Campus Rainy River Community College International Falls Campus Vermilion Community College Ely Campus Northland Community & Technical College East Grand Forks Campus Thief River Falls Campus Northwest Technical College Bemidji Campus Pine Technical and Community College Pine City Campus Ridgewater College Hutchinson