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Hidalgo (state)

Hidalgo the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo, is one of the 32 states which constitute the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 84 municipalities and its capital city is Pachuca de Soto. In 1869, Benito Juárez created the State of Hidalgo, he appointed as capital of the state the city of Pachuca to, added the name "de Soto" in recognition of Manuel Fernando Soto, considered the most important driving force in creating the state. The state was named after Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the initiator of the Mexican War of Independence, it is located in Eastern Mexico. Hidalgo is bordered by San Luis Potosí and Veracruz on the north, Puebla on the east and State of Mexico on the south and Querétaro on the west; the state has a number of intact native cultures such as the Otomi. There are three notable immigrant cultures, those of the descendants of Cornish miners from Cornwall who arrived in the 19th century, a few self-proclaimed Italian descendants, a small Jewish enclave which claims to be descended from Sephardi Jews which came to New Spain in the 16th century.

The state contains a number of ecotourism and archeological attractions including the Huasteca area, the ruins of Tula, natural hot water springs, old haciendas and mountain ranges. Hidalgo is known for its mountainous terrain but part of the state is on a coastal plain. With a population of 2.665 million and an area of 20,813 square km, Hidalgo is one of Mexico's smaller states. The modern day state of Hidalgo is located within the pre-Hispanic region of Mesoamerica. Numerous migrations of indigenous people took place through here arriving or passing through from the north, with many settling in the Valley of Mexico; the Toltecs settled in Xochicoatlán, now the municipality of Molango at the beginning of the 7th century. From here they dispersed to locales such as Huejutla and Tollatzingo where they had their capital of Tollan, today known as Tula; the Toltecs were overrun by Chichimecas, who established their capital in Metztitlán. The Aztecs arrived in the 12th century establishing themselves in Mixquiahuala founding Tizayuca later.

The Aztecs took over most of what is now the southern portion of the state, incorporating it into the Aztec Empire. After the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, the conquistadors carved out territories for themselves from Aztec lands. Hernán Cortés took possession of lands to the northeast of Mexico City extending into modern Hidalgo state. Evangelization efforts followed soon thereafter with the first Franciscans arriving in 1523; this changed the social and cultural structure of the areas as the Spanish took control of the natural resources minerals, the labor the Indians provided. It led to a massive decrease in the native population during the governorship of the area by Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán. By the 18th century, the economy of the Hidalgo area was dominated by mining and agricultural haciendas. Much of the agricultural production during the colonial period was centered on livestock such as sheep and pigs as well as the making of pulque from the native maguey plant. However, the mining of silver and other metals in the Pachuca/Real del Monte area would be the economic backbone of the area through the colonial period and into most of post Independence period.

Mining's fortunes would rise and fall during the colonial period with one of the most productive eras coming under the control of Pedro Romero de Terreros in the 18th century. Despite Spanish control and evangelization efforts since the 16th century, by the 18th century, many of the Otomi and other indigenous groups of the area had not been subjugated in the Sierra Gorda and Sierra Baja areas; these groups and others manage a significant amount of success in maintaining cultural and economic autonomy through the colonial period. Much of the state still maintains a number of strong indigenous identities. Many in Hidalgo the indigenous, supported Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s cause, providing leaders such as José María Correa and José Antonio Magos, both of whom were active in the Mezquital Valley area. However, no major battles of the Mexican War of Independence were fought in the state. Instead, a number of smaller operations against local Spaniards were conducted; when the war ended in 1821, the country was divided into a number of states.

The modern state of Hidalgo was part of the large territory called “Mexico”, split with the remaining portion becoming the modern State of Mexico. What is now Hidalgo was the districts of Tula and Huejutla of the former entity; the state of Hidalgo would not be formally created until the 1860s. The economic consequences to the mines of Pachuca and Real del Monte during the War of Independence were ruinous. In 1824, British mining companies were brought in to revive the sector; the British introduced steam-powered machinery and other modern techniques as well as a large quantity of Cornish miners. Many of these Cornish miners stayed and English names and foods such as pasties help define the state in the Pachuca and Real del Monte areas; these Englishmen were forced to sell their interest to Mexican capitalists in 1849, the mining sector fell again. In 1861, the government of the vast State of Mexico was centered in Toluca, east of Mexico City; the distance of the capital was one of the reasons why Hidalgo state would separate.

When French forces invaded central

Arms Reduction Coalition

The Arms Reduction Coalition is a United Kingdom-based non-profit non-governmental organisation which campaigns for a reduction in the resources spent on arms and the military and for those resources to be divereted to programmes that benefit humanity and the earth. The Arms Reduction Coalition is a calling for the United Nations to agree a binding instrument requiring United Nations member states to reduce the amount of resources spent on arms by between 1 and 5 percent per year for a period of 10 to 25 years; this is based on Article 26 of the United Nations Charter which states "In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world’s human and economic resources, the UN Security Council shall be responsible for formulating…, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of Armaments". ARC was formally launched at a meeting organised by Action for UN Renewal on 7 May 2002 at the House of Commons in London.

ARC campaigns to encourage the states of the United Nations to'Implement Article 26 of the UN Charter' by reducing the diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources by a set percentage each year. This policy is or has been advocated by other organisations such as the International Peace Bureau, World Bank1, some members of the United Nations and The General Assembly; the idea can be traced back to 1955 when the French Prime Minister Edgar Faure tabled a plan at a meeting of the UN Disarmament Commission. ARC's Patrons include Dennis Haliday, Bruce Kent, Peter Archer, Baron Archer of Sandwell, Alice Mahon, Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Linda Melvern. Individuals and organisations from around the world are encouraged to join ARC by endorsing the ARC Resolution or becoming a member. Organisations from all continents have endorsed the ARC resolution. Similar resolutions have been adopted by other groups such as United Nations Association UK, The Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century, German Party of Democratic Socialism and Greenpeace.

ARC's campaign is driven by this United Nations style resolution. Supporters and members are requested endorse this resolution; the Arms Reduction Coalition: "Concerned by the obstacles and difficulties that the large amounts of arms in circulation pose to the maintenance of peace and security and to Non-Governmental Organisations and UN departments in carrying out their work. The ARC Resolution has been translated into several languages; some publications distributed by ARC include: ARC Petition Arms No More by Vijay Mehta, is a comprehensive study of small arms, light weapons and weapons of mass destruction – nuclear and chemical. It outlines global efforts to develop and implement effective projects to limit the use and spread of small arms, which stands as a critical challenge to human security. ARC Music ARC Peace Quotes by Aray - ARC speeches set to composed World music. Includes ARC introduction & resolution, Quotes on the UN and armaments, help to advance ARC, some ARC voices, Spider & the Fly, Spider & the Fly Dub, ARC: The UN and Africa by Aray - ARC speeches set to new composed World music.

Includes Blood Run Done.

Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 25

Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 25 or NMCB 25 is a Navy Reserve Seabee unit, headquartered at Port Hueneme, CA. Its World War II predecessor was one of three CBs transferred to the Marine Corps in the late summer of 1942 as combat engineers; those three battalions were attached to composite Marine Engineer Regiments as the third battalion of their respective regiment. All of them remained with the Marine Corps for the next two years before they were released and returned to the Navy. At the end of World War II the battalion was decommissioned. In 1961, it was recommissioned in the Naval Construction Force Reserve. On 13 September 1942, the 25th Naval Construction Battalion was commissioned at Camp Bradford and sent to Ports Hueneme. Headquarters and A, C & D Companies were transferred to the Marine Corps and sent to Camp Elliot, San Diego on 31 October. Camp Elliot was the home of West Coast. "Its mission was the training of individual replacements for combat duty". Marine battalions had a four company formatt, why one company was released.

B Company was transferred to the NCB Replacement Group, FMF-TC and used as the core for the 53rd NCB. As history would have it, the 25th and 53rd have been paired from on. Both were deployed to the same places; the rest of the 25th was posted to the Third Marine Division, FMF and re-designated as the Third Battalion of the 19th Marines. The Marines had three battalions to a regiment; the first battalion had Companies A, B, & C, while the second had Companies D, E, & F and the third battalion had Companies G,H, & I. G Company and 1/5 Hq Company 1 January 1943 transferred to 9th Marines, Third Marine Division, arrived Auckland, New Zealand in February H Company and 1/5 Hq Company 25 January 1943 transferred to 21st Marines, Third Marine Division, arrived Auckland, New Zealand in February I Company and 1/5 Hq Company 15 February 1943 transferred to Hq Amphibious Corps Fleet Marine Force via: Pago Pago and American Samoa arrived Auckland New Zealand 28 May; this company was attached to the 3rd Marines.

In June, the battalion was detached from the Marines and returned to battalion administration of a headquarters and three construction companies. They were sent to Guadalcanal in preparation of the Bougainville campaign. On 1 November, 15 Officers landed there under fire. By November 28 an additional 317 men and 6 Officers had landed. On Bougainville the 25th worked with the 71st NCBs; the battalion returned to Guadalcanal in early January 1944. The 19th Marines were decommissioned with the 25th released from the administrative control of the 3rd Marine Division on 11 April, they were again redesignated the 25th NCB. However, the battalion was attached to III Amphibious Corps, FMF for administrative purposes and to the 3rd Marine Division operationally. 3rd Marine Division Order of Battle of Bougainville:3rd Marine Regimental Combat Team – C, F, & I Companies 19th Marines 9th Marine Regimental Combat Team – A, D, & G Companies 19th Marines 21st Marine Regimental Combat Team – B, E, & H Companies 19th Marines On 21 July 1944, 621 men and 23 Officers landed under fire on Guam, with the 3rd Marine Division.

The Division had three shore parties one for each regiment. 25 NCB had I Co. posted to the 3rd Marine Regiment, G Co. to the 9th Marines and H Co. to the 21st Marines. Each shore party was made up of one Seabee company. Commander Whelan was Shore party Commander for the 3rd marine Regiment on Beaches Red 1 and Red 2. During the assault phase the entire 19th Marines were assigned to combat teams; the 25th's Lt. Cmdr. Whelan was shore party commander for the 3rd Marine Regiment on beaches Red 1 and Red 2, he received the bronze star for his leadership of the shore party as did Lt Cdr. Brett W. Walker for the same reason on beaches Blue and Green; the jungle conditions were such. Roads had to be grubbed to get supplies to the front, the wounded evacuated, the artillery em-placed. There were numerous times the Seabees were working in front of the lines in order for the lines to advance and lost men doing that. Dozers were needed so badly that those organic to the artillery units had to be reassigned until they were not required.

The Seabees brought with an organic element the Marines did not have i.e. bulldozers with winches and D8s 132–148 Hp compared to the Marine's TD 18s 72–80 Hp. Afterwards the Marines assessment was that: "in all future amphibious operations a Seabee component or one with equal road building capabilities be assigned to the assault", it was not until 20 September that that entire Battalion was on Guam. 3rd Marine Division Order of Battle of Guam:9th Marine Regimental Combat Team – A, D, & G Companies 19th Marines 21st Marine Regimental Combat Team -B, E, & H Companies 19th Marines 3rd Marine Regimental Combat Team – C, F, & I Companies 19th Marines On 17 August, the battalion returned to the Navy administration and assigned to the 27th NCR of the 5th Construction Brigade. Another former USMC CB, the 53rd was assigned to the 27th NCR as was the 2nd Separate Marine Engineer Battalion; the 25th was decommissioned in November of 1945 with the 133rd NCB taking over its work orders on Guam. Note: 25 NCB was the only unit to serve with Army and Marine Corps formations during WWII.

The battalion was recommissioned in October 1961 at Davisville, RI. From 1995 until 2014 NMCB 25's homeport was Fort McCoy, where it had moved from Glenview, Ill, its headquarters has since moved to Port Hueneme, CA, where i