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Hidden Markov model

Hidden Markov Model is a statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobservable states. The hidden Markov model can be represented as the simplest dynamic Bayesian network; the mathematics behind the HMM were developed by coworkers. HMM is related to earlier work on the optimal nonlinear filtering problem by Ruslan L. Stratonovich, the first to describe the forward-backward procedure. In simpler Markov models, the state is directly visible to the observer, therefore the state transition probabilities are the only parameters, while in the hidden Markov model, the state is not directly visible, but the output, dependent on the state, is visible; each state has a probability distribution over the possible output tokens. Therefore, the sequence of tokens generated by an HMM gives some information about the sequence of states; the adjective hidden refers to the state sequence through which the model passes, not to the parameters of the model.

Hidden Markov models are known for their application in reinforcement learning and temporal pattern recognition such as speech, gesture recognition, part-of-speech tagging, musical score following, partial discharges and bioinformatics. A hidden Markov model can be considered a generalization of a mixture model where the hidden variables, which control the mixture component to be selected for each observation, are related through a Markov process rather than independent of each other. Hidden Markov models have been generalized to pairwise Markov models and triplet Markov models which allow consideration of more complex data structures and the modeling of nonstationary data. Let X n and Y n be discrete-time stochastic processes and n ≥ 1; the pair is a hidden markov model if X n is not directly observable. The states of the process X n are called hidden states, P ⁡ is called an emission probability or output probability. In its discrete form, a hidden Markov process can be visualized as a generalization of the urn problem with replacement.

Consider this example: in a room, not visible to an observer there is a genie. The room contains urns X1, X2, X3... each of which contains a known mix of balls, each ball labeled y1, y2, y3.... The genie randomly draws a ball from that urn, they put the ball onto a conveyor belt, where the observer can observe the sequence of the balls but not the sequence of urns from which they were drawn. The genie has some procedure to choose urns; the choice of urn does not directly depend on the urns chosen before this single previous urn. It can be described by the upper part of Figure 1; the Markov process itself cannot be observed, only the sequence of labeled balls, thus this arrangement is called a "hidden Markov process". This is illustrated by the lower part of the diagram shown in Figure 1, where one can see that balls y1, y2, y3, y4 can be drawn at each state. If the observer knows the composition of the urns and has just observed a sequence of three balls, e.g. y1, y2 and y3 on the conveyor belt, the observer still cannot be sure which urn the genie has drawn the third ball from.

However, the observer can work out other information, such as the likelihood that the third ball came from each of the urns. The diagram below shows the general architecture of an instantiated HMM; each oval shape represents a random variable. The random variable x is the hidden state at time t; the random variable y is the observation at time t. The arrows in t

John Hambley (martyr)

John Hambley was an English Catholic and martyr, who died during the reign of Elizabeth I. John Hambley was a native of the parish of St. Mabyn, near Cornwall. Hambley was converted to Catholicism by reading one of Robert Persons' books in 1582. Around Christmas that year he ceased to attend the worship established by law, fearing the penalty entailed by absence from church decided to leave the county where he was known, he journeyed to London, where he took up abode at the "Sun and Seven Stars" in Smithfield until May 1583. During that time he was reconciled to the Catholic faith in a chamber over the gate at the "Red Lion" in Holborn by Mr. Fortescue, a seminary priest staying there. In early May 1583 he sailed from Rye in Sussex for Dieppe, arriving at Rheims by way of Rouen by the end of the month, he studied at Rheims and was ordained a priest 22 September 1584. Disguised as a serving man he left with Maurice Williams for the English Mission on 6 April 1585. Landing near Ipswich, they made his way to London taking up residence in the "Blue Boar".

A fortnight Hambley relocated to the "Red Lion", placing himself under the direction of the Catholic priest John Cornelius. During this time, he ministered to some of the clandestine Catholics at the Inns of Court. After about five weeks he went to Dorsetshire and worked in the Western Counties for about a year. Around Easter 1586, he was denounced by a gentleman's servant, he was captured tried and condemned at Taunton. Having fled to Salisbury, he continued his labours there until the next August. On the eve of the Assumption, the Protestant Bishop of Salisbury decided to search the houses of local Catholics, suspecting that he might catch a priest saying mass. During the raids Hambley was recaptured. Now worse off than he became more afraid than before and gave up the names of most of his Catholic friends, as well as denied his faith. However, the judges did not trust his statements and he was held over for the next assizes. On the next Easter, he was tried again; this third time though, he did not break, was executed near Salisbury, "standing to it manfully, inveighing much against his former fault".

No one is sure. One contemporary, Father Warford, believed it was due to his guardian angel, but another, Father Gerard, with great probability, states that his strength came from a fellow prisoner, Thomas Pilchard, who became a martyr himself. Catholic Church in the United Kingdom Douai Martyrs

Zoran Dragić

Zoran Dragić is a Slovenian professional basketball player for Kirolbet Baskonia of the Liga ACB and the EuroLeague. He represents the Slovenian national basketball team internationally. Standing at 1.96 m, he plays small forward positions. He is the younger brother of Miami Heat point guard Goran Dragić. In 2004, Dragić joined Ilirija of the Slovenian 1B league for the 2004–05 season. A year afterwards, he joined Janče STZ of the Slovenian D2 league for the 2005–06 season. During 2006, he signed with Geoplin Slovan of the Slovenian League where he went on to play four seasons for them. In 2010, he signed with Krka. In July 2012, Dragić joined the Houston Rockets for the 2012 NBA Summer League. On August 20, 2012, he signed a two-year deal with Unicaja Málaga of the Liga ACB. On July 8, 2014, he signed a two-year contract extension with Unicaja Málaga. However, after agreeing to sign with the Phoenix Suns, Dragić and Málaga agreed to part ways on September 26, 2014. On September 29, 2014, Dragić signed a two-year deal with the Phoenix Suns.

He went on to make his NBA debut on November 2014 against the Los Angeles Clippers. He and Goran, alongside teammates Markieff and Marcus Morris, all played together for the Suns during the fourth quarter of their 112-96 victory over the Philadelphia 76ers on January 2, 2015, it marked the first time in the NBA's history that two different pairs of brothers played together for the same team at the same time. In what was just his third game of the season, he recorded his first NBA stats with 3 points, 1 rebound and 1 assist. On February 19, 2015, Zoran and his brother Goran were traded to the Miami Heat in a three-team deal involving the New Orleans Pelicans. On March 4, he was assigned to the Sioux Falls Skyforce of the NBA Development League. On March 15, he was recalled by Miami. In the Heat's season finale against the Philadelphia 76ers on April 15, Dragić scored a season-high 22 points. In July 2015, he joined the Heat for the 2015 NBA Summer League. On July 27, Dragić was traded to the Boston Celtics, along with a 2020 second round pick and cash considerations, in exchange for a 2019 second round pick.

However, on August 10, he was waived by the Celtics. On August 13, 2015, Dragić signed a two-year deal with the Russian club Khimki. After one season he left Khimki, on July 7, 2016, he signed with Italian club Olimpia Milano, he was released from Milano on November 20, 2017. The next day, he signed with Turkish club Anadolu Efes, he ended season in February 20, 2018. He suffered of torn anterior cruciate ligament. Dragić was recovering until January 2019, he signed with Serie A club Alma Trieste on January 8, 2019, until end of season 2018-19. On August 6, 2019, he has signed with ratiopharm Ulm of the German Basketball Bundesliga. On January 30, 2020, Dragić signed with Liga ACB club Baskonia for the rest of the season, making his return to the EuroLeague. Dragić started playing for the Slovenian national junior team in the 2007 FIBA Europe Under-18 Championship, he participated in the 2009 FIBA Europe Under-20 Championship, during which he would be the tournament's 4th best scorer, throughout the entire competition.

In 2011, Dragić participated with the Slovenian senior squad, alongside his brother, during the EuroBasket 2011 tournament. After the success he had in 2011, he played for Slovenia in the EuroBasket 2013 tournament, helped the team finish with a better place in the final standings than the previous tournament, he went on to play for Slovenia in the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup, where his performance became a leading catalyst for his eventual signing with the Phoenix Suns that year. He represented Slovenia at the EuroBasket 2015, where they were eliminated by Latvia in eighth finals. Note: The EuroLeague is not the only competition in which the player participated for the team during the season, he played in domestic competition, regional competition if applicable. His father is of Serbian descent. Dragić's older brother, Goran plays for the Miami Heat. During an interview with Goran in 2014, it was revealed that Zoran was married. Career statistics and player information from, or Zoran Dragić at Zoran Dragić at Zoran Dragić at Zoran Dragić at Zoran Dragić at Zoran Dragić on Twitter

Carlo Checchinato

Carlo Checchinato is an Italian rugby union former player and is the current team manager for the Italian national team. Checchinato was born in Adria, close to Rovigo, his father, called Giancarlo, was an international lock. He represented the Italian national team at the World Cup in 1995 in South Africa, 1999 in Wales and in 2003 in Australia as well as representing Italy in several tournaments, he scored 21 tries in international matches. Checchinato's international try total was an all-time record for forwards until 2007, when it was surpassed by Colin Charvis of Wales. A number eight, he played for Rugby Rovigo and Benetton Treviso, he is the Italy Team Manager. RBS 6 Nations profile bio ERC bio

Bernardo López de Mendizábal

Bernardo López de Mendizábal was a Spanish politician and religious scholar, who served as governor of New Mexico between 1659–1660 and as alcalde mayor in Guayacocotla. Among López's acts as governor of New Mexico, he prohibited the Franciscan priests from forcing the Native Americans to work if they were not paid a salary and recognized their right to practice their religion, he permitted the Pueblos Native Americans to perform their religious dances. These acts caused disagreements with the Franciscan missionaries of New Mexico in their dealings with the Native Americans, he was indicted by the Inquisition on thirty-three counts of malfeasance and the practice of Judaism in 1660. He was replaced in the same year and his administration ended, he was arrested in 1663 and died a prisoner in 1664. López de Mendizábal was born about 1620 in Puebla, his father, Cristóbal López de Mendizábal, was a Basque captain and legal representative, while his mother, Leonor Pastrana, was a granddaughter of Juan Núñez de León, a Jew, prosecuted by the inquisition, having been accused of secretly practicing Judaism.

His family had a hacienda in Chietla. His father was a legal representative. López had a brother - Gregorio López de Mendizábal. López studied arts and canon law in Jesuit college at Puebla, but finished his studies at the university in Mexico City. Mendizábal joined the Spanish Army, where he served in the Galeón de la Armada and was stationed for a period of time in the Presidio of Cartagena de Indias. López occupied many government positions in Nueva Granada and New Spain. López was alcalde mayor, or royal administrator, in Guayacocotla, on the Sierra Madre Oriental, northeast of Mexico City. López de Mendizábal was appointed New Mexico´s governor in 1658 to replace Juan Manso de Contreras. López and his wife arrived in Santa Fe late that year, although he did not assume the position until July 11, 1659. During this period he worked as a custos, a religious administrator for the Franciscans in this province. López chose the Spaniard Miguel de Noriega as secretary of government. López and Juan Ramírez, who arrived with him in New Mexico, clashed over his ideas about the limits of civil and religious jurisdiction.

López was alleged to have made a statement comparing himself with the Eucharist. This was a statement that the Holy Office of the Inquisition considered a serious matter. After this, López refused to give Ramírez a formal welcome in Santa Fe. There were several major disagreements between López and the Franciscan missionaries in New Mexico relating to the payment of tributes by the Native Americans working in the Franciscan missions. López believed that these natives should pay taxes like the other residents of New Mexico, while the missionaries thought that Native Americans who worked for the Church would be penalized if they paid tribute. In addition, López banned corporal punishment for Native Americans who worked in the missions, a punishment that the Franciscans exercised at times when they believed it was needed, he was charged with kidnapping Apaches to sell as slaves. The Franciscans began keeping records of the habits and customs of López and his wife, who, they suspected, was not a Christian.

The records included their spotty attendance at Mass. However, López recorded the sexual indiscretions carried out by the clergy, whose members had sex with women of their parishes. López himself was engaging in that activity, as was recognized by the Franciscans. López doubled the wages paid to the Native Americans who worked for the Spanish, recognized the right of Native Americans to practice their religions and not to have to assist each Sunday at Mass. If the Franciscans inflicted corporal punishment for that reason, Native Americans could take reprisals against them. López allowed the preservation of the ceremonial dances of the Pueblo Native Americans, comparing them with dances such as the zarambeque performed in Spain, which were not banned by the church. In fact, he and his wife attended these dances and the governor permitted the Pueblos to perform their religious dances in the Governor's Palace in Santa Fe. However, the Franciscans continued to try to prevent any non-Christian practices.

In Taos, New Mexico, López appointed as leaders the Pueblo Indians who had murdered the previous priest, leading the Franciscans to accuse him of ordering disobedience by the Amerindians against their order. López killed and enslaved Native Americans. In the 1660s, he murdered Navajo traders who traveled to Jémez lands to trade, while he enslaved their women and children. On another occasion he led military campaigns against the Apaches of Taos and the Navajos, selling hundreds of Native Americans as slaves; the population in New Mexico was divided in two groups according to their support for López. Part of the population supported the governor's political actions, while the other rejected them and sent formal written charges against López to the Viceroy in Mexico City. In 1660, the missionary priests agreed to leave the province, having rejected the governor and the difficulty he created for their religious activity because of the new laws in New Mexico. However, they ended up staying in the province.

Former Governor Manso, held captive while López ruled New Mexico and emigrated to Mexico City where he led a revolt against López. The charges against López resulted in the appointment of a new governor to the province in 1660, Diego de Peñalosa, who


Orioles are colourful Old World passerine birds in the genus Oriolus, the namesake of the corvoidean family Oriolidae. They are not related to the New World orioles, which are icterids that belong to the superfamily Passeroidea; the genus Oriolus was erected by Linnaeus in 1766 in the twelfth edition of his Systema Naturae. The type species is the golden oriole. In 1760 the French ornithologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in his Ornithologie used Oriolus as a subdivision of the genus Turdus, but the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ruled in 1955 that "Oriolus Brisson, 1760" should be suppressed. Linnaeus added more than a dozen additional genera when he updated his 10th edition but he based new genera on those, introduced by Brisson in his Ornithologie. Oriolus is now the only genus for which Linnaeus's 12th edition is cited as the original publication; the name is derived from the old French word oriol, echoic in origin, derived from the call of the bird but others have suggested origins in classical Latin "aureolus" meaning golden.

Various forms of "oriole" have existed in Romance languages since the 13th centuries. The genus contains twenty-nine species: Brown oriole Dusky-brown oriole Grey-collared oriole Black-eared oriole Tanimbar oriole Olive-brown oriole Olive-backed oriole Green oriole Dark-throated oriole Philippine oriole White-lored oriole Isabela oriole Eurasian golden oriole Indian golden oriole African golden oriole Slender-billed oriole Black-naped oriole Green-headed oriole São Tomé oriole Western oriole Ethiopian oriole Mountain oriole Black-headed oriole Black-winged oriole Black-hooded oriole Black oriole Black-and-crimson oriole Maroon oriole Silver oriole Formerly, some authorities considered the following species as species within the genus Oriolus: Green figbird Brown-eared bulbul The orioles are a tropical group, although one species, the Eurasian golden oriole, breeds in temperate regions. Orioles - videos and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection