A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. In arid areas, wind erosion can be an important factor in rockhouse formation, erosion from moving water is seldom a significant factor. Many rock shelters are found under waterfalls, Rock shelter formation types Rock shelters are often important archaeologically. Because rock shelters form natural shelters from the weather, prehistoric humans often used them as living-places, and left behind debris, tools, in mountainous areas the shelters can be important for mountaineers. In western Connecticut and eastern New York, many shelters are known by the colloquialism leatherman caves. Sandstone can be used as shingles for roof tops when possible, the Cumberland stitchwort is an endangered species of plant which is found only in rock shelters in Kentucky and Tennessee. Gatecliff Rockshelter Kinlock Shelter Mesa Verde Overhang Roc-aux-Sorciers Shelter Rock Walnut Canyon
Norman /ˈnɔːrmən/ is a city in the U. S. state of Oklahoma 20 miles south of downtown Oklahoma City in its metropolitan area. The population was 110,925 at the 2010 census, Normans estimated population of 120,284 in 2015 makes it the third-largest city in Oklahoma, and the city serves as the county seat of Cleveland County. Norman was settled during the Land Run of 1889, which opened the former Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory to American pioneer settlement, the city was named in honor of Abner Norman, the areas initial land surveyor, and was formally incorporated on May 13,1891. The university is known for its sporting events by teams under the banner of the nickname Sooners. The university is home to museums, including the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art, which contains the largest collection of French Impressionist art ever given to an American university, Norman lies within Tornado Alley, a geographic region where tornadic activity is particularly frequent and intense. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, including Norman, is the most tornado-prone area in the world, the Storm Prediction Center, a branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is located at the NWC.
SPC forecasts severe storm and tornado outbreaks nationwide, research is conducted at the co-located National Severe Storms Laboratory, which includes field research and operates various experimental weather radars. In 2008, CNNs Money Magazine ranked Norman as the sixth best small city within the United States to live in, the Oklahoma region became part of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Treaties of 1832 and 1833 assigned the area today as Norman to the Creek Nation. Following the Civil War, the Creeks were accused of aiding the Confederacy, in the early 1870s, the federal government undertook a survey of these unassigned lands. Abner Ernest Norman, a 23-year-old surveyor from Kentucky, was hired to oversee part of this project. In 1887, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway began service to the area, which was opened to settlement as part of the Land Run of 1889, early settlers decided to keep the name Norman. On April 22,1889, the Land Run saw the founding of Norman, with at least 150 residents spending the night in makeshift campsites, by the next morning a downtown was already being constructed.
On December 19,1890, Larsh and Waggoner were successful with the passage of Council Bill 114, the City of Norman was formally incorporated on May 13,1891. The city has continued to grow throughout the decades, the rail lines eventually transitioned to freight during the 1940s as the United States Numbered Highway system developed. The city population reached 11,429 in 1940, in 1941, the University of Oklahoma and Norman city officials established Max Westheimer Field, a university airstrip, and leased it to the U. S. Navy as a Naval Flight Training Center in 1942. The training center was used for training combat pilots during World War II, a second training center, known as Naval Air Technical Training Center, and a naval hospital were established to the south
In archaeological terms, a projectile point is an object that was hafted to a projectile, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife. Scientific techniques exist to track the specific kinds of rock or minerals used to make stone tools in various regions back to their original sources. Occasionally, projectile points made of worked bone or ivory are found at archaeological sites, in regions where metallurgy had emerged, projectile points were made from copper, bronze, or iron. In North America, some late prehistoric points were fashioned from copper that was mined in the Lake Superior region, a large variety of prehistoric arrowheads, dart points, and spear points have been discovered. Flint, obsidian and many rocks and minerals were commonly used to make points in North America. Some of the more famous Paleo-Indian types include Clovis, projectile points fall into two general types, dart/spear points, and arrow points. Larger points were used to tip spears and atlatl darts, arrow points are smaller and lighter than dart points, and were used to tip arrows.
The question of how to distinguish an arrow point from a point used on a projectile is non-trivial. According to some investigators, the best indication is the width of the hafting area, an alternative approach is to distinguish arrow points by their necessarily smaller size. Projectile points come in a variety of shapes and styles, which vary according to chronological periods, cultural identities. Typological studies of projectile points have become more elaborate through the years, for instance, Gregory Perino began his categorical study of projectile point typology in the late 1950s. Collaborating with Robert Bell, he published a set of four volumes defining the known point types of that time, Perino followed this several years with a three-volume study of Selected Preforms and Knives of the North American Indians. Another recent set of studies of North American projectile points has been produced by Noel Justice
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
Charlottesville, colloquially Cville and formally the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,210 and it is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities. It is named after the British Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with the County of Albemarle for statistical purposes, bringing its steadily growing population to approximately 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Greene, Charlottesville was the home of two Presidents, Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. While both served as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, and traveled to and from Richmond, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the citys border with Albemarle.
Monticello, located 3 miles southeast of the city, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, located on a hilltop overlooking Charlottesville, Monticello attracts thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough, Charlottesville was formed in 1762 by an Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee and it was along a trade route called Three Notched Road which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. It was named for Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen consort of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George III, during the American Revolutionary War, the Convention Army was imprisoned in Charlottesville between 1779 and 1781 at the Albemarle Barracks. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War, the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer briefly engaged local Confederate home guards before he retreated.
The mayor surrendered the city to Custers men to keep the town from being burned, 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridans 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woollen clothing for the soldiers. It caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the railroad bridge had been dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt immediately and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962, the first black church in Charlottesville was established in 1864. Previously, it was illegal for African-Americans to have their own churches, a current predominantly African-American church can trace its lineage to that first church. Congregation Beth Israels 1882 building is the oldest synagogue building standing in Virginia. The closures were required by a series of laws collectively known as the Stanley plan