Historical European martial arts
Historical European martial arts refers to martial arts of European origin using arts practised, but having since died out or evolved into different forms. While there is limited surviving documentation of the martial arts of classical antiquity, surviving dedicated technical treatises or martial arts manuals date to the Late Middle Ages and the early modern period. For this reason, the focus of HEMA is de facto on the period of the half-millennium of ca. 1300 to 1800, with a German and an Italian school flowering in the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, followed by Spanish, French and Scottish schools of fencing in the modern period. Arts of the 19th century such as classical fencing, early hybrid styles such as Bartitsu may be included in the term HEMA in a wider sense, as may traditional or folkloristic styles attested in the 19th and early 20th centuries, including forms of folk wrestling and traditional stick-fighting methods; the term Western martial arts is sometimes used in the United States and in a wider sense including modern and traditional disciplines.
During the Late Middle Ages, the longsword had a position of honour among these disciplines, sometimes historical European swordsmanship is used to refer to swordsmanship techniques specifically. Modern reconstructions of some of these arts arose from the 1890s and have been practiced systematically since the 1990s; the first book about the fighting arts, Epitoma rei militaris was written into Latin by a Roman writer, Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, who lived in Rome between the fourth and fifth centuries. There are no other known martial arts manuals predating the Late Middle Ages, although medieval literature record specific martial deeds and military knowledge; some researchers have attempted to reconstruct older fighting methods such as Pankration, Eastern Roman hoplomachia, Viking swordsmanship and gladiatorial combat by reference to these sources and practical experimentation. The Royal Armouries Ms. I.33, dated to ca. 1300, is teaching sword and buckler combat. The central figure of late medieval martial arts, at least in Germany, is Johannes Liechtenauer.
Though no manuscript written by him is known to have survived, his teachings were first recorded in the late fourteenth-century Nürnberger Handschrift GNM 3227a. From the 15th century into the 17th, numerous Fechtbücher were produced, of which some several hundred are extant. Several modes of combat were taught alongside one another unarmed grappling, long knife or Dusack, half- or quarterstaff, pole weapons and combat in plate armour, both on foot and on horseback; some Fechtbücher have sections on dueling shields, special weapons used only in trial by combat. Important 15th-century German fencing masters include Sigmund Ringeck, Peter von Danzig, Hans Talhoffer and Paulus Kal, all of whom taught the teachings of Liechtenhauer. From the late 15th century, there were "brotherhoods" of fencers, most notably the Brotherhood of St. Mark and the Federfechter. An early Burgundian French treatise is Le jeu. 1400. The earliest master to write in the Italian language was Fiore dei Liberi, commissioned by the Marquis di Ferrara.
Between 1407 and 1410, he documented comprehensive fighting techniques in a treatise entitled Flos Duellatorum covering grappling, arming sword, pole-weapons, armoured combat and mounted combat. The Italian school is continued by Filippo Vadi and Pietro Monte Three early natively English swordplay texts exist, all obscure and of uncertain date. In the 16th century, compendia of older Fechtbücher techniques were produced, some of them printed, notably by Paulus Hector Mair and by Joachim Meyer. In the 16th century, German fencing had developed sportive tendencies; the treatises of Paulus Hector Mair and Joachim Meyer derived from the teachings of the earlier centuries within the Liechtenauer tradition, but with new and distinctive characteristics. The printed fechtbuch of Jacob Sutor is one of the last in the German tradition. In Italy, the 16th century is a period of big change, it opens with the two treatises of Bolognese masters Antonio Manciolino and Achille Marozzo, who describe a variation of the eclectic knightly arts of the previous century.
From sword and buckler to sword and dagger, sword alone to two-handed sword, from polearms to wrestling, early 16th-century Italian fencing reflects the versatility that a martial artist of the time was supposed to achieve. Towards the mid-century, however and companion weapons beside the dagger and the cape begin to fade out of treatises. In 1553, Camillo Agrippa is the first to define the prima, seconda and quarta guards, whi
Worcester Art Museum
The Worcester Art Museum known by its acronym WAM, houses over 38,000 works of art dating from antiquity to the present day and representing cultures from all over the world. WAM opened in 1898 in Worcester and ranks among the more important art museums of its kind in the nation, its holdings include some of the finest Roman mosaics in the United States, outstanding European and American art, a major collection of Japanese prints. Since acquiring the John Woodman Higgins Armory Collection in 2013, WAM is home to the second largest collection of arms and armor in the Americas. In many areas, it was at the forefront in the US, notably as it collected architecture, acquired paintings by Monet and Gauguin, presented photography as an art form The Worcester Art Museum has a conservation lab and year-round studio art program for adults and youth. In September 1896, Stephen Salisbury III and a group of his friends founded the Art Museum Corporation to build an art institution "for the benefit of all."
Salisbury gave a tract of land, on what was once the Salisbury farm, as well as $100,000 USD to construct a building designed by Worcester architect Stephen C. Earle; the museum formally opened in 1898 with the Rev. Daniel Merriman as its first president; the museum's collection consisted of plaster casts of "antique and Renaissance" sculptures, as well as a selection of 5,000 Japanese prints and books, willed to the museum from John Chandler Bancroft, son of John Bancroft. In 1905, Stephen Salisbury left the bulk of his five million-dollar estate to the museum; the Worcester Art Museum continued to grow and amassed one of the important art collections in the country, with some of the significant early works donated or loaned by the artist anc collector Helen Bigelow Merriman. Between 1932 and 1939, the Worcester Art Museum joined a consortium of museums and institutions to sponsor expeditions to the archaeological sites where the city of Antioch once stood; this group of museums, including Princeton University, the Musée du Louvre, the Baltimore Museum of Art, Harvard University's affiliate, Dumbarton Oaks, discovered hundreds of intricate floor mosaics.
The Antioch mosaics, as they are now known, were split up among the institutions The WAM received many mosaics including the Worcester Hunt, now installed in the Renaissance Court's floor. On May 17, 1972, the museum suffered a major theft of artwork. Two men wearing masks entered the museum just before closing; the two men stole The Brooding Woman and Head of a Woman by Paul Gauguin and Child by Pablo Picasso, St. Bartholomew attributed to Rembrandt, a collection of works worth over one million dollars. Four individuals were charged with the theft as well as the theft of seven artworks stolen from the Boyden Library at Deerfield Academy. In 2013, Worcester’s Higgins Armory Museum closed its doors and its renowned collection of arms and armor was integrated into WAM’s. A permanent arms and armor gallery will open no than 2023; the museum is rethinking its institutional narrative, leveraging the quality and depth of the collection to tell a story, an alternative to those told by other museums in the area.
The guiding principle for this endeavor is WAM’s new mission statement: The Worcester Art Museum connects people and cultures through the experience of art. The Worcester Art Museum started as a small three-story building, designed by Stephen Earle and constructed by Messrs. Norcross Brothers, in 1898. Little of the exterior of this original building can be viewed due to the multiple expansions the museum has undertaken. In 1927, the museum purchased a 12th-century French chapter house, part of the Benedictine Priory of St. John at Le Bas-Nueil near Poitiers. Installed in 1932, linked to the museum in 1933 via the grand Renaissance Court, the chapter house was the first medieval building transported from Europe to America. Decorating the Renaissance Court floor is unequivocally one of Worcester's greatest ancient treasures – a group of Antioch mosaics dating from the first through the sixth century A. D, excavated at Antioch in Syria; the museum building has expanded several times, in 1940, 1970, 1983.
The Frances L. Hiatt Wing is designed for special exhibitions; the Higgins Education Wing contains studios and classrooms, a professional printmaking studio, a computer studio, photography lab, an exhibition space for student works. In November 2015, the museum unveiled a new walkway ramp at the Salisbury Street entrance. Designed by Kulapat Yantrasast of wHY Architects, the bridge-like structure boldly combines contemporary design with the museum’s 1933 Beaux-Arts exterior while making the historic main entrance accessible. In addition to the Roman, mosaic-laden, Renaissance court and French chapter house, strengths of the permanent collection include collections of European and North American painting, prints and drawings. European paintings include some Flemish Renaissance paintings, an El Greco, a Rembrandt, a room of Impressionist and 20th-century works by Monet, Renoir and Kandinsky; the American painting collection includes works by Thomas Cole, Winslow Homer, John Singer Sargent, William Morris
Armour or armor is a protective covering, used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles during combat, or from damage caused by a dangerous environment or activity. Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals. Vehicle armour is used on armoured fighting vehicles. A second use of the term armour describes armoured forces, armoured weapons, their role in combat. After the evolution of armoured warfare, mechanised infantry and their weapons came to be referred to collectively as "armour"; the word "armour" began to appear in the Middle Ages as a derivative of Old French. It is dated from 1297 as a "mail, defensive covering worn in combat"; the word originates from the Old French armure, itself derived from the Latin armatura meaning "arms and/or equipment", with the root armare meaning "arms or gear". Armour has been used throughout recorded history, it has been made from a variety of materials, beginning with the use of leathers or fabrics as protection and evolving through mail and metal plate into today's modern composites.
For much of military history the manufacture of metal personal armour has dominated the technology and employment of armour. Armour drove the development of many important technologies of the Ancient World, including wood lamination, metal refining, vehicle manufacture, leather processing, decorative metal working, its production was influential in the industrial revolution, furthered commercial development of metallurgy and engineering. Armour was the single most influential factor in the development of firearms, which in turn revolutionised warfare. Significant factors in the development of armour include the economic and technological necessities of its production. For instance, plate armour first appeared in Medieval Europe when water-powered trip hammers made the formation of plates faster and cheaper. Modern militaries do not equip their forces with the best armour available because it would be prohibitively expensive. At times the development of armour has paralleled the development of effective weaponry on the battlefield, with armourers seeking to create better protection without sacrificing mobility.
Well-known armour types in European history include the lorica hamata, lorica squamata, the lorica segmentata of the Roman legions, the mail hauberk of the early medieval age, the full steel plate harness worn by medieval and renaissance knights, breast and back plates worn by heavy cavalry in several European countries until the first year of World War I. The samurai warriors of feudal Japan utilised many types of armour for hundreds of years up to the 19th century. Cuirasses and helmets were manufactured in Japan as early as the 4th century. Tankō, worn by foot soldiers and keikō, worn by horsemen were both pre-samurai types of early Japanese armour constructed from iron plates connected together by leather thongs. Japanese lamellar armour reached Japan around the 5th century; these early Japanese lamellar armours took the form of leggings and a helmet. Armour did not always cover all of the body; the rest of the body was protected by means of a large shield. Examples of armies equipping their troops in this fashion were the Aztecs.
In East Asia many types of armour were used at different times by various cultures, including scale armour, lamellar armour, laminar armour, plated mail, plate armour and brigandine. Around the dynastic Tang and early Ming Period and plates were used, with more elaborate versions for officers in war; the Chinese, during that time used partial plates for "important" body parts instead of covering their whole body since too much plate armour hinders their martial arts movement. The other body parts were covered in cloth, lamellar, or Mountain pattern. In pre-Qin dynasty times, leather armour was made out of various animals, with more exotic ones such as the rhinoceros. Mail, sometimes called "chainmail", made of interlocking iron rings is believed to have first appeared some time after 300 BC, its invention is credited to the Celts. Small additional plates or discs of iron were added to the mail to protect vulnerable areas. Hardened leather and splinted construction were used for leg pieces; the coat of plates was developed, an armour made of large plates sewn inside a textile or leather coat.
Early plate in Italy, elsewhere in the 13th–15th century, were made of iron. Iron armour could be case hardened to give a surface of harder steel. Plate armour became cheaper than mail by the 15th century as it required much less labour and labour had become much more expensive after the Black Death, though it did require larger furnaces to produce larger blooms. Mail continued to be used to protect those joints which could not be adequately protected by plate, such as the armpit, crook of the elbow and groin. Another advantage of plate was; the small skull cap evolved into a bigger true helmet, the bascinet, as it was lengthened downward to protect the back of the neck and the sides of the head. Additionally, several new forms of enclosed helmets were introduced in the late 14th century; the most recognised style of armour in the world became the plate armour associated with the knights of the European Late Middle Ages, but continuing to the early 17th
Norman Percevel Rockwell was an American author and illustrator. His works have a broad popular appeal in the United States for their reflection of American culture. Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations of everyday life he created for The Saturday Evening Post magazine over nearly five decades. Among the best-known of Rockwell's works are the Willie Gillis series, Rosie the Riveter, The Problem We All Live With, Saying Grace, the Four Freedoms series, he is noted for his 64-year relationship with the Boy Scouts of America, during which he produced covers for their publication Boys' Life and other illustrations. These works include popular images that reflect the Scout Oath and Scout Law such as The Scoutmaster, A Scout is Reverent and A Guiding Hand, among many others. Norman Rockwell was a prolific artist. Most of his works are either in public collections, or have been destroyed in fire or other misfortunes. Rockwell was commissioned to illustrate more than 40 books, including Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn as well as painting the portraits for Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy and Nixon, as well as those of foreign figures, including Gamal Abdel Nasser and Jawaharlal Nehru.
His portrait subjects included Judy Garland. One of his last portraits was of Colonel Sanders in 1973, his annual contributions for the Boy Scouts calendars between 1925 and 1976, were only overshadowed by his most popular of calendar works: the "Four Seasons" illustrations for Brown & Bigelow that were published for 17 years beginning in 1947 and reproduced in various styles and sizes since 1964. He painted six images for Coca-Cola advertising. Illustrations for booklets, posters, sheet music, playing cards, murals rounded out Rockwell's œuvre as an illustrator. Rockwell's work was dismissed by serious art critics in his lifetime. Many of his works appear overly sweet in the opinion of modern critics the Saturday Evening Post covers, which tend toward idealistic or sentimentalized portrayals of American life; this has led to the often-deprecatory adjective, "Rockwellesque". Rockwell is not considered a "serious painter" by some contemporary artists, who regard his work as bourgeois and kitsch.
Writer Vladimir Nabokov stated that Rockwell's brilliant technique was put to "banal" use, wrote in his book Pnin: "That Dalí is Norman Rockwell's twin brother kidnapped by Gypsies in babyhood". He is called an "illustrator" instead of an artist by some critics, a designation he did not mind, as, what he called himself. In his years, Rockwell began receiving more attention as a painter when he chose more serious subjects such as the series on racism for Look magazine. One example of this more serious work is The Problem We All Live With, which dealt with the issue of school racial integration; the painting depicts a young black girl, Ruby Bridges, flanked by white federal marshals, walking to school past a wall defaced by racist graffiti. This painting was displayed in the White House when Bridges met with President Obama in 2011. Norman Rockwell was born on February 3, 1894, in New York City, to Jarvis Waring Rockwell and Anne Mary "Nancy" Rockwell, born Hill, his earliest American ancestor was John Rockwell, from Somerset, who immigrated to colonial North America in 1635, aboard the ship Hopewell and became one of the first settlers of Windsor, Connecticut.
He had Jarvis Waring Rockwell, Jr. older by a year and a half. Jarvis Waring, Sr. was the manager of the New York office of a Philadelphia textile firm, George Wood, Sons & Company, where he spent his entire career. Rockwell transferred from high school to the Chase Art School at the age of 14, he went on to the National Academy of Design and to the Art Students League. There, he was taught by Thomas Fogarty, George Bridgman, Frank Vincent DuMond; as a student, Rockwell was given small jobs of minor importance. His first major breakthrough came at age 18 with his first book illustration for Carl H. Claudy's Tell Me Why: Stories about Mother Nature. After that, Rockwell was hired as a staff artist for Boys' Life magazine. In this role, he received 50 dollars' compensation each month for one completed cover and a set of story illustrations, it is said to have been his first paying job as an artist. At 19, he became the art editor for Boys' Life, published by the Boy Scouts of America, he held the job for three years, during which he painted several covers, beginning with his first published magazine cover, Scout at Ship's Wheel, which appeared on the Boys' Life September edition.
Rockwell's family moved to New York, when Norman was 21 years old. They shared a studio with the cartoonist Clyde Forsythe. With Forsythe's help, Rockwell submitted his first successful cover painting to the Post in 1916, Mother's Day Off, he followed that success with Circus Barker and Strongman, Gramps at the Plate, Redhead Loves Hatty Perkins, People in a Theatre Balcony, Man Playing Santa. Rockwell was published eight times on the Post cover within the first year. Rockwell published 323 original cover
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A weapon, arm or armament is any device that can be used with intent to inflict damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, law enforcement, self-defense, warfare. In broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a tactical, material or mental advantage over an adversary or enemy target. While ordinary objects such as sticks, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs and axes, to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles, biological weapons and cyberweapons. Something, re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed weaponized, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized laser; the use of objects as weapons has been observed among chimpanzees, leading to speculation that early hominids used weapons as early as five million years ago. However, this can not be confirmed using physical evidence because wooden clubs and unshaped stones would have left an ambiguous record.
The earliest unambiguous weapons to be found are the Schöningen spears, eight wooden throwing spears dating back more than 300,000 years. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana, numerous human skeletons dating to 10,000 years ago may present evidence of traumatic injuries to the head, ribs and hands, including obsidian projectiles embedded in the bones that might have been caused from arrows and clubs during conflict between two hunter-gatherer groups, but the evidence interpretation of warfare at Nataruk has been challenged. The earliest ancient weapons were evolutionary improvements of late neolithic implements, but significant improvements in materials and crafting techniques led to a series of revolutions in military technology; the development of metal tools began with copper during the Copper Age and was followed by the Bronze Age, leading to the creation of the Bronze Age sword and similar weapons. During the Bronze Age, the first defensive structures and fortifications appeared as well, indicating an increased need for security.
Weapons designed to breach fortifications followed soon after, such as the battering ram, in use by 2500 BC. The development of iron-working around 1300 BC in Greece had an important impact on the development of ancient weapons, it was not the introduction of early Iron Age swords, however, as they were not superior to their bronze predecessors, but rather the domestication of the horse and widespread use of spoked wheels by c. 2000 BC. This led to the creation of the light, horse-drawn chariot, whose improved mobility proved important during this era. Spoke-wheeled chariot usage peaked around 1300 BC and declined, ceasing to be militarily relevant by the 4th century BC. Cavalry developed; the horse increased the speed of attacks. In addition to land based weaponry, such as the trireme, were in use by the 7th century BC. European warfare during the Post-classical history was dominated by elite groups of knights supported by massed infantry, they were involved in mobile combat and sieges which involved various siege tactics.
Knights on horseback developed tactics for charging with lances providing an impact on the enemy formations and drawing more practical weapons once they entered into the melee. By contrast, infantry, in the age before structured formations, relied on cheap, sturdy weapons such as spears and billhooks in close combat and bows from a distance; as armies became more professional, their equipment was standardized and infantry transitioned to pikes. Pikes are seven to eight feet in length, used in conjunction with smaller side-arms. In Eastern and Middle Eastern warfare, similar tactics were developed independent of European influences; the introduction of gunpowder from the Asia at the end of this period revolutionized warfare. Formations of musketeers, protected by pikemen came to dominate open battles, the cannon replaced the trebuchet as the dominant siege weapon; the European Renaissance marked the beginning of the implementation of firearms in western warfare. Guns and rockets were introduced to the battlefield.
Firearms are qualitatively different from earlier weapons because they release energy from combustible propellants such as gunpowder, rather than from a counter-weight or spring. This energy is released rapidly and can be replicated without much effort by the user; therefore early firearms such as the arquebus were much more powerful than human-powered weapons. Firearms became important and effective during the 16th century to 19th century, with progressive improvements in ignition mechanisms followed by revolutionary changes in ammunition handling and propellant. During the U. S. Civil War new applications of firearms including the machine gun and ironclad warship emerged that would still be recognizable and useful military weapons today in limited conflicts. In the 19th century warship propulsion changed from sail power to fossil fuel-powered steam engines. Since the mid-18th century North American French-Indian war through the beginning of the 20th century, human-powered weapons were reduced from the primary weaponry of the battlefield yielding to gunpowder-based weaponry.
Sometimes referred to as the "Age of Rifles", this period was characterized by the development of firearms for infantry and cannons for support, as well as the beginnings of mechanized weapons such as the machine gun. Of particular note, Howitzers were able to destroy masonry fortresses and other fortifications, this single invention caused a Revolution in