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High-definition television

High-definition television describes a television system providing an image resolution of higher resolution than the previous generation of technology. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the generation following standard-definition television abbreviated to HDTV or HD-TV, it is the current standard video format used in most broadcasts: terrestrial broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, Blu-ray discs, streaming video. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 720p 1280×720 progressive scan: 921,600 pixels per frame 1080i 1920×1080 interlaced: 1,036,800 pixels per field or 2,073,600 pixels per frame 1080p 1920×1080 progressive scan: not a broadcast standard for ATSC 1.0 Some countries use a non-standard CEA resolution, such as 1440×1080i: 777,600 pixels per field or 1,555,200 pixels per frameWhen transmitted at two megapixels per frame, HDTV provides about five times as many pixels as SD. The increased resolution provides for a clearer, more detailed picture.

In addition, progressive scan and higher frame rates result in a picture with less flicker and better rendering of fast motion. HDTV as is known today first started official broadcasting in 1989 in Japan, under the MUSE/Hi-Vision analog system. HDTV was adopted worldwide in the late 2000s. Since 1917, high definition starts as Full Picture Form; the term high definition once described a series of television systems originating from August 1936. The ongoing competition between companies and nations to create true "HDTV" spanned the entire 20th century, as each new system became higher definition than the last. In the 2010s, this race has continued with 5K and 8K systems; the British high-definition TV service started trials in August 1936 and a regular service on 2 November 1936 using both the Baird 240 line sequential scan and the Marconi-EMI 405 line interlaced systems. The Baird system was discontinued in February 1937. In 1938 France followed with their own 441-line system, variants of which were used by a number of other countries.

The US NTSC 555-line system joined in 1941. In 1949 France introduced an higher-resolution standard at 819 lines, a system that should have been high definition by today's standards, but was monochrome only and the technical limitations of the time prevented it from achieving the definition of which it should have been capable. All of these systems used interlacing and a 4:3 aspect ratio except the 240-line system, progressive and the 405-line system which started as 5:4 and changed to 4:3; the 405-line system adopted the revolutionary idea of interlaced scanning to overcome the flicker problem of the 240-line with its 25 Hz frame rate. The 240-line system could have doubled its frame rate but this would have meant that the transmitted signal would have doubled in bandwidth, an unacceptable option as the video baseband bandwidth was required to be not more than 3 MHz. Color broadcasts started at higher resolutions, first with the US NTSC color system in 1953, compatible with the earlier monochrome systems and therefore had the same 525 lines of resolution.

European standards did not follow until the 1960s, when the PAL and SECAM color systems were added to the monochrome 625 line broadcasts. The NHK began conducting research to "unlock the fundamental mechanism of video and sound interactions with the five human senses" in 1964, after the Tokyo Olympics. NHK set out to create an HDTV system that ended up scoring much higher in subjective tests than NTSC's dubbed "HDTV"; this new system, NHK Color, created in 1972, included 1125 lines, a 5:3 aspect ratio and 60 Hz refresh rate. The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, headed by Charles Ginsburg, became the testing and study authority for HDTV technology in the international theater. SMPTE would test HDTV systems from different companies from every conceivable perspective, but the problem of combining the different formats plagued the technology for many years. There were four major HDTV systems tested by SMPTE in the late 1970s, in 1979 an SMPTE study group released A Study of High Definition Television Systems: EIA monochrome: 4:3 aspect ratio, 1023 lines, 60 Hz NHK color: 5:3 aspect ratio, 1125 lines, 60 Hz NHK monochrome: 4:3 aspect ratio, 2125 lines, 50 Hz BBC colour: 8:3 aspect ratio, 1501 lines, 60 HzSince the formal adoption of digital video broadcasting's widescreen HDTV transmission modes in the mid to late 2000s.

Early HDTV broadcasting used analog technology, but today it is transmitted digitally and uses video compression. In 1949, France started its transmissions with an 819 lines system; the system was monochrome only, was used only on VHF for the first French TV channel. It was discontinued in 1983. In 1958, the Soviet Union developed Тransformator, the first high-resolution television system capable of producing an image composed of 1,125 lines of resolution aimed at providing teleconferencing for military command, it was a research project and the system was never deployed by either the military or

Alliance for Change (Venezuela)

The Alliance for Change is a Venezuelan political party located on the centre-left of the political spectrum. It formalized its registration to the National Electoral Council on August 1, 2013, it was founded by Andrés Avelino Álvarez, Ricardo Sánchez Mujica and Carlos Vargas who were national deputies for the Democratic Unity Roundtable following the 2010 parliamentary election. They left the MUD following the 2012 presidential election. In opposition to President Nicolás Maduro, it has since joined the ruling Great Patriotic Pole and is critical of the MUD. Facebook page Twitter page

Billy and the Boingers Bootleg

Billy and the Boingers Bootleg is the fifth collection of the comic strip series Bloom County by Berkeley Breathed. It was published in 1987, it is followed by Tales Too Ticklish to Tell. Prior to publication, Breathed announced a contest to solicit original song submissions as if written by or for the in-comic heavy metal rock group, "Billy and the Boingers." The first-place winner's song, "I'm A Boinger," was included in the book on the A-side of a flexi disc. The second-place winner, "U-Stink-But-I-♥-U," was on the B-side. "U-Stink-But-I-♥-U" was performed by New Jersey hardcore band Mucky Pup who rerecorded the song for their second album, A Boy In A Man's World. The track is still played live to close out their shows; the cover artwork contains parodies of the covers of two of the best-selling rock albums of 1986/87: the front cover is a send-up of Bruce Springsteen's box set "Live/1975–85". In both cases, the band member in the original artwork are substituted with members of Billy and the Boingers.

Cutter John, having been captured by Soviets on an ill-fated ballooning mission, is returned to the US in exchange for the communist Bill the Cat, awaiting execution for treason. Steve Dallas ends up in a full upper-body cast after he and Opus attempt to photograph Sean Penn for the Bloom Beacon; the Defense Department sends Opus $900 million, mistaking him for "Mr. Spock, chief science officer for'Star Trek' defense research"; the newly opulent Opus enlists Oliver's help in designing "Net Wars", a strategic defense plan involving $500 billion in small bills stitched into a giant space net. Opus panics, he places a personal ad, embarks on a date with Lola Granola. Oliver's father panics. Oliver hijacks an HBO broadcast to protest, subsequently gives himself up to the FBI. Two weeks after his initial date with Lola Granola, Opus proposes marriage and she accepts; the couple have dinner with an ex-boyfriend of hers, Bart Savagewood, who "tests fighter jets for the Navy, catches sharks for fun, bench-presses 290".

Opus becomes the Bloom Beacon cartoonist, struggles with deadlines and writer's block. Formerly-communist Bill the Cat sneaks back into the US "to make some dough". In Oliver's experimentation with teleportation, he accidentally scrambles his DNA with Bill the Cat. Oliver turns feline as Bill, it turns out to be a dream. Opus, as Bloom Beacon cartoonist, accidentally uses an obscure racial slur, he is burned in effigy, subsequent cartoons are torn to pieces by the legal department. Milo and Opus track photograph the last living basselope, Rosebud; the story attracts widespread attention from the military, who see the basselope as a potential deployment vehicle for tactical warheads. Opus meets Lola's parents. Lola's mother encourages her to find someone else. Disenchanted with the legal profession, Steve Dallas holds auditions for a heavy-metal group; the band thus formed is christened "Deathtöngue", with Bill the Cat on "electric tongue", Opus on tuba, Hodge-Podge on drums. Lola and her mother express disapproval of Opus's new occupation and leather attire, while Reverend Wildmon enjoys the group's "rousing little songs".

Steve discovers. With the assistance of Opus, Steve is tied to a chair to wait out his detoxification. A half-hour Steve is chasing Opus with an axe, trapping him in the toilet. Steve's withdrawal is neutralized with a pantry-full of Twinkies, Ding Dongs and Purina Dog Chow. Jealous of Lola's reaction to Sylvester Stallone and Arnold Schwarzenegger, Opus attempts to buff up, resulting in injury to himself and others. Opus takes a tour of the "landmines" on the path of a modern, they consist of The Big Lie, The Honest Opinion, The Big Adjustment, The Big Confession, The Big Casualness, The Big Spat. Steve Dallas and Bill the Cat are subpoenaed to testify at the special Senate hearings on "porn rock". Bowing to pressure from "Tippy Gorp", Steve announces that Deathtöngue has been renamed "Billy and the Boingers". Armand Dipthong, Chief Editor of the Bloom Picayune, attempts to and succeeds in writing a "truly frank article on the public-health threat of AIDS". Binkley's anxiety closet presents Binkley himself.

Binkley learns that he will lose his hair, work a menial job, marry his fifth-grade nemesis. Unsatisfied with his appearance, Opus attempts to lose weight, his approaches include fad diets, an elastic belt, liposuction with a household vacuum cleaner, the negative reinforcement of getting whacked on the head when reaching for food. He concludes that he must "eat less and exercise". Binkley convinces the boardinghouse residents to become vegetarians. With the sponsorship of "Dr. Scholl's Odor-Eaters", Billy and the Boingers sets off for their one-stop world tour, to the Annual Moose Lodge Banquet in Albuquerque