SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

High-definition video

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition any video image with more than 480 vertical scan lines or 576 vertical lines is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is the minimum though the majority of systems exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal, by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts; some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique, known as filmizing. The first electronic scanning format, 405 lines, was the first "high definition" television system, since the mechanical systems it replaced had far fewer. From 1939, Europe and the US tried 605 and 441 lines until, in 1941, the FCC mandated 525 for the US. In wartime France, René Barthélemy tested higher resolutions, up to 1,042. In late 1949, official French transmissions began with 819. In 1984, this standard was abandoned for 625-line color on the TF1 network.

Modern HD specifications date to the early 1980s, when Japanese engineers developed the HighVision 1,125-line interlaced TV standard that ran at 60 frames per second. The Sony HDVS system was presented at an international meeting of television engineers in Algiers, April 1981 and Japan's NHK presented its analog high-definition television system at a Swiss conference in 1983; the NHK system was standardized in the United States as Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers standard #240M in the early 1990s, but abandoned on when it was replaced by a DVB analog standard. HighVision video is still usable for HDTV video interchange, but there is no modern equipment available to perform this function. Attempts at implementing HighVision as a 6 MHz broadcast channel were unsuccessful. All attempts at using this format for terrestrial TV transmission were abandoned by the mid-1990s. Europe developed a member of the MAC family of hybrid analogue/digital video standards. HD-MAC was never designated for video interchange except by the European Broadcasting Union.

High-definition digital video was not possible with uncompressed video due to impractically high memory and bandwidth requirements, with a bit-rate exceeding 1 Gbps for full HD video. Digital HDTV was enabled by the development of discrete cosine transform video compression; the DCT is a lossy compression technique, first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, was adapted into a motion-compensated DCT algorithm for video coding standards such as the H.26x formats from 1988 onwards and the MPEG formats from 1993 onwards. Motion-compensated DCT compression reduced the amount of memory and bandwidth required for digital video, capable of achieving a data compression ratio of around 100:1 compared to uncompressed video. By the early 1990s, DCT video compression had been adopted as the video coding standard for HDTV; the current high-definition video standards in North America were developed during the course of the advanced television process initiated by the Federal Communications Commission in 1987 at the request of American broadcasters.

In essence, the end of the 1980s was a death knell for most analog high definition technologies that had developed up to that time. The FCC process, led by the Advanced Television Systems Committee adopted a range of standards from interlaced 1,080-line video with a maximum frame rate of 30 Hz, 720-line video, progressively scanned, with a maximum frame rate of 60 Hz. In the end, the DVB standard of resolutions and respective frame rates were adopted in conjunction with the Europeans that were involved in the same standardization process; the FCC adopted the ATSC transmission standard in 1996. In the early 2000s, it looked. However, both Brazil and China have adopted alternative standards for high-definition video that preclude the interoperability, hoped for after decades of non-interoperable analog TV broadcasting. High definition video is defined threefold, by: The number of lines in the vertical display resolution. High-definition television resolution is 720 lines. In contrast, regular digital television is 576 lines.

However, since HD is broadcast digitally, its introduction sometimes coincides with the introduction of DTV. Additionally, current DVD quality is not high-definition, although the high-definition disc systems Blu-ray Disc and the HD DVD are; the scanning system: progressive scanning or interlaced scanning. Progressive scanning redraws an image frame. Interlaced scanning draws the image field every other line or "odd-numbered" lines during the first image refresh operation, draws the remaining "even numbered" lines during a second refreshing, for example 1080i. Interlaced scanning yields image resolution if subject is not moving, but loses up to half of the resolution and suffers "combing" artifacts when subject is moving; the number of frames or fields per second. In Europe more common tel

Daniel O'Connell

Daniel O'Connell referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century. He campaigned for Catholic emancipation—including the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years—and repeal of the Acts of Union which combined Great Britain and Ireland. Throughout his career in Irish politics, O'Connell was able to gain a large following among the Irish masses in support of him and his Catholic Association. O'Connell's main strategy was one of political reformism, working within the parliamentary structures of the British state in Ireland and forming an alliance of convenience with the Whigs. More radical elements broke with O'Connell to found the Young Ireland movement. O'Connell was born at Carhan near Cahersiveen, County Kerry, to the O'Connells of Derrynane, a wealthy Roman Catholic family, dispossessed of its lands, his parents were Catherine O'Mullane. Among his uncles was Daniel Charles, Count O'Connell, an officer in the Irish Brigades of the French Army.

A famous aunt was Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill, while Sir James O'Connell, 1st Baronet, was his younger brother. Under the patronage of his wealthy bachelor uncle Maurice "Hunting Cap" O'Connell. O'Connell was first sent with his brother Maurice to Reddington Academy at Long Island, near Queenstown They both studied at Douai in France from 1790 and O'Connell was admitted as a barrister to Lincoln's Inn in 1794, transferring to Dublin's King's Inns two years later. In his early years, he became acquainted with the pro-democracy radicals of the time and committed himself to bringing equal rights and religious tolerance to his own country. While in Dublin studying for the law, O'Connell was under his Uncle Maurice's instructions not to become involved in any militia activity; when Wolfe Tone's French invasion fleet entered Bantry Bay in December 1796, O'Connell found himself in a quandary. Politics was the cause of his unsettlement. Dennis Gwynn in his Daniel O'Connell: The Irish Liberator suggests that the unsettlement was because he was enrolled as a volunteer in defence of Government, yet the Government was intensifying its persecution of the Catholic people—of which he was one.

He desired to enter Parliament, yet every allowance that the Catholics had been led to anticipate, two years was now flatly vetoed. As a law student, O'Connell was aware of his own talents, but the higher ranks of the Bar were closed to him, he read the Jockey Club as a picture of the governing class in England and was persuaded by it that, "vice reigns triumphant in the English court at this day. The spirit of liberty shrinks to protect property from the attacks of French innovators; the corrupt higher orders tremble for their vicious enjoyments."O'Connell's studies at the time had concentrated upon the legal and political history of Ireland, the debates of the Historical Society concerned the records of governments, from this he was to conclude, according to one of his biographers, "in Ireland the whole policy of the Government was to repress the people and to maintain the ascendancy of a privileged and corrupt minority". On 3 January 1797, in an atmosphere of alarm over the French invasion fleet in Bantry Bay, he wrote to his uncle saying that he was the last of his colleagues to join a volunteer corps and "being young, active and single" he could offer no plausible excuse.

That month, for the sake of expediency, he joined the Lawyers' Artillery Corps. On 19 May 1798, O'Connell became a barrister. Four days the United Irishmen staged their rebellion, put down by the British with great bloodshed. O'Connell did not support the rebellion, he went on the Munster circuit, for over a decade, he went into a quiet period of private law practice in the south of Ireland. He was reputed to have the largest income of any Irish barrister but, due to natural extravagance and a growing family, was in debt. Although he was to inherit Derrynane from his uncle Maurice, the old man lived to be 100 and in the event Daniel's inheritance did not cover his debts, he condemned Robert Emmet's Rebellion of 1803. Of Emmet, a Protestant, he wrote: "A man who could coolly prepare so much bloodshed, so many murders—and such horrors of every kind has ceased to be an object of compassion."Despite his opposition to the use of violence, he was willing to defend those accused of political crimes if he suspected that they had been falsely accused, as in the Doneraile conspiracy trials of 1829, his last notable court appearance.

He was noted for his fearlessness in court: if he thought poorly of a judge he had no hesitation in making this clear. Most famous was his retort to Baron McClelland, who had said that as a barrister he would never have taken the course O'Connell had adopted: O'Connell said that McClelland had never been his model as a barrister, neither would he take directions from him as a judge, he did not lack the ambition to become a judge himself: in particular he was attracted by the position of Master of the Rolls in Ireland, yet although he was offered it more than once refused. In 1802 O'Connell married Mary O'Connell, it was a love marriage, to persist in it was an act of considerable courage, since Daniel's uncle Maurice was outraged and for a time threatened to disinherit them. They had four daughters, Catherine, Elizab

Rossy Evelin Lima

Rossy Evelin Lima-Padilla, is a Mexican-American poet and activist. She has published her work in numerous journals and anthologies in Europe, North America and South America. Lima was born in Veracruz, Mexico to Mexican parents on August 18, 1986. At the age of thirteen her family immigrated into the United States at a river crossing, her family settled in Texas. Lima has stated, "School was a new system for me, it made me feel lonely and scared. I struggled to learn a new language to communicate, but my brain and my lips seemed disconnected, I murmured trembling words that my classmates and teachers could not understand." During her struggling teenage years, Lima excelled in school and found her passion for literature and poetry. She graduated from PSJA Memorial High School in 2005. In 2009, Lima graduated with a bachelor's in Literature from the University of Texas-Pan American and earned her masters's in literature the next year from the same university. Lima went on to earn a PhD in linguistics from the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley.

In 2012, she entered into the DACA program. In 2016, Rossy Lima co-founded Jade Publishing. Lima is the director of the Spanish Heritage Language Program at Texas Tech University. Lima was recognized by the 2014 International Latino Book Awards for her work on Ecos de barro; the Monitor wrote that her poems in Ecos de barro were "vibrant" and that "Lima demonstrates with effortless art, words have the power to transform us for good or ill."Texas Review writes that Lima's personal journey as an immigrant and her own "roots" are central themes in the poetry of Aguacamino/Waterpath. They write, "Lima's enlistment of her multifaceted identity allows her to actualize her immigrant and writing experiences, forming a visceral and critically needed prism."In 2015, she was recognized in Venice for her poem, Citlalicue with an International poetry award. She was awarded the Orgullo Fronterizo Mexicano award given by the Institute for Mexicans Abroad in 2016. In 2017, she was awarded first place in the Concorso Internazionale di Poesia La Finestra Eterea in Milan in 2017.

Poet Laureate of the United States, Juan Felipe Herrera, wrote that Migrare, mutare is "A magnificent set of poems, in a most appropriate time." Migrare, mutare/Migrate, Mutate. New York: Artepoética Press. 2017. ISBN 9781940075501. Aguacamino/Waterpath. Huntsville, Texas: Mouthfeel Press. 2015. ISBN 9780991208791. Ecos de barro. Brownsville, Texas: Otras Voces Publishing. 2013. ISBN 9780985737719