Brindle is a small village and civil parish of the borough of Chorley, England. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 978, it is in the centre of a triangle between Preston and Chorley. The area has little industry. Brindle is one of the more affluent areas in Lancashire, with average earnings over 33% higher than the national average. Occupations include professionals, teachers and an retired population as well as some remaining agricultural employment. Brindle is home to a number of trails and bridle paths; as a parish offering excellent links to nearby towns including business centres such as Preston, Bolton and Manchester. Brindle could be described as a commuter village although the village still retains a strong sense of local identity. Listed buildings in Brindle, Lancashire Brindle chorley.gov.uk. Brindle Historical Society Brindle At War website Brindle Community Hall Brindle St Joseph's Church & Parish
Clayton-le-Woods is a large village and civil parish of the Borough of Chorley, in Lancashire, England. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, it has a population of 14,528, rising marginally to 14,532 at the 2011 Census. Situated to the north of the town of Chorley, Clayton-le-Woods is only a few miles from the city of Preston and adjacent to the small towns of Leyland and Bamber Bridge; the villages of Clayton Brook, Whittle-le-Woods and Buckshaw Village are located next to Clayton-le-Woods. The village is divided in two by Cuerden Valley Park and the River Lostock, the western part bordering Leyland and the eastern bordering Whittle-le-Woods; the village is close to different junctions of the motorway network, junctions 28 & 29 of the M6, junction 8 & 9 of the M61, junction 1A, 1 and 2 of the M65. There is a smaller area called Wood End, West of the village, close to Leyland, it was built between the 1980s. The village has six primary schools in its vicinity; the primary schools are, Clayton-le-Woods CE, Lancaster Lane, Clayton Brook, Manor Road and St Bede's RC.
A library was built in the village in 1985, located in Clayton Green next to Cuerden Valley Park. There are a number of pubs, a large supermarket, a sports centre and two hotels all located within the village; the village is split into five areas. Charcoal burning is still being carried out by coppicing the woods, in the grounds of nearby Cuerden Hall. There are linen hand weavers' cottages which are located on Sheep Hill Lane. Clayton-le-Woods has four local bus services operated by Stagecoach in Chorley and Preston Bus respectively; the 125 Stagecoach Gold route, connects Clayton-le-Woods to Chorley and Bolton. The 111 is operated by Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire, connects the village to nearby Leyland and Chorley. Cycling Route 55 connects Clayton-le-Woods with Buckshaw Euxton via Cuerden Valley Park. Preston Bus, the service 114 is operated by Preston Bus, connects the village with Chorley, Whittle-le-Woods and Leyland; the village lies along the A6 known locally as Preston Road, as well as this, Clayton-le-Woods is connected by the B5256 between Blackburn and Leyland, the B5254 between Clayton and Leyland, the M6 at Junction 28 and 29, the M61 at Junction 8 and 9 and the M65 at Junction 1A, 1 and 2.
Further roads, such as the A49, connect Clayton to Buckshaw Village, Charnock Richard and Wigan. Listed buildings in Clayton-le-Woods Clayton-le-Woods chorley.gov.uk. Parish council, etc
Chorley is a town in Lancashire, England, 8.1 miles north of Wigan, 10.8 miles south west of Blackburn, 11 miles north west of Bolton, 12 miles south of Preston and 19.5 miles north west of Manchester. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry. In the 1970s, the skyline was dominated by factory chimneys, but most have now been demolished: remnants of the industrial past include Morrisons chimney and other mill buildings, the streets of terraced houses for mill workers. Chorley is the home of the Chorley cake. At the 2011 Census, it had a population of 34,667; the name Chorley comes from two Anglo-Saxon words and ley meaning "the peasants' clearing". Ley is a common element of place-name, meaning a clearing in a woodland. Ceorl refers to a person of status similar to a yeoman. There was no known occupation in Chorley until the Middle Ages, though archaeological evidence has shown that the area around the town has been inhabited since at least the Bronze Age. There are various remains of prehistoric occupation on the nearby Anglezarke Moor, including the Round Loaf tumulus, believed to date from 3500 BC.
A pottery burial urn from this period was discovered in 1963 on land next to Astley Hall Farm and excavation in the 1970s revealed another burial urn and four cremation pits dating from the Bronze Age. During the Roman era a Roman road ran near Chorley between Walton-le-Dale. Hoards dating from the Roman period have been found at nearby at Whittle-le-Woods and Heapey. Chorley was not listed in the Domesday Book, though it is thought to be one of the twelve berewicks in the Leyland Hundred. Chorley first appears in historical records in the mid thirteenth century as part of the portion of the Croston Lordship acquired by William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, around 1250; the Earl established Chorley as a small borough comprising a two row settlement arranged along what became Market Street. It appears that the borough was short lived, as it does not appear in a report of a commission on the Leyland Hundred in 1341, it is most that the borough was sacked by Scotland during The Great Raid of 1322, with Chorley being one of the southern most points reached in Northern England.
This led to the construction of a Peel Tower, which said to have been located somewhere close to Duxburry Hall. The manorial history of Chorley is complex as the manor had no single lord throughout most of this period as it had been split into moieties and was managed by several different families; this led to Chorley having several manorial halls, which in this period included Chorley Hall, built in the 14th century by the de Chorley family, which has since the 19th or 20th century been demolished. Little is known of Chorley Hall, although according to what the painter John Bird painted in 1795, its location to where it once stood is said to have been where The Parish of St. Laurence Church of England Primary School now stands. There is Lower Chorley Hall, owned by the Gillibrand family from 1583, it is believed the borough of Chorley was not a success in this period because of the lack of manorial leadership and the dispersed nature of the small population. St Laurence's Church is the oldest remaining building in Chorley and first appears in historical records when it was dedicated in 1362, though it is believed there was an earlier Anglo-Saxon chapel on the site, a daughter foundation of Croston Parish Church.
It is believed that the church is named after Saint Laurence, an Irish saint who died in Normandy in the 12th century, whose bones were conveyed to the church by local noble Sir Rowland Standish Duxbury, an ancestor of Myles Standish. As happened in many other instances following the dissolution of the monasteries, these relics went missing in the turmoil of the English Reformation under the rule of Henry VIII. A market was held every Tuesday in Chorley and a fair was held annually on the feast of St Lawrence since 1498. Chorley, like most Lancashire towns, gained its wealth from the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, responsible for the town's growth. Chorley was a vital cotton town with many mills littering the skyline up to the late twentieth century. Most mills were demolished between the 1950s and 2000s with those remaining converted for modern business purposes. Today only a minority remain in use for actual manufacturing, the last mill to stop producing textiles was Lawrence's in 2009.
Chorley in its location on the edge of Lancashire Coalfield was vital in coal mining. Several pits existed in the Gillibrand area and more numerously in Coppull. Chisnall Hall Colliery at Coppull was considered the biggest Lancashire pit outside of Wigan and one of many located in the Chorley suburb; the last pit in the area to close was the Ellerbeck Colliery in 1987, located south of Chorley, between Coppull and Adlington. The town played an important role during the Second World War, when it was home to the Royal Ordnance Factory, a large munitions manufacturer in the village of Euxton about 2 miles from the town centre. A smaller factory was built near the railway line of Blackburn–Wigan in Heapey; the Church of England parish church of St Laurence, located on Union Street, has been a place of Christian worship for over 800 years. The Church of England parish church of St George, situated on St George's Street, is an important example of the work of architect Thomas Rickman, a major figure in the Gothic Revival.
It was built as a Commissioners' church in 1822. St Mary's Roman Catholic Church is based in
Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-
Lower Rivington Reservoir
Lower Rivington Reservoir is at the end of the Rivington chain of reservoirs in Lancashire, with Upper Rivington Reservoir to the north, Rivington Water Treatment Works to the south. The engineer for the Rivington reservoirs was Thomas Hawksley and construction for the Liverpool Corporation Waterworks took place between 1852 and 1857; the Lower Rivington reservoir has two dams - the Millstone Embankment, 2,120 feet long and 40-foot high, the Horwich Embankment, 1,660 feet long and 61-foot high. Filter beds were constructed at the foot of the Horwich Embankment, The original sand filters were replaced by a new treatment plant from where a pipeline runs to the service reservoirs at Prescot; the River Douglas was diverted through a paved channel in deep cutting into Lower Rivington. On the Rivington bank of the reservoir is a folly, a replica of Liverpool Castle, to the south-west is the Headless Cross at Grimeford Village. Remains of buildings covered by water when the reservoir was filled can be seen when water levels are low.
There is an activity centre offering watersports and land-based activities on the Anderton bank of the reservoir
Anglezarke Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the Rivington chain to the west of Anglezarke in Lancashire, England. Anglezarke Reservoir has three embankments: the Charnock Embankment, the longest, is 850 yards long and 31 feet high, the Knowsley Embankment is 240 yards long and 45 feet high and the Heapey Embankment is 280 feet long and 32 feet high, it is fed by the River Yarrow, diverted from its original course, now covered by the Knowsley Embankment. It served the city of Liverpool before its current status as a supply for Wigan; the original `Rivington Pike Scheme' was undertaken by Thomas Hawksley between 1850 and 1857 for the Liverpool Corporation Waterworks. The scheme was to construct five reservoirs and a water treatment works at the south end of Lower Rivington with a 17-mile pipeline to storage reservoirs at Prescot. Water from two higher level reservoirs, Rake Brook and Lower Roddlesworth, was carried south in `The Goit', a channel connecting them to the reservoirs. In November 1997, the reservoir was refilled after the 1997 summer heat wave.
The water flow was so large. With the water level at a temporary low, there was an opportunity to inspect the Heapey embankment on Moor Road, leaking since the 1960s; the condition of the embankment and surrounding strata were such that a phased grouting operation was required to remedy the leakage. The reservoir was still leaking. After a second grouting and refill operation, the embankment was deemed leak-free, it appears that the original cause of the leak was an 18-inch cast iron draw-off pipe which supplied White Brook to the north of the embankment. The trench for the pipe was cut much deeper than needed, through a glacial meltwater channel. However, shutting the pipe off in the 1970s failed to remedy the situation. Waterman's Cottage was built by Liverpool Corporation on the west bank of the reservoir; the cottage is a Tudor-style structure known as Heapey Cottage. It was occupied by Anne Oakden in the 1940s. Denis worked for the Water Authority and moved to the property after several years in Porch Cottages, White Coppice.
To the east of the reservoir is the small High Bullough reservoir and the Anglezarke Moors, Upper Rivington Reservoir is to the south and Healey Nab to the north-west. The area is now a wildlife haven, with a Woodland Trail which links to High Bullough reservoir
Bucephala is a genus of diving ducks found in the Northern Hemisphere. The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek boukephalos, "bullheaded", from bous "bull", kephale, "head", a reference to the crest of the bufflehead making its head look large; the bufflehead was treated as the only member of the genus while the goldeneyes were incorrectly placed in Clangula, the genus of the long-tailed duck, which at that time was placed in Harelda. It may yet be correct to recognise two genera, as the bufflehead and the two goldeneyes are well diverged. In this case, Bucephala would be restricted to B. albeola and the name Glaucionetta resurrected for the goldeneyes. The three living species are: Known fossil taxa are: Bucephala cereti Bucephala ossivalis, similar to the common goldeneye and may have been a paleosubspecies or direct ancestor Bucephala fossilis Bucephala angustipes Bucephala sp. Louchart, Antoine. L'avifaune de Dursunlu, Turquie, Pléistocène inférieur: climat, environnement et biogéographie.
C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris IIA 327:341-346. Doi:10.1016/S1251-805080053-0 Media related to Bucephala at Wikimedia Commons Common Goldeneye at Birdzilla