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High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I

The High Court of Justice was the court established by the Rump Parliament to try Charles I, King of England and Ireland. Though this was an ad hoc tribunal, created for the purpose of trying the king, its name was used by the government as a designation for subsequent courts; the English Civil War had been raging for nearly an entire decade. After the First English Civil War, the parliamentarians accepted the premise that the King, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, that he would still be entitled to limited powers as King under a new constitutional settlement. By provoking the Second English Civil War while defeated and in captivity, Charles was held responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed; the secret "Engagement" treaty with the Scots was considered unpardonable. Cromwell up to this point had supported negotiations with the king but now rejected further negotiations. In making war against Parliament, the king had caused the deaths of thousands. Estimated deaths from the first two English civil wars has been reported as 84,830 killed with estimates of another 100,000 dying from war-related disease.

The population of England in 1650 was estimated at 5.1 million, meaning that the war deaths totalled 3.6% of the population. Following the second civil war, the New Model Army and the Independents in Parliament were determined that the King should be punished, but they did not command a majority. Parliament debated whether to return the King to power and those who still supported Charles's place on the throne Presbyterians, tried once more to negotiate with him. Furious that Parliament continued to countenance Charles as King, troops of the New Model Army marched on Parliament and purged the House of Commons in an act known as "Pride's Purge" after the commanding officer of the operation. On Wednesday, 6 December 1648, Colonel Thomas Pride's Regiment of Foot took up position on the stairs leading to the House, while Nathaniel Rich's Regiment of Horse provided backup. Pride himself stood at the top of the stairs; as Members of Parliament arrived, he checked them against the list provided to him.

Troops kept 146 out of parliament. Only seventy-five people were allowed to enter and then, only at the army's bidding. On 13 December, the "Rump Parliament", as the purged House of Commons came to be known, broke off negotiations with the King. Two days the Council of Officers of the New Model Army voted that the King be moved to Windsor "in order to the bringing of him speedily to justice". In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London. Neither the involvement of Parliament in ending a reign nor the idea of trying a monarch was novel. In two prior examples, the parliament had requested both the abdication of Edward II on the basis of incompetence and that of Richard II back in 1327 CE and 1399 CE respectively. However, in both these cases, Parliament acted at the behest of the new monarch. Parliament had established a regency council for Henry VI, although this was at the instigation of senior noblemen and Parliament claimed to be acting in the King's name. In the case of Lady Jane Grey, Parliament rescinded her proclamation as queen.

She was subsequently tried and executed for high treason, but she was not brought to trial while still a reigning monarch. After the King had been moved to London, the Rump Parliament passed a Bill setting up what was described as a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England; the bill nominated 3 judges and 150 commissioners, but following opposition in the House of Lords, the judges and members of the Lords were removed. When the trial began, there were 135 commissioners who were empowered to try the King, but only 68 would sit in judgement; the Solicitor General John Cook was appointed prosecutor. Charles was accused of treason against England by using his power to pursue his personal interest rather than the good of England; the charge against Charles I stated that the king, "for accomplishment of such his designs, for the protecting of himself and his adherents in his and their wicked practices, to the same ends hath traitorously and maliciously levied war against the present Parliament, the people therein represented", that the "wicked designs and evil practices of him, the said Charles Stuart, have been, are carried on for the advancement and upholding of a personal interest of will and pretended prerogative to himself and his family, against the public interest, common right, liberty and peace of the people of this nation".

The indictment held him "guilty of all the treasons, rapines, spoils, desolations and mischiefs to this nation and committed in the said wars, or occasioned thereby". Although the House of Lords refused to pass the bill and the Royal Assent was lacking, the Rump Parliament referred to the ordinance as an "Act" and pressed on with the trial anyway; the intention to place the King on trial was re-affirmed on 6 January by a vote of 29 to 26 with An Act of the Commons Assembled in Parliament. At the same time, the number of commissioners was reduced to 135 – any twenty of whom would form a quorum – when the judges, members of the House of Lords and others who might be sympathetic to the King were removed; the commissioners met to make arrangements for the trial on 8 January when well under half were present – a pattern, to be repeated at subsequent sessions. On 10 January, John Bra

Mandali Buddha Prasad

Mandali Buddha Prasad is an Indian politician and former Deputy Speaker of Andhra Pradesh, India. He is a staunch follower of Gandhian principles and a leader with Service motto and national outlook, he is known for his love and affection for Telugu language and Culture and for his unstinted efforts for their development and for the welfare of Telugu people living all over the world. He is born to Sri Mandali Venkata Krishna Rao, Prabhavathi Devi on 26 May 1956 at Nagayalanka, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, his father Sri Mandali Venkata Krishna Rao was a staunch follower of Gandhian Philosophy and a social worker. Sri Mandali Buddha Prasad attained all the great qualities of his father and is moving in his foot steps. After completing his primary and high school education at Avanigadda, Krishna District, Sri Buddha Prasad graduated from Osmania University, Hyderabad, he was elected as a Member of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly from Avanigadda Constituency of Krishna District for three terms during 1999, 2004 and 2014 and could get sanctions of 700.00 crores for the development works in the constituency as on date.

He dealt the portfolio of Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development and Fisheries during 2007-2009. As a cabinet minister he has formulated many innovative schemes like'Pashukranthi' to benefit poor people and small farmers with hybrid animals on subsidy rates and "Matsya Kranti" by which fisheries women are benefitted, he established an Advanced Research Centre of Animal Husbandry with International standards at Pulivendula, Kadapa District and three super specialty Veterinary Hospitals each one at Hyderabad and Pulivendula. A Fisheries Polytechnic College is established at Krishna District. Sri Mandali Buddha Prasad is in the forefront for the development of Krishna District, his native district, he was instrumental for modernization of Krishna Delta, construction of Puligadda–Penumudi bridge and Puligadda–Vijayawada river bund road. He played an important role for the establishment of Krishna University at Machilipatnam; as the convener of Krishna Delta Protection Committee, he led many movements for water supply to Krishna Delta for Irrigation purpose.

For this cause, he underwent a seven day hunger strike in September, 2004. He played a prominent role for sanction of Pulichintala - Polavaram Project. In the 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone, nearly 10,000 people lost their lives. There were no traces of certain villages, he not only served the victims day and night but worked as a secretary of The Deena Jana Samkshema Samithi and sheltered 120 orphan children and gave them food and education. During the tsunami that hit the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh in 2005, rescue centres were established for the protection of coastal area with the co-operation of voluntary organizations. Whenever some natural calamity occurs, he used to stay with the victims and inculcated in them the confidence and took up the relief and rehabilitation programs, his father Sri Mandali Venkata Krishna Rao established Gandhi Kshetram at Avanigadda during the year 1969 on the occasion of Gandhi Centenary Celebrations. Thus, he injected Gandhian principles from his childhood itself and he is striving hard to propagate them all along.

He ran a monthly magazine "Gandhi Kshetram" for twelve years to propagate the Gandhian Principles. To inculcate the Gandhian Principles in the youth, he conducted several workshops. Smt. Nirmala Gandhi, Daughter-in-law of Mahatma Gandhi, Sri. Kanu Gandhi, Grandson of Mahatma Gandhi and followers of Mahatma Gandhi like Prabhakarji, Prof. N. G. Ranga and Sri Vavilala Gopala Krishnaiah commended his work, he worked as a Secretary of Gandhian Institute of Social Services. He met Acharya Vinobha Bhave and got his blessings, he has been rendering yeoman services for the renaissance. He took up several responsibilities in several activities. Conducted Krishna Mahotsavams and installed bronze statue of Sri Krishna Devaraya at Srikakulam in Krishna District. Conducted Divi Mahotsavams in Krishna District Made efforts to develop the tomb of C P Brown in England with the help of London Telugu Association. President - First International Kuchipudi Dance Festival held in Cupertino, USA in 2008 Vice President and Chairman of Co-ordination Committee of 4th World Telugu Conference in 2012 at Tirupathi Chairman - World Telugu History Conference in London in 2013 He has been contributing number of articles on contemporary issues, Telugu language and culture to many leading newspapers and magazines.

Few of his publications are: Mauritius lo Telugu Tejam Prajalu - Pragathi England lo Telugu Vaibhava Smruthulu List taken from Executive Member of the Krishna District Youth Congress Committee President, Avanigadda Mandal Congress Committee President, Krishna District Congress Committee Joint Secretary, A. P. C. C. General Secretary, A. P. C. C. Member, AICC Joined Telugu Desam Party List taken from Public offices held Deputy Speaker - Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Official Language Commission. Served as Minister for Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development & Fisheries. Elected as M. L. A. from Avanigadda in 1999, 2004 and 2014 elections. Member - Public Accounts Committee, 2004 Member – Delimitation Commission, 2005 Media related to Mandali Buddha Prasad at Wikimedia Commons

Muscles (album)

Muscles is the debut solo album by hip hop musician Mele Mel. Despite being involved in the hip hop industry since 1978 and having appeared on numerous important singles and songs, Muscles is Mele Mel's first full-length album as a solo performer, it was released January 23, 2007, on Power House Entertainment and was produced by Mele Mel and Frank G. The album was a commercial failure. One single was released: "M-3: The New Message" on download and 12-inch promo. Both album and single failed to chart on any list. "Ice Cube Intro / Blow" – 2:17 "The Clapper" – 4:01 "New Truck" – 4:52 "M-3" – 4:11 "Left, Left" – 4:40 "Muscles" – 4:12 "One More" – 4:17 "Dimelo" – 4:06 "Hit List" – 4:11 "Move" – 4:22 "Another Hot Track" – 4:02 "Oh! What a Night" – 3:56 "Tha Bushes" – 6:31 "Cotton" – 4:30 "Crossfire" – 5:15 "Sellin' Those Things" – 4:09


Tzere is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two horizontally-aligned dots "◌ֵ" underneath a letter. In modern Hebrew, tzere is pronounced the same as and indicates the phoneme /e/, the same as the "e" sound in sell and is transliterated as an "e". There was a distinction in Tiberian Hebrew between Tzere. Tzere is written in these cases: In final stressed closed syllables: מַחְשֵׁב, סִפֵּר. In final syllables closed by guttural letters with an added furtive patach: מַטְבֵּעַ, שוֹכֵחַ. Notable exceptions to this rule are: The personal suffixes ־תֶם, ־תֶן, ־כֶם, ־כֶן, ־הֶם, ־הֶן are written with segol; the words אֱמֶת, בַּרְזֶל, גַּרְזֶן, כַּרְמֶל, עֲרָפֶל are written with segol. The word בֵּן is written with tzere in the absolute state, but with segol in the construct state: בֶּן־. In the Bible this rule applies to other words which end in tzere, when they are written with maqaf. In non-final, unstressed open syllables: עֵנָב, תֵּבָה. In the first syllable of about 70 segolate words, among them חֵלֶק, סֵפֶר, עֵדֶן.

In other – much more numerous – segolate words the first sound is a segol. In final open syllables, when the mater lectionis is yod or aleph: בְּנֵי־, מוֹצֵא; when the mater lectionis is he, the vowel sign is segol, but tzere is written in the imperative and absolute infinitive forms of the verb, in nouns in construct state, in the base form of several other nouns. In declension tzere sometimes changes to shva; the full rules for these changes were formulated the Academy of the Hebrew Language. In modern Hebrew there are words which are homophones and homographs in spelling without niqqud, but are written differently with niqqud, the difference being segol and tzere. For example, עֶרֶב evening and עֵרֶב weft written ערב without niqqud. Tzere can be written without matres lectionis; the most prominent mater lectionis for tzere is Yod, in some cases it is used with the letters aleph and he. Standard spelling rules mandate only one way to spell every word with or without the Yod after tzere. Although in standard modern pronunciation the sound of tzere with or without the Yod is the same, it may change the word's meaning in a written text.

Tzere can be written by itself without mater lectionis, in which case it is called tzere ḥaser, for example in the word זֵר. In this case, in text without niqqud the vowel is not written at all: זר; this word can be vocalized as זָר and the reader has to guess the right pronunciation according to the context. According to the standardized Hebrew spelling the letter Yod is sometimes written in texts without niqqud, when there is a grammatical reason for it. Tzere with Yod is called "full tzere"; when a full tzere is written in text with niqqud, the letter Yod must be written in text without niqqud. The main cases for writing the tzere with Yod are these: Tzere is written with Yod to indicate the plural number of declined words, for example מוּצָרֵנוּ means our product and מוּצָרֵינוּ means our products. Tzere is written with Yod in words in which the Yod is a part of the root: Nouns, for example בֵּיצָה, root ב־י־צ‎. Tzere is traditionally written with Yod in several other words, the roots of which are used productively to form other words, among them פְּסֵיפָס, קֵיסָם and the word "tzere" itself – צֵירֵי.

Verbs, in which the last letter of the root is he, by convention treated as interchangeable with Yod, for example נִבְנֵית, root ב־נ־ה. In Arabic the corresponding verbs are written with ʾalif maqṣūra, which represents a similar interchange of the letters yāʾ and ʾalif; some verbs in which the first letter of the root is Yod, for example הֵיטִיב, root י־ט־ב. In standard spelling without niqqud Yod is written to represent the sound in words formed in the pattern heCCeC, in which the first and the second consonants of the root merge though the vowel there is not tzere, but seggol, for example הֶשֵּׂג. In texts with full niqqud – poetry and children books – tzere is written in accordance with the rules mandated by the Academy; the Academy defined some cases in which a Yod is added to texts without niqqud to signify an sound, but in common usage Yod is written or not written contrary to the standard. Some notable common deviations from the standard in which a Yod is added include: Some words are written with Yod in texts without niqqud though the Yod is not a part of the r

United States Army Reserve Center, Rio Vista

United States Army Reserve Center, Rio Vista is a former United States Army Reserve center located in Rio Vista, Solano County, California. It was established in 1911 as the U. S. Engineers Storehouse, Rio Vista, it went through ten different names in its 81-year history becoming the United States Army Reserve Center, Rio Vista California. It was closed in 1992 as a result of a BRAC recommendation; the base is located on the west bank of the Sacramento River. It was acquired on July 21, 1911 by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to support the work of the Corps in dredging and surveying the Sacramento River; the Corps had been working on the river since 1875, deepening it, straightening it, removing obstacles such as trees, a 100-acre island which they eliminated. The goals of this work were to prevent flooding, make the river more navigable, reclaim farmland; the base was used to house, store, or moor equipment, including the large suction barges used for these purposes. The facility expanded over the next several decades, with additional buildings and a marine railway.

During World War II the function of the base shifted to focus on harbor serving vessels such as floating cranes, barges and small freighters. For this reason the base was reassigned to the U. S. Army Transportation Corps in 1952 with the primary function of storing and maintaining Army harbor craft; the facility's name was changed several times during the 1960s. It reached peak activity in 1963 when it was reported to have 300 civilian employees and 350 vessels. In 1963 a 4-acre parcel at the southern end of the facility was transferred to the U. S. Coast Guard to construct a Coast Guard station, still in operation. Activity at the base increased during the Vietnam War. In 1967 the base, now called the Rio Vista Marine Storage Activity, was placed under the command of Sharpe Army Depot, its primary function was to prepare amphibious vehicles for shipment to Vietnam. In 1967 the base was unexpectedly pressed into local service when a freighter struck a local bridge and cut it in half. For the next several weeks while the bridge was being repaired, an Army LCM amphibious vehicle from the base was used as a "foot ferry", transporting residents back and forth across the river to attend school, go to work, attend to other needs on the other side of the river.

In 1974 the base was renamed Rio Vista Storage Activity Site and control was transferred to the Presidio of San Francisco. Its mission was changed to Logistics Over The Shore operations training. In 1971 the USAT Resolute, a 338-foot cargo and training ship, was moved to the Rio Vista facility. In 1980 the facility was transferred to the U. S. Army Reserve and renamed the Rio Vista United States Army Reserve Center, it was used for training purposes by engineering and transportation units. In 1992 the facility was closed and all equipment was removed; the city of Rio Vista purchased the property from the federal government in 2003. It remains empty. Two of the proposed uses are a research and monitoring station to study the river and the Delta, a fish refuge and fish hatchery. Other proposed new uses include hiking and picnic areas, a boat dock, a conference center

Musa Khamis

Musa Khamis was an Iranian general in the war between Qajar Empire and the Ottoman Empire in 1821. The Ottoman–Qajar War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Empire from 1821 to 1823; the regime of Crown Prince Abbas Mirza launched an attack on Ottoman Turkey under the leadership of Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah. The war was sparked by Turkish aid to Azerbaijani rebels in Persia; the rebels were given refuge by the Ottomans. The war opened with a Persian invasion of Turkey in the Lake Van region, a counter-invasion by the Ottoman Pasha of Baghdad, who invaded western Persia; this invasion force was driven back across the border, but Dowlatshah's newly modernized army of 30,000 troops defeated 50,000 Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Erzurum near Lake Van in 1821. A peace treaty in 1823 ended the war with no changes to their mutual border. Musa Khamis Persia army general in this war; the Battle of Erzurum occurred in 1821 as part of the Ottoman-Persian War of 1821-1823. The Persians, led by crown prince Abbas Mirza himself scored a crushing defeat over their Ottoman arch rivals near Erzurum, securing a Persian victory.

The Persians were outnumbered with 30,000 men, led by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza, against the Turks with 50,000 men. However, the Persian army had been undergoing new modernisations according to the most up to date European models, with leadership of Abbas Mirza's brother, Dowlatshah, as part of the modernising policy known as Nezām-e Jadīd. Mohammad Taqi Khan Sepehr In the writing of history Naskhaltvarykh Sepehr -The History of Sepehr- in the presence of Musa Khamis champion in the army of Prince Dowlatshah wrote her - Prince Mohammed Ali Mirza Dvltshah- days the sun on his head, made the tour of Musa Khamis and of the British teacher English -Officers responsible Jew's-harp and Artillery - house with a group of soldiers and artillery and Znbvrkkhanh ride through the valley seen as hostile and did not retrograde Bfrstad to become the enemy and fight the army of the testing and data movement and Right and left Direction Over the brow of the hill climb and the soil of independent work hard to seek help and wept.

Came the army. The throes of two top heroes and mouth Saqhbar ball gun and the man's blood ruby and coral species of the soil. Romans did not hesitate to allow, back to war. Mahmoud Pasha Baban and Sultan Mahmut II, the Ottoman Vizier Mohammad Khya in the camp fled to Kirkuk and artillery Ottoman prince fell into the hands of forces. Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah went to Sulaymaniyah Abdullah pasha, uncle Lypasha earlier fled to Iran and he had taken refuge, was appointed to the city by force, it was the beginning of the month of Muharram and the Prince temporarily stopped fighting and remain confidant in Sulaimaniyah. Muharram and reach zero by the end of 1821 and to open up tents outside Baghdad fair division, but he was awaiting death. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East, Volume 4, Page 301-302. Qajar pages Nitasci