Shek Pik Reservoir
Shek Pik Reservoir is a reservoir in Shek Pik on Lantau Island in Hong Kong. Built between 1957 and 1963, it has a storage capacity of 24 million cubic metres and is the third largest reservoir in Hong Kong after High Island Reservoir and Plover Cove Reservoir. Shek Pik Reservoir is located within Lantau South Country Park, it is surrounded by the following areas: Keung Shan, Muk Yue Shan and Sz Tsz Tau Shan. The top of the main dam is part of Keng Shan Road which connects Tai O with Cheung Sha, Mui Wo and Tung Chung. Below the dam is Shek Pik Prison managed by the Hong Kong Correctional Services. In the 1950s, water became short in Hong Kong. To relieve the problem the Hong Kong Government decided to build a reservoir in Shek Pik Heung valley and to further develop Lantau Island; the main contractor for the reservoir scheme was a French company. Prior to construction there were four villages, Shek Pik Tai Tseun, Fan Pui Tsuen, Kong Pui Tsuen and Hang Tsai Tseun, in the valley, they were all relocated as part of the reservoir construction.
A Hau Wong Temple was located there and was inundated by the Shek Pik Reservoir in 1960. Water supply in James; the Great Difference: Hong Kong's New Territories and Its People 1898-2004. Hong Kong University Press. Pp. 90–96. ISBN 978-962-209-794-0. Hayes, James. Friends & teachers: Hong Kong and its people, 1953-87. Hong Kong University Press. Pp. 31–56. ISBN 978-962-209-396-6
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
Tai Lam Chung Reservoir
Tai Lam Chung Reservoir is a reservoir in Tai Lam Country Park, Tai Lam Chung, Tuen Mun District, New Territories, Hong Kong. It is the first reservoir built in Hong Kong after the Second World War. Formed by a main dam across the Tai Lam Chung Valley, the construction work of the reservoir commenced in 1952 and was completed in 1957, its water storage capacity is about 21 million cubic metres. Aerial video
Hong Kong 1967 leftist riots
The Hong Kong 1967 leftist riots were large-scale riots between pro-communists and their sympathisers, the Hong Kong government. While originating as a minor labour dispute, the tensions grew into large scale demonstrations against British colonial rule. Demonstrators clashed violently with the Hong Kong Police Force. Instigated by events in the People's Republic of China, leftists called for massive strikes and organised demonstrations, while the police stormed many of the leftists' strongholds and placed their active leaders under arrest; these riots became still more violent when the leftists resorted to terrorist attacks, planted decoy and real bombs in the city and murdered some members of the press who voiced their opposition to the violence. The initial demonstrations and riots were labour disputes that began as early as May 1967 in shipping, textile, cement companies and in particular the Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works, where there were 174 pro-communist trade unionists; the unions that took up the cause were all members of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions with strong ties to Beijing.
The political climate was tense in Hong Kong in the spring of 1967. To the north of the British colony's border, the PRC was in turmoil. Red Guards carried out purges and engaged in infighting, while riots sponsored by pro-Communist leftists erupted in the Portuguese colony of Macau, to the west of Hong Kong, in December 1966. Despite the intervention of the Portuguese army, order was not restored to Macau; the tension in Hong Kong was heightened by the ongoing Cultural Revolution to the north. Up to 31 protests were held. In May, a labour dispute broke out in a factory producing artificial flowers in San Po Kong. Picketing workers clashed with management, riot police were called in on 6 May. In violent clashes between the police and the picketing workers, 21 workers were arrested. Representatives from the union protested at police stations, but were themselves arrested; the next day, large-scale demonstrations erupted on the streets of Hong Kong. Many of the pro-communist demonstrators carried Little Red Books in their left hands and shouted communist slogans.
The Hong Kong Police Force arrested another 127 people. A curfew was imposed and all police forces were called into duty. In the PRC, newspapers praised the leftists' activities, calling the British colonial government's actions "fascist atrocities". On 22 August, in Beijing, thousands of people demonstrated outside the office of the British chargé d'affaires, before Red Guards attacked and ransacked the main building, burning it down. In Hong Kong's Central District, large loudspeakers were placed on the roof of the Bank of China Building, broadcasting pro-communist rhetoric and propaganda, prompting the British authorities to retaliate by putting larger speakers blaring out Cantonese opera. Posters were put up on walls with slogans like "Blood for Blood", "Stew the White-Skinned Pig", "Fry The Yellow Running Dogs", "Down With British Imperialism" and "Hang David Trench", a reference to the Governor. Students distributed newspapers carrying information about the disturbances and pro-communist rhetoric to the public.
On 16 May, the leftists formed the Hong Kong and Kowloon Committee for Anti-Hong Kong British Persecution Struggle. Yeung Kwong of the Federation of Trade Unions was appointed as its chairman; the Committee coordinated a series of large demonstrations. Hundreds of supporters from 17 different leftist organisations demonstrated outside Government House, chanting communist slogans. At the same time, many workers took strike action, with Hong Kong's transport services being badly disrupted. More violence erupted on 22 May, with another 167 people being arrested; the rioters began to adopt more sophisticated tactics, such as throwing stones at police or vehicles passing by, before retreating into leftist "strongholds" such as newspaper offices, banks or department stores once the police arrived. On 8 July, several hundred demonstrators from the PRC, including members of the People's Militia, crossed the frontier at Sha Tau Kok and attacked the Hong Kong Police, of whom five were shot dead and eleven injured in the brief exchange of fire.
The People's Daily in Beijing ran editorials supporting the leftist struggle in Hong Kong. The leftists tried in vain to organise a general strike; the British Hong Kong Government imposed emergency regulations, granting the police special powers in an attempt to quell the unrest. Leftists newspapers were banned from publishing; the leftists retaliated by planting more bombs. Real bombs, mixed with more decoys, were planted throughout the city. Normal life was disrupted and casualties began to rise. An eight-year-old girl, Wong Yee Man, her two-year-old brother, Wong Siu Fan, were killed by a bomb wrapped like a gift placed outside their residence. Bomb disposal experts from the police and the British forces defused as many as 8000 home-made bombs, of which 1100 were found to be real; these were known as "pineapple" bombs. On 19 July, leftists set up barbed wire defences on the 20-storey Bank of China Building. In response, the police raided leftist strongholds, including Kiu Kwan Mansion. In one of t
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Sai Kung Peninsula
Sai Kung Peninsula is a peninsula in the easternmost part of the New Territories in Hong Kong. Its name comes from Sai Kung Town in the central southern area of the peninsula; the southern part of the peninsula is administrated by Sai Kung District, the north by Tai Po District and the northwest by Sha Tin District. The vast land and sea area of the peninsula remains untouched by urbanisation, it is covered by country parks; the marine ecosystem in Hoi Ha Wan is protected by law. Sai Kung is a popular place for hiking; the starting point for the 100 kilometres. There are water sports sites along the shoreline offering kayaking and swimming among other activities. In addition, Sai Kung's Hoi Ha Wan is one of the most accessed coral dive sites in Hong Kong, it is suitable for newly certified divers. As a former fishing village, Sai Kung Town is a prime attraction for seafood lovers and tourists alike. Visitors can stroll around the regional market center of Sai Kung Town or explore the back lanes, visit the Tin Hau Temple, feast on seafood or enjoy different delicacies at Western-style pubs and restaurants.
There is a famous dessert restaurant called Honeymoon Dessert that brings in many visitors from all over Hong Kong and from abroad. In the northern Sai Kung Peninsula, there is an area called Wong Shek. There are places where people can enjoy the view of the sea. However, to protect the natural environment of Wong Shek, the Government controls the number of vehicle entering the area. There is a gate at Pak Tam Chung on the way towards Wong Shek, only allowing vehicles with permits to go through. Off the coast of the Sai Kung Peninsula, there are many outlying islands. On summer nights, many people hire small boats known as kai-tos or sampans to have leisurely trips through the island-dotted inland sea of Port Shelter. Popular islands to visit include: Kau Sai Chau Sharp Island High Island Pak Sha Chau Yeung Chau Yim Tin Tsai Although Wong Shek and Hoi Ha Wan are geographically in the northern part of Sai Kung Peninsula, they are under the administration of Tai Po District, due to their reliance on ferry transport from Tai Po for access before the construction of roads.
From about the 14th century, fishing communities lived on boats in sheltered inlets on the peninsula. They founded small coastal villages, building temples in honour of Tin Hau and Hung Shing in places of permanent anchorage. In addition to coastal fishing, there were small supporting industries of salt-making and boat building. Agricultural settlements began and several villages existed by the year 1660. Economic development began in the middle of the 19th century. There was a prosperous kiln industry producing lime and tiles for supply Hong Kong during the early days. Sheung Yiu Village, once opened as a Folk Museum, was a good example of a fortified settlement well known for lime-making in those days; until 1970, the part of Sai Kung beyond Tai Mong Tsai was still remote, reachable only on foot or by kai-tos. However work started in 1971 to create the High Island Reservoir, with a capacity of 273,000,000 cubic metres, by closing off both ends of the Kwun Mun Channel which separated the High Island from the main peninsula.
IN 1979, the project was completed,providing two new roads to the area. The city people can now reach a new and unspoilt area for recreation; the Sai Kung Peninsula and the islands near the coast are composed entirely of volcanic materials. Coarse tuffs are found in the south-western parts of the Peninsula and Tap Mun area. Pyroclastic rocks with some lava are found in the eastern part of the Sharp Peak and Sham Chung areas. Acid lavas are found in the area surrounding the High Island Reservoir and the south islands such as Kau Sai Chau, Tiu Chung Chau and Basalt Island, banded acid lava with some welded tuffs are found in the central and southern shore of Pak Tam Chung area; the most spectacular of all are the hexagonal columnar joints which are found near the east dam of the High Island Reservoir and Po Pin Chau area. They are the results of the uniform cooling of tuff; this natural landscape is complemented by the nearby gigantic water works. Along the south-eastern coast and on the offshore islands that are exposed to the easterly winds and sea waves, interesting landforms such as sea caves, stacks and inlets add to the beauty of the natural landscape.
Grassland covers the hilltops, across the Peninsula, there is an overall gradient from the grassland in the east to the woodland in the west. Grassland species are predominantly minireed, duck-beak grass and false staghorn fern. Shrubs cloth the lower slopes and species for Melastoma, Baeckea and Gordonia are found. Natural woodland in strips along the valleys or as patches behind villages are rich in native species of Machilus, Sapium, Ficus and Schefflera. Forest plantations, the result of both direct government planting and government-assisted village planting in the 1950s cover the hillslopes, are in the western part of the Peninsula. Chinese red pine was the most important species planted and many of these old pines are now approaching senility and suffer from nematode attack; the under-storey native broad-leafed trees are growing up to take their place. The long and irregular coastline of the Peninsula presents a wide variety of sea shore conditions for specialised and interesting plant commun
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv