Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
Colbost is a scattered hamlet on the B884 road, in the Glendale estate, overlooking Loch Dunvegan on the Scottish island of Skye. The two main attractions of small settlement are The Three Chimneys restaurant and the Croft Museum. The Three Chimneys is a restaurant and hotel. On its annual Top 50 Restaurant magazine listed the Three Chimneys as the 28th best restaurant in the world in 2002, the Colbost Croft Museum, known as the Folk Museum, is a simple open-air exhibit, set in a garden. At the centre of this simple grassy garden is a perfectly preserved 19th century Hebridean crofters blackhouse, the house incorporates dry stone walls and a heather-thatched roof. Inside there is the furniture that would have been found in such a cottage as well as newspaper clippings related to the clearances. The smell of smoke is dominant, as there is no chimney to accommodate the open fire - just a hole in the roof. At the back of the garden there is more vegetation and two little huts where produce would have been stored, one of which contains a mock illegal whisky brewing plant, lying around the garden there are various agricultural tools including an old rusty plow.
The self-service ticket office is housed in a shack with an upturned boat for a roof. Sheep often wander into the garden to graze making this not only an open-air museum but a living museum
University of London
The University of London is a collegiate research university located in London, consisting of 18 constituent colleges, nine research institutes and a number of central bodies. The university moved to a structure in 1900. The specialist colleges of the university include the London Business School, Imperial College London was formerly a member before leaving the university in 2007. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016, in post-nominals, the University of London is commonly abbreviated as Lond. or, more rarely, Londin. From the Latin Universitas Londiniensis, after its degree abbreviations, University College London was founded under the name London University in 1826 as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In response to the controversy surrounding such educational establishment, Kings College London was founded and was the first to be granted a royal charter. Yet to receive a charter, UCL in 1834 renewed its application for a royal charter as a university.
In response to this, opposition to exclusive rights grew among the London medical schools, the idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education, in 1835, the government announced the response to UCLs petition for a charter. Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the university started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted during our Royal will and pleasure, queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837, reincorporating the university. The university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to students from UCL, the university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was essentially an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, in medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training.
Beyond the right to students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university. In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, about 250 students graduated at this ceremony. The London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their rich velvet facings, the list of affiliated colleges grew by 1858 to include over 50 institutions, including all other British universities. In that year, a new charter effectively abolished the affiliated colleges system by opening up the examinations to everyone whether they attended a college or not. The expanded role meant the university needed more space, particularly with the number of students at the provincial university colleges
Elgol is a village on the shores of Loch Scavaig towards the end of the Strathaird peninsula in the Isle of Skye, in the Scottish Highlands. According to tradition, its derives from a battle fought with five ships by Aella. The Strathaird peninsula was historically a heartland of the Mackinnons, a robustly Jacobite clan, on 4 July 1746, the Young Pretender found sanctuary at Elgol in the course of his wanderings under the protection of Mackinnon of Mackinnon and Captain John Mackinnon of Elgol. The cave where he is said to have waited for a boat to the mainland can still be visited today, the village had a considerably higher population prior to the Clearances. It now has a population of approximately 150, a significant proportion of whom are Gaelic speakers, elgols scenic attractions have drawn in many outsiders seeking holiday homes and a majority of the properties there are no longer occupied on a year-round basis. The village is a terminal for three privately owned boat trips to Loch Coruisk and the Small Isles along with two shops and a restaurant
Kyleakin is a village situated on the east coast of the Isle of Skye in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. The village is along the strait of Kyle Akin opposite the northwest Scottish mainland town of Kyle of Lochalsh, Kyleakin is within the parish of Strath. Its name derives from Strait of Haakon named after the King Haakon IV of Norway whose fleet moored there prior to the Battle of Largs in 1263 which ended Norwegian rule of the island. In the early 19th century, Lord Macdonald conceived a plan for the development of Kyleakin. A contemporary print, intended to illustrate his plans, shows row upon row of tenement buildings, the village of Kyleakin is the site of Castle Moil, an ruined fortress built in the late 15th century. Her remains are said to be buried on the top of Beinn na Caillich, from 1841 to October 16,1995 a ferry service operated from Kyleakin to the mainland across the narrow strait of Loch Alsh, until it was replaced by the controversial Skye Bridge. Initially a toll bridge, the tolls were discontinued in 2004 following protests by local people, Kyleakin plays host to Kyleakin Football Club, who won the Skye and Lochalsh Bagshaw league in 2009, goalkeeper Lennie Chiffers is part of an accomplished bowls team in the village.
It hosts a new year football match between bachelors and married men and it is a breeding ground for shinty players, including John Slippy Finlayson, who won the Camanachd Cup with Skye Camanachd in 1990 and Steven Morrison, Scotland Under-21 Captain. Kyleakin Primary School are the primary school age team to have ever won the Mod Cup in 2001. Caisteal Maol Kyleakin village website Information on Castle Moil
Broadford, together with nearby Harrapool, is the second-largest settlement on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Broadford is within the parish of Strath, like many places in Skye, Broadford derives its name from Old Norse. To the Norsemen this was Breiðafjorðr - the wide bay, the Gaelic name is of modern derivation and assumes that the ford element meant a river crossing. West of Broadford in Glen Suardal, on the slopes of Beinn na Caillich, is Goir a Bhlàir. The battle concerned was apparently a decisive action by the Gaelic Clan Mackinnon against the Norsemen, Broadford was a cattle market until 1812, when Telford built the road from Portree to Kyleakin. Veterans of the Napoleonic Wars settled during the first half of the 19th century, writing in the middle of the 19th century, Alexander Smith said, If Portree is the London of Skye, Broadford is its Manchester. Legend holds that the recipe for the liqueur Drambuie was given by Bonnie Prince Charlie to Clan MacKinnon who passed it onto James Ross late 19th century.
Ross ran the Broadford Inn, where he developed and improved the recipe, initially for his friends, Ross began to sell it further afield and the name was registered as a trademark in 1893. Broadford lies on the south-west corner of Broadford Bay, on the A87 between Portree and the Skye Bridge, the settlement is overlooked by the eastern Cuillins, Broadford is in a beautiful tranquil area as well as having many services available. The mineral harkerite was first found near Broadford by the geologist Alfred Harker, the areas around Broadford and Torrin are renowned for their fantastic exposures of Tertiary intrusive geology. The area is famous for university undergraduate dissertation mapping, a variety of marine life can be seen at Broadford Bay including otters and occasionally orca whales. Birds that can sometimes be spotted at the bay include the whooper swan, brent goose, red-throated diver, Broadford is a key service centre for southern Skye. Services include the Co-op supermarket combined with a 24-hour Gulf Oil garage, a few restaurants, the local hospital, the Mackinnon Memorial Hospital, has a small ward and casualty department.
The A87 travels through Broadford, on its route from Invergarry to Uig, the A851 begins at a junction with the A87, towards the east end of Broadford, and continues to Armadale. Meanwhile, the B8083 begins at a junction with the A87 at the end of Broadford. There is a road, which can be found halfway along the B8083. Public are able to either the 155 or 55 bus along this road. There are two piers within the vicinity of Broadford, one is at the east end of the village by the war memorial, the other and larger at Corry, at the north west end of the bay
The Cuillin is a range of rocky mountains located on the Isle of Skye in Scotland. The true Cuillin is known as the Black Cuillin to distinguish it from the Red Cuilin across Glen Sligachan, the Red Cuilin hills are lower and, being less rocky, have fewer scrambles or climbs. The highest point of the Cuillin, and of the Isle of Skye, is Sgùrr Alasdair in the Black Cuillin at 992 m, the Cuillin is one of 40 National Scenic Areas in Scotland. The peaks of the Black Cuillin are mainly composed of gabbro, a rough black igneous rock which provides a superb grip for mountaineers, and basalt. The summits of the Cuillin are bare rock, jagged in outline and with steep cliffs, twelve Black Cuillin peaks are listed as Munros, though one of them, Blaven, is part of a group of outliers separated from the main ridge by Glen Sligachan. The scrambler can access most of the individual peaks by their easiest routes, only the Inaccessible Pinnacle is a graded rock climb by its simplest line but several of the other summits require scrambling skills.
There are no sources of water on the ridge, all water must be carried by the visitor. In addition to climbing individual peaks, there is the challenge of a traverse of the ridge. The first recorded traverse in under 24 hours was in 1911 by L. Shadbolt, the record for the full traverse, set by Finlay Wild in October 2013, stands at 2 hours,59 minutes and 22 seconds. A longer traverse of the Black Cuillin, is the Greater Traverse, this involves continuing on to Clach Glas and Blaven. This traverse was first done independently by two parties, in the summer of 1939, with I Charleson and W Forde claiming precedence over W. H. Murray & R. G. Donaldon a few weeks later. Some believe the ultimate mountaineering experience of the UK is the full traverse of the Cuillin Ridge, the Isle of Skyes position in the warm Gulf Stream makes genuine winter conditions rare, and the very short winter days probably make a 24-hour traverse impractical. The first recorded, over two days, was in 1965 by D Crabbe, B Robertson, T Patey and H MacInnes.
The Cuillin is perhaps the only range in the United Kingdom to approach in sheer jagged rawness the mountain experience of such ranges as the Alps or Rockies, the Red Hills are sometimes known as the Red Cuillin. They are mainly composed of granite which is paler than the gabbro and has weathered into more rounded hills with vegetation cover to summit level, the highest point of the hills is Glamaig, one of only two Corbetts on Skye. Here is a list of Munros and Grahams of the Cuillin and this listing excludes peaks such as Clach Glas which in hill walking/mountaineering terms are considered of significance. The Battle of Coire Na Creiche was fought on the slopes below Bruach na Frìthe in 1601 and it was the last Scottish clan battle fought on Skye, in which the Clan MacDonald of Sleat defeated the Clan MacLeod after a bitter feud. In 2000 the Cuillin were put on sale for £10 million by the Laird in a scheme of land in exchange for repairs to Dunvegan Castle, following a dispute over ownership, a deal was cut for the property to be gifted in return for repairs to the clan castle
Historic Scotland was an executive agency of the Scottish Government from 1991 to 2015, responsible for safeguarding Scotlands built heritage, and promoting its understanding and enjoyment. Under the terms of a Bill of the Scottish Parliament published on 3 March 2014, Historic Scotland was dissolved, HES took over the functions of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Historic Scotland was an organisation to the Ancient Monuments Division of the Ministry of Works. It was created as an agency in 1991 and was attached to the Scottish Executive Education Department, as part of the Scottish Government, Historic Scotland was directly accountable to the Scottish Ministers. In 2002, proposals to restore Castle Tioram in the West Highlands, by putting a roof back on, were blocked by Historic Scotland and this position was supported in an extensive local Public Inquiry at which the arguments for both sides were heard. It has been implied that this dispute has led to a review of the operations of the organisation, after widespread consultation, Historic Scotland published a comprehensive series of Scottish Historic Environment Policy papers, consolidated into a single volume in October 2008.
The agencys Framework Document set out the responsibilities of the Scottish Ministers and its Corporate Plan sets out its targets and performance against them. Historic Scotland had direct responsibility for maintaining and running over 360 monuments in its care, about a quarter of which are manned and these properties have additional features such as guidebooks and other resources. Historic Scotland sought to increase the number of run at its sites. Similarly, new museums and visitor centres were opened, notably at Arbroath Abbey, there was a hospitality section, which makes some properties available for wedding receptions and other functions. Lifetime memberships were available, and all received a quarterly magazine Historic Scotland. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland Scottish Ten Official website