Regeneron Science Talent Search
The Regeneron Science Talent Search, known for its first 57 years as the Westinghouse Science Talent Search, as the Intel Science Talent Search from 1998 through 2016, is a research-based science competition in the United States for high school seniors. It has been referred to as "the nation's oldest and most prestigious" science competition. In his speech at the dinner honoring the 1991 Winners, President George H. W. Bush called the competition the "Super Bowl of science." The Society for Science & the Public began the competition in 1942 with Westinghouse Electric Corporation. In 1998, Intel became the sponsor. In May 2016, it was announced. Over the years, some 147,000 students have entered the competition. Over 22,000 have been named semifinalists and 2,920 have traveled to Washington, D. C. as contest finalists. Collectively, they have received millions of dollars in scholarships and gone on, in years, to capture Nobel Prizes, Fields Medals, MacArthur Fellowships and numerous other accolades.
Thirteen went on to receive Nobel Prizes, two earned the Fields Medal, eleven have been awarded the National Medal of Science, eighteen received MacArthur Fellowships. Entrants to the competition conduct original research—sometimes at home and sometimes by "working with leading research teams at universities and private laboratories." The selection process is competitive, besides the research paper, letters of recommendation, test scores, extracurricular activities, high school transcripts may be factored in the selection of finalists and winners. Each year 1,800 papers are submitted; the top 300 applicants are announced in mid-January and since 2017 each semifinalist and their school receives $2,000 from the title sponsor. In late January, the 40 Finalists are informed. In March, the Finalists are flown to Washington, D. C. where they are interviewed for the top ten spots, which have awards up to $250,000 The judges have included Glenn T. Seaborg and Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.. All Finalists receive awards of at least $25,000.
Since the beginning of the competition, students from New York have done well in the Science Talent Search, although there have been finalists from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam. Certain high schools have been successful at placing semifinalists and finalists in the Science Talent Search. New York has had by far the most finalists in the competition, followed by California, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Florida, Massachusetts and Ohio. Reliable online records of the high schools attended by semifinalists and finalists are only available since 1999, when Intel took over sponsorship of the Science Talent Search, although there are newspaper articles naming the finalists from earlier years. A small group of schools have produced a large number of the recent finalists. Four specialized STEM schools top the list, averaging more than 8 semifinalists per year: Montgomery Blair High School in Silver Spring, MD, Stuyvesant High School in New York, NY, Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Alexandria, VA, Bronx High School of Science in Bronx, NY.
Many winners come from the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science in Denton, TX, the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics in Durham, NC, the Bergen County Academies in Hackensack, NJ, the Illinois Math and Science Academy in Aurora, IL. Among high schools without selective admissions, New York public schools top the list, with Ward Melville High School in East Sautuket, Byram Hills High School in Armonk, Paul D. Schreiber High School in Port Washington, Jericho High School among the top ten. Only one private school, The Harker School in San Jose, CA, is among the top schools. STS online entry system STS historical background
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, reproduction and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, assimilation, biosynthesis and excretion; the diet of an organism is what it eats, determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, scurvy, preterm birth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Undernutrition can lead to wasting in acute cases, the stunting of marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition; the first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about 2500 BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days. Scurvy found to be a vitamin C deficiency, was first described in 1500 BC in the Ebers Papyrus.
According to Walter Gratzer, the study of nutrition began during the 6th century BC. In China, the concept of qi developed, a spirit or "wind" similar to what Western Europeans called pneuma. Food was classified into "hot" and "cold" in China, India and Persia. Humours developed first in China alongside qi. Ho the Physician concluded that diseases are caused by deficiencies of elements, he classified diseases as well as prescribed diets. About the same time in Italy, Alcmaeon of Croton wrote of the importance of equilibrium between what goes in and what goes out, warned that imbalance would result in disease marked by obesity or emaciation; the first recorded nutritional experiment with human subjects is found in the Bible's Book of Daniel. Daniel and his friends were captured by the king of Babylon during an invasion of Israel. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine, but they objected, preferring vegetables and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions.
The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. Daniel and his friends received their diet for ten days and were compared to the king's men. Appearing healthier, they were allowed to continue with their diet. Around 475 BC, Anaxagoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and, contains "homeomerics", suggesting the existence of nutrients. Around 400 BC, who recognized and was concerned with obesity, which may have been common in southern Europe at the time, said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food." The works that are still attributed to him, Corpus Hippocraticum, called for moderation and emphasized exercise. Salt and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. In the 2nd century BC, Cato the Elder believed that cabbage could cure digestive diseases, ulcers and intoxication. Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsus, an ancient Roman doctor, believed in "strong" and "weak" foods. One mustn't overlook the doctrines of Galen: In use from his life in the 1st century AD until the 17th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for 1500 years.
Galen was physician to gladiators in Pergamon, in Rome, physician to Marcus Aurelius and the three emperors who succeeded him. Most of Galen's teachings were gathered and enhanced in the late 11th century by Benedictine monks at the School of Salerno in Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, which still had users in the 17th century. Galen believed in the bodily humours of Hippocrates, he taught that pneuma is the source of life. Four elements combine into "complexion"; the states are made up of pairs of attributes, which are made of four humours: blood, green bile, black bile. Galen thought that for a person to have gout, kidney stones, or arthritis was scandalous, which Gratzer likens to Samuel Butler's Erehwon where sickness is a crime. In the 1500s, Paracelsus was the first to criticize Galen publicly. In the 16th century and artist Leonardo da Vinci compared metabolism to a burning candle. Leonardo did not publish his works on this subject, but he was not afraid of thinking for himself and he disagreed with Galen.
16th century works of Andreas Vesalius, sometimes called the father of modern human anatomy, overturned Galen's ideas. He was followed by piercing thought amalgamated with the era's mysticism and religion sometimes fueled by the mechanics of Newton and Galileo. Jan Baptist van Helmont, who discovered several gases such as carbon dioxide, performed the first quantitative experiment. Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between muscles. Sometimes forgotten during his life, James Lind, a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in 1747. Lind discovered that lime juice saved sailors, at sea for years from scurvy, a deadly an
Francisco Bravo Medical Magnet High School
Francisco Bravo Medical Magnet High School is a magnet public high school in the Los Angeles Unified School District with a focus on serving students who plan to study in the healthcare field. It is located near the LAC+USC Medical Center, in the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles, United States; as of the 2014-15 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,841 students and 70.3 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 26.2:1. There were 1,583 students eligible for free lunch and 69 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. During the 2006-2007 school year, Francisco Bravo Medical Magnet High School was recognized with the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence by the United States Department of Education, the highest award an American school can receive. In their annual list of the top 1,300 high schools in the United States, Newsweek ranked Francisco Bravo Medical Magnet High School as 352nd in 2008 and 291st in 2007. In 2007, U. S. News and World Report named it one of its top 100 public high schools.
A magnet center was established at nearby Lincoln High School before moving to Wilson High School from 1985 until 1990. Bravo Medical Magnet is named after Francisco Bravo, a well-known physician who practiced in East Los Angeles, established his own clinic, founded a scholarship fund for needy high school students interested in the health science professions. Groundbreaking on Francisco Bravo Medical Magnet High School started in 1987 and construction was completed in 1990. Dr. Rosa Maria Hernández, instrumental in the school's construction, served as principal from the school's opening until 2003 when she became the District F Coordinator, she was succeeded by Maria Torres-Flores. Bravo is located in a commercial and residential section of Eastside Los Angeles, about 8 minutes from the Los Angeles Civic Center. Bravo is located adjacent to the LAC+USC Medical Center Complex, which includes the Keck School of Medicine of USC, USC School of Pharmacy, Doheny Eye Hospital, Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center, Norris Cancer Hospital, the USC University Hospital.
The school's proximity to USC has enabled partnerships, Bravo was adopted by the Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center in September 1981, shortly after the school opened as a small magnet center on the Lincoln High School campus. The school has agreements with USC Medical Center as well as California State University, Los Angeles in promoting health-related activities and projects. Bravo’s medical magnet program was part of the school integration program to be accessible to all students in the Los Angeles Unified School District, so the school community has wide geographical boundaries. Thirty buses deliver 85% of Bravo’s 1,726 students, some of whom travel up to an hour to school and are drawn from 32 middle schools. Students are selected by the district's lottery. Bravo served 1,852 students during the 2014-2015 school year. 40% of the students attending Bravo are from the surrounding community in what now comprises LAUSD Local District East. The remaining 60% commute from other areas of the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Bravo's demographics indicate 66% Hispanic students, 17% Asian/Filipino/Pacific Islander, 2% African-American, 14.3% White, 0.2% American Indian/Alaskan Native. Over the past six years Bravo has maintained a steady total enrollment and has seen a general decline in all ethnic populations except the Hispanic group which has increased 15%. For 2006-07, Bravo has 82% of all students that are socioeconomically disadvantaged. About 72% of students’ home language is not English. Bravo High School has a school-wide Title I program and is one of the few Title I High Schools that has surpassed the 800 API level; the Academic Performance Index—API for High Schools in the LAUSD District 5 and local small public charter high schools in the East Los Angeles region. The Bravo Medical Magnet High School API scores: 2012 API: 842 2011 API: 832 2010 API: 820 2009 API: 815 2008 API: 818 2007 API: 807 2006 API: 807 2005 API: 819 2004 API: 788 2003 API: 766 2002 API: 737 2001 API: 733 2000 API: 732 1999 API: 715 Angela Sarafyan - ActressJeffrey Carrillo - Chip Seller Los Angeles Unified School District schools Magnet schools in California Official Bravo Medical Magnet High School website
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases. Forensic science is a combination of two different Latin words: science; the former, relates to a discussion or examination performed in public. Because trials in the ancient world were held in public, it carries a strong judicial connotation.
The second is science, derived from the Latin word for ‘knowledge’ and is today tied to the scientific method, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge. Taken together forensic science can be seen as the use of the scientific methods and processes in crime solving; the word forensic comes from the Latin term forensis, meaning "of or before the forum". The history of the term originates from Roman times, during which a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their sides of the story; the case would be decided in favor of the individual with delivery. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation. In modern use, the term forensics in the place of forensic science can be considered correct, as the term forensic is a synonym for legal or related to courts. However, the term is now so associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word forensics with forensic science.
The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. However, ancient sources do contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow concepts in forensic science that were developed centuries later; the first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu, written in China by Song Ci in 1248, a director of justice and supervision, during the Song dynasty. Gunhegarancha Kardankal authored by Dr. Vasudha Apte in Marathi provides information about 130 different methods of forensic investigations in detail. Song Ci ruled regulation about autopsy report for court, how to protect the evidence in the examining process, the reason why workers must show examination to public impartiality, he concluded methods on how to make antiseptic and to reappear the hidden injury from dead bodies and bones. At that time, the book had given methods to distinguish pretending suicide.
In one of Song Ci's accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by an investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. For example, the book described how to distinguish between a drowning and strangulation, along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide or an accident. Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt, as a precursor to the Polygraph test. In ancient India, some suspects were made to spit it back out. In ancient China, those accused of a crime would have rice powder placed in their mouths. In ancient middle-eastern cultures, the accused were made to lick hot metal rods briefly, it is thought that these tests had some validity since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth.
In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and manner of death. Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18th century, writings on these topics began to appear; these included A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician Francois Immanuele Fodéré and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert Johann Peter Frank. As the rational values of the Enlightenment era increasingly
Stuyvesant High School
Stuyvesant High School referred to as Stuy is a specialized high school in New York City, United States. Operated by the New York City Department of Education, these specialized schools offer tuition-free accelerated academics to city residents. Stuyvesant is a college-preparatory high school. Stuyvesant was established as an all-boys school in the East Village of Manhattan in 1904. An entrance examination was mandated for all applicants starting in 1934, the school started accepting female students in 1969. Stuyvesant moved to its current location at Battery Park City in 1992 because the school had become too large; the old building now houses several high schools. Admission to Stuyvesant involves passing the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test; each November, the 900 to 950 applicants with the highest exam scores out of around 30,000 eighth- and ninth-graders are accepted to Stuyvesant. The school has a wide range of extracurricular activities, including a theater competition called SING! and two student publications.
Notable alumni include physicists Brian Greene and Lisa Randall, mathematician Paul Cohen, genome researcher Eric Lander. New York City's Superintendent of Schools, William Henry Maxwell, had first written about the need to construct manual trade schools in New York City in 1887. At the time, C. B. J. Snyder was designing many of the city's public school buildings using multiple architectural styles; the first trade school in the city was Manual Training High School in Brooklyn, which opened in 1893. By 1899, Maxwell was advocating for a manual trade school in Manhattan. In January 1903, Maxwell and Snyder submitted a report to the New York City Board of Education in which they suggested the creation of a trade school in Manhattan; the Board of Education approved the plans in April 1904. They suggested that the school occupy a plot on East 15th Street, west of First Avenue, but that plot did not yet contain a school building, so the new trade school was housed within P. S. 47's former building at 225 East 23rd Street.
The Board of Education wrote that the new trade school would be "designated as the Stuyvesant High School, as being reminiscent of the locality." Stuyvesant Square, Stuyvesant Street, Stuyvesant Town are all located near the proposed 15th Street school building. All of these locations were named after the last Dutch governor of New Netherland; the appellation was selected in order to avoid confusion with Brooklyn's manual Training High School, Stuyvesant High School opened in September 1904 as Manhattan's first manual trade school for boys. At the time of its opening, the school consisted of 12 teachers. At first, the school provided a core curriculum of "English, modern languages, mathematics, chemistry, music", as well as a physical education program and a more specialized track of "woodworking, mechanical drawing, freehand drawing". However, in June 1908, Maxwell announced that the trade school curriculum would be separated from the core curriculum, a discrete trade school would operate in the Stuyvesant building during the evening.
Thereafter, Stuyvesant became renowned for excellence in science. In 1909, eighty percent of the school's alumni went to college, compared to other schools, which only sent 25% to 50% of their graduates to college. By 1919, officials started restricting admission based on scholastic achievement. Stuyvesant implemented a double session plan in 1919 to accommodate the rising number of students: some students would attend in the morning, while others would take classes in the afternoon and early evening. All students studied a full set of courses; these double sessions ran until 1956. The school implemented a system of entrance examinations in 1934; the examination program, developed with the assistance of Columbia University, was expanded in 1938 to include the newly founded Bronx High School of Science. In 1956, a team of six students began construction of a cyclotron. A low-power test of the device succeeded six years later. A attempt at full-power operation, knocked out the power to the school and surrounding buildings.
In 1967, Alice de Rivera filed a lawsuit against the Board of Education, alleging that she had been banned from taking Stuyvesant's entrance exam because of her gender. The lawsuit was decided in the student's favor, Stuyvesant was required to accept female students; the first female students were accepted in September 1969, when Stuyvesant offered admission to 14 girls and enrolled 12 of them. The next year, 223 female students were accepted to Stuyvesant. By 2015, the last year that enrollment reports are available, females represented 43% of the total student body. In 1972, the New York State Legislature passed the Hecht–Calandra Act, which designated Brooklyn Technical High School, Bronx High School of Science, Stuyvesant High School, the High School of Music & Art as specialized high schools of New York City; the act called for a uniform exam to be administered for admission to Brooklyn Tech, Bronx Science, Stuyvesant. The exam, named the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test, tested the mathematical and verbal abilities of students who were applying to any of the specialized high schools.
The only exception was for applicants to LaGuardia High School, who were accepted by audition rather than examination. The current school building is 0.5 miles away from the site of the World Trade Center, destroyed in the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. The school was evacuated during the attack. Although the smoke cloud coming from the World Trade Center engulfed the building at one point, there was no struc