City University of New York
The City University of New York is the public university system of New York City, the largest urban university system in the United States. CUNY and the State University of New York are separate and independent university systems, despite the fact that both public institutions receive funding from New York State. CUNY, however, is located in only New York City, while SUNY is located in the entire state, including New York City. CUNY was founded in 1847 and comprises 25 institutions: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, one undergraduate honors college, seven post-graduate institutions; the University enrolls more than 275,000 students, counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four MacArthur Fellows among its alumni. CUNY is the third-largest university system in the United States, in terms of enrollment, behind the State University of New York, the California State University system. More than 274,000-degree-credit students and professional education students are enrolled at campuses located in all five New York City boroughs.
The university has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States, with students hailing from 208 countries, but from New York City. The black and Hispanic undergraduate populations each comprise more than a quarter of the student body, Asian undergraduates make up 18 percent. Fifty-eight percent are female, 28 percent are 25 or older; the following table is'sortable'. CUNY employs over 10,000 adjunct faculty members. Faculty and staff are represented by the Professional Staff Congress, a labor union and chapter of the American Federation of Teachers. André Aciman, recipient of Whitting Award for emerging writers, Lambda Literary Award winner for his novel Call Me By Your Name Chantal Akerman, film director, Distinguished Lecturer, City College of New York Meena Alexander and writer, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center and Hunter College Talal Asad, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center William Bialek, Graduate Center Edwin G. Burrows and writer, Pulitzer Prize Winner, Distinguished Professor of History at Brooklyn College Ta-Nehisi Coates, writer and activist, CUNY Graduate School of Journalism Billy Collins, poet, U.
S. Poet Laureate, Lehman College Blanche Wiesen Cook, Distinguished Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center John Corigliano, Graduate Center Michael Cunningham, Pulitzer Prize winner, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Roy DeCarava and photographer, Hunter College Carolyn Eisele, Hunter College Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Professor, Graduate Center Allen Ginsberg, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Kimiko Hahn, winner of PEN/Voelcker Award for Poetry, Queens College David Harvey, Graduate Center bell hooks, educator and critic, Distinguished Professor at City College of New York Tyehimba Jess, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, College of Staten Island KC Johnson (born, Professor of History, known for his work exposing the facts about the Duke lacrosse case Michio Kaku, City College Jane Katz, Olympian swimmer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Alfred Kazin and critic, Distinguished Professor at Hunter College and Graduate Center Saul Kripke, Graduate Center Irving Kristol, City College Paul Krugman, Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Peter Kwong, filmmaker, Distinguished Professor of Asian American studies and Urban Affairs and Planning Professor at Hunter College, professor of sociology at Graduate Center Ben Lerner, MacArthur Fellow, Brooklyn College Audre Lorde and activist, City College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Distinguished Thomas Hunter Chair at Hunter College Cate Marvin, Guggenheim Fellowship winner, College of Staten Island John Matteson and writer, Pulitzer Prize winner, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Stanley Milgram, social psychologist, Graduate Center June Nash, Distinguished Professor Emerita, Graduate Center Itzhak Perlman, Brooklyn College Frances Fox Piven, political scientist and educator, Graduate Center Graham Priest, Graduate Center Adrienne Rich and activist, City College of New York David M. Rosenthal, Graduate Center Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. historian and social critic, Graduate Center Flora Rheta Schreiber, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, literary critic, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center Betty Shabazz and activist, Medgar Evers College Dennis Sullivan, Graduate Center Katherine Verdery, Julien J. Studley and Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Michele Wallace, Professor Emeritus of English, Women's Studies and Film Studies at the City College of New York and the Graduate Center Mike Wallace and writer, Distinguished Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center Elie Wiesel, political activist, Distinguished Professor of Judaic Studies at City College Andrea Alu and physicist, Einstein Professor of Physics at CUNY Graduate Center CUNY was created in 1961, by New York State legislation, signed into law by Governor Nelson Rockefeller.
The legislation integrated existing institutions and a new graduate school into a coordinated system of higher education for the city, under the control of the "Board of Higher Education of the City of New York", created by New York State legisla
B (New York City Subway service)
The B Sixth Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored orange since it uses the IND Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan; the B operates on weekdays only, servicing between 145th Street in Harlem and Brighton Beach in Brooklyn, making express stops in Manhattan and in Brooklyn and local stops between 145th and 59th Streets in Manhattan. During rush hours, service extends beyond 145th Street and originates and terminates at Bedford Park Boulevard, making local stops in the Bronx; the B does not operate during late nights. The B used to run exclusively in Manhattan, from 168th Street in Washington Heights to 34th Street–Herald Square in Midtown Manhattan. In 1967, with the Chrystie Street Connection, the B started running via the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn. A short-lived yellow B service ran via the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan and the BMT West End Line in Brooklyn from 1986 to 1988 due to Manhattan Bridge renovation, while orange B service traveled the pre-1967 route between 168th and 34th Streets.
After 1989, the B north of 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center used the IND Eighth Avenue Line to 168th Street on weekdays, the IND 63rd Street Line on evenings and weekends. Late night service ran as a shuttle on the West End Line. Weekday service was rerouted to the Concourse Line in 1998, while off-peak service along 63rd Street ceased in 2000; the B started using the Brighton Line in 2004 after work on the north side of the Manhattan Bridge was completed. The designation B was intended for express trains originating from the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan and operating in Midtown Manhattan on the IND Sixth Avenue Line. However, the original B service, beginning with the opening of the Sixth Avenue Line on December 15, 1940, ran as a rush-hour only local service between 168th Street–Washington Heights and 34th Street–Herald Square; this service was designated BB, conforming with the Independent Subway System convention using double letters to indicate local services. The Chrystie Street Connection and the express tracks of the Sixth Avenue Line opened on November 26, 1967, radically changing service.
BB trains were combined with the former T service, which ran on the BMT West End Line in Brooklyn and the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan. This created a through service from 168th Street to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue via the Sixth Avenue Line express tracks and the Manhattan Bridge. During middays, service to and from Brooklyn terminated at West 4th Street. During late night hours and Sundays when B service did not operate, TT shuttles continued to operate on the West End Line. On July 1, 1968, the B was rerouted to terminate at 57th Street in Midtown Manhattan during middays and evenings, extending to 168th Street only during rush hours; the West End Line shuttles were made part of the B route. On June 1, 1976, the New York City Transit Authority announced changes in subway service that were expected to save $12.6 million annually and were the third phase of the agency's plan to realign subway service to better reflect ridership patterns and reduced ridership. As part of the changes, which took effect on August 30, 1976, B service began running between 57th Street and Coney Island during all times, replacing K service, alternate B trains commenced operating between 168th Street and Coney Island during rush hours.
On December 14, 1976, the NYCTA announced severe cuts in bus and subway service in order to cut its budget by $30 million over the following 18 months in order to achieve a balanced budget, at the request of the Emergency Financial Control Board. As part of the cuts, late night B service was cut back to running as a shuttle between 36th Street and Coney Island via the West End Line; this change took effect on August 27, 1977. The 57th Street station was to be closed during late nights. However, a B shuttle operated during late nights, running between 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center and 57th Street; the NYCTA approved four changes in subway service on April 27, 1981, including an increase in B service. The changes were made as part of the $1 million, two-year Rapid Transit Sufficiency Study, were expected to take place as early as 1982, following public hearings and approval by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority board; as part of the changes, midday B service was going replacing AA service.
B service on the West End Line and Fourth Avenue Line express was to be supplemented by a new rush hour T train, running between Bay Parkway and Chambers Street on the Nassau Street Line. On June 1, 1983, the NYCTA proposed changes to increase service along Sixth Avenue and better connecting the line to the Bronx and Queens; as part of the changes, B train service would run to 168th Street at all times, with service to 57th Street during non-rush hours replaced by a new H train running between 57th Street and World Trade Center. With the extension of B service to 168th Street, AA service would be eliminated; the changes would have gone into effect in spring or summer pending approval by the MTA board. The reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge between 1986 and 2004 affected B service as the bridge's north side tracks, which led to the Sixth Avenue Line, were closed multiple times; these closures severed the connection between the southern portions of the route. B service was split into two different services starting on April 26, 1986, with an expected completion date of October 26, 1986.
The closure of the bridge's north side tracks caused the return of pre-November 1967 service patterns, before the opening of the Chrystie Street Connection: The orange B duplicated the former BB service, an
MTA Regional Bus Operations
MTA Regional Bus Operations is the surface transit division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. It was created in 2008 to consolidate all bus operations in New York City operated by the MTA; as of February 2018, MTA Regional Bus Operations runs 234 local routes, 71 express routes, 18 Select Bus Service routes. Its fleet of 5,725 buses is the largest municipal bus fleet in the United States and operates 24/7; the division comprises two brands: MTA New York City Bus. While MTA Bus is an amalgamation of former private companies' routes, MTA New York City Bus is composed of public routes that were taken over by the city before 2008; the MTA operates paratransit services and operated Long Island Bus. As of 2018, MTA Regional Bus Operations' budgetary burden for expenditures was $773 million. Regional Bus Operations is only used in official documentation, not publicly as a brand; the current public brands are listed below: MTA New York City Bus – most routes within the City of New York, operated by the New York City Transit Authority and subsidiary Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority.
MTA Bus – service administered by the New York City Department of Transportation and operated by seven companies at the time of takeover, concentrated in Queens, with some routes in the Bronx and Brooklyn, most express service from Brooklyn and the Bronx to Manhattan. The seven former companies were, Command Bus Company, Inc.. Liberty Lines Express, Inc.. The most common scheme is a straight blue stripe across the sides of the bus against a white base, with no colors on the front or back, black window trim. From 1977 until late 2007, the livery was a full all-around stripe with a black rear, until late 2010, the scheme was a stripe with a blank rear. Buses operated in Select Bus Service bus rapid transit service are wrapped with a light blue-and-white wrap below the windows. In spring 2016, a new livery was introduced based on navy blue, light blue, yellow, with a blue front and sides, a light blue and yellow wave, a yellow back; this new livery will replace the blue stripe on a white base livery.
Many RBO's operational changes have been at the management level, with the creation of a unified command center and consolidation of management for all bus operations, with the aim of reducing redundancies in the agency. Other changes have included eliminating the MTA Bus call center, folding it into that of MTA New York City Transit, the unification of the fare policy for all of the MTA's services; the history of the MTA's bus operations follows the history of the New York City Transit Authority known as MTA New York City Transit, created on June 15, 1953 by the State of New York to take over operations operated by the New York City Board of Transportation. In 1962 the State established the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority as a subsidiary of NYCT to take over operations operated by two private companies, Fifth Avenue Coach Lines, Inc. and Surface Transit, Inc. Both NYCT and MaBSTOA operate service pursuant to a lease agreement with the City of New York. City involvement with surface transit in the city began in September 1919, when Mayor John Francis Hylan, through the New York City Department of Plant and Structures, organized private entrepreneurs to operate "emergency" buses to replace four abandoned storage battery streetcar lines: the Madison Street Line and Delancey Streets Line, Avenue C Line, Sixth Avenue Ferry Line.
Many routes were soon added, replacing lines such as the Brooklyn and North River Line and Queens Bus Lines, the DP&S began operating trolleys in Staten Island to replace the Staten Island Midland Railway's system. Another city acquisition was the Bridge Operating Company, which ran the Williamsburg Bridge Local trolley, acquired in 1921 by the DP&S. Unlike the other lines, this one remained city-operated, was replaced by the B39 bus route on December 5, 1948, by transferred to the New York City Board of Transportation. With the city takeover of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation's surface subsidiary, the Brooklyn and Queens Transit Corporation, on June 2, 1940, the city gained a large network of trolley and bus lines, covering all of Brooklyn and portions of Queens. On February 23, 1947, the Board of Transportation took over the Staten Island bus network of the Isle Transportation Company. Further acquisitions were made on March 30, 1947, with the North Shore Bus Company in Queens, September 24, 1948, with the East Side Omnibus Corporation and Comprehensive Omnibus Corporation in Manhattan.
The final Brooklyn trolleys were the Church Avenue Line and McDonald Avenue Line, discontinued on October 31, 1956, though the operated Queensboro Bridge Local remained until 1957. Thus, in the late 1950s, the city operated all local service in Staten Island and Brooklyn, about half the local service in Queens, several routes in Manhattan. Several private companies operated buses in Queens, the Avenue B and East Broadway Transit Company operated a small Manhattan system, but by far the largest system was the Fifth Avenue Coach Company and Surface Transit, which operated all Manhattan routes and all Bronx routes, plus two into Queens and one within Queens. After a strike in 1962, the city condemned the assets of the bus companies. To facilitate the anticipat
Specialized high schools in New York City
The specialized high schools of New York City are nine selective public high schools and run by the New York City Department of Education to serve the needs of academically and artistically gifted students. The Specialized High Schools Admissions Test examination is required for admission to all the schools except LaGuardia, which requires an audition or portfolio for admission; the Bronx High School of Science was founded in 1938 as a specialized science and math high school for boys, by resolution of the Board of Education of the City of New York, with Morris Meister as the first principal of the school. They were given use of an antiquated Gothic-gargoyled edifice located at Creston Avenue and 184th Street; the building, built in 1918 for Evander Childs High School, had been successively occupied by Walton High School and by an annex of DeWitt Clinton High School. The initial faculty were comprised in part by a contingent from Stuyvesant High School. Principal Meister put his imprint on the school from its formation, for example selecting as school colors "green to represent chlorophyll and gold the sun, both of which are essential to the chain of life."
Unlike nearly all other specialized high schools, Brooklyn Latin has a strong focus on the humanities and classics. All students are required to take four years of English, Latin and a modern foreign language. All classes hold Socratic Seminars, in which students lead roundtable question-and-answer discussions, all students take part in declamation exercises; because of the small class size, Brooklyn Latin offers a small student-to-teacher ratio. All students are required to take International Baccalaureate courses in senior year. One of the original three specialized high schools in New York City. In 1918, Dr. Albert L. Colston, chair of the Math Department at Manual Training High School, recommended establishing a technical high school for Brooklyn boys, his plan envisioned a heavy concentration of math and drafting courses with parallel paths leading either to college or to a technical career in industry. By 1922, Dr. Colston's concept was approved by the Board of Education, Brooklyn Technical High School opened in a converted warehouse at 49 Flatbush Avenue Extension, with 2,400 students.
This location, in the shadow of the Manhattan Bridge, is the reason the school seal bears the image of this bridge, rather than the Brooklyn Bridge. Brooklyn Tech would occupy one more location before settling into its current site, for which the groundbreaking was held in 1930. Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School is the only specialized high school in New York City that does not require that an applicant take the SHSAT. Rather, students are accepted through auditions in the fields of vocal music, instrumental music, visual arts, dance and technical theatre; the High School for Math and Engineering at City College was created in 2002, with an emphasis on engineering. HSMSE was designed to be a small school with only about four hundred students; the High School of American Studies at Lehman College is located on the Lehman College campus, in the Bedford Park section of the Bronx. Unlike the rest of the specialized high schools, American Studies curriculum emphasizes U. S. History, offering three years of AP-level U.
S. History; the partnership with Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History has allowed the school to plan multiple trips outside of New York City, with students paying cheap fees. In 2008, U. S. News & World Report ranked American Studies as the 29th best public high school in the country and 2nd in New York State. In 2009, the school rose to be the 19th best public high school in the country. In 2014, HSAS was ranked #1 in New York State; the Queens High School for the Sciences at York College was formed in 2002 and continued to grow each year as a new class entered, reaching its present size in 2006, when the fifth class was admitted. There are now more than 400 students. Staten Island Technical High School began in 1982 as an annex of Ralph R. McKee Vocational-Technical High School, located in the New Dorp neighborhood of Staten Island, after New Dorp High School, which had occupied the building since it was built in the 1930s, moved to its current location on New Dorp Lane; the technical courses were taught in the annex.
Through the advocacy of parents and students, Staten Island Tech was made an independent high school by the New York City Board of Education in May 1988. Nicholas M. Bilotti, serving as director of the annex, was appointed principal of the new high school. Stuyvesant High School is named after Peter Stuyvesant, the last Dutch governor of New Netherland before the colony was transferred to England in 1664. Of the nine Specialized high schools, Stuyvesant has the highest score cutoff for entry; the school was established in 1904 as a manual training school for boys, hosting 155 students and 12 teachers. In 1907, it moved from its original location at 225 East 23rd Street to a building designed by C. B. J. Snyder at 345 East 15th Street, where it remained for 85 years, it moved to its current location, a building on the Hudson River at 345 Chambers Street, in 1992. In 1934, Stuyvesant implemented a system of entrance examinations; the examination was developed with the assistance of Columbia University, the program was expanded to include the newly founded Bronx Science and Brooklyn Tech.
Their status as specialized schools was threatened by factions within the New York City school system and government. As a way to preserve their special status, in 1972, the H
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States; the Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, third-highest population density, it is the only borough predominantly on the U. S. mainland. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue; the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center.
These open spaces are situated on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan. The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639; the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries and from the Caribbean region, as well as African American migrants from the southern United States; this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of hip hop and rock. The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity includes affluent, upper-income, middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, Country Club; the Bronx the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson.
Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today. The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck, it was divided by the Aquahung River. The origin of the person of Jonas Bronck is contested; some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the area now known as the Bronx and built a farm named "Emmanus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven, he leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem, bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land.
The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother. The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both and colloquially; the County of Bronx does not place "The" before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County, it was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family; the capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. The definite article is lowercase in place names except in official references.
The definite article is capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a lowercase word would be capitalized. However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Lloyd Ultan, a historian for The Bronx County Historical Society, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx, a Bronx-based organization; these people say. In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the's' in'Staten Island.'" European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts before it became Bronx County; the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over
Bedford Park Boulevard (IND Concourse Line)
Bedford Park Boulevard is an express station on the IND Concourse Line of the New York City Subway. Located at Bedford Park Boulevard and Grand Concourse in Bedford Park, Bronx, it is served by the D train at all times, it is the northern terminal for the B train during rush hours. The station was built as part of the sixth and seventh sections of the IND Concourse Line beginning in the late 1920s; the route of the Concourse Line was approved to Bedford Park Boulevard on June 12, 1925 by the New York City Board of Transportation. The line was planned to end just north of the Bedford Park Boulevard station, with a provision for an eastern extension. An alternate approach to the current 205th Street station was proposed in February 1929, extending the line across private property onto Perry Avenue; the current routing was selected by June 1929. The station opened on July 1933, along with the rest of the Concourse subway; as part of the 2015–2019 Metropolitan Transportation Authority Capital Program, elevators will be added to the platforms and street, which would make the station compliant with accessibility guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
A contract for the elevators' construction was awarded in April 2018, substantial completion is projected for June 2020. This underground station has two island platforms. Both outer track walls have a lawn green trim line on a darker green border. There are small black "BEDFORD" signs with white lettering below them at regular intervals. Dark green I-beam columns run along both sides of both platforms at regular intervals with alternating ones having the standard black station name plate in white lettering. There is an equipment room on the south end of the northbound platform. Additionally, a short, one-car length platform is in the tunnel just north of the southbound platform after a gap of about one or two car lengths; because Norwood–205th Street was not intended to be the last stop, trains have their crews changed at this station, as 205th Street does not have any crew quarters. This station has two mezzanines above the platform, but had a full length one; the closed portion is now a master tower.
Both platforms have several closed staircases to this area. The full-time fare control is at the south end of this station. Staircases from each platform go up to a crossover, where a turnstile bank provides access to and from the station. Outside the turnstile bank is a token booth, two staircases going up to either northern corners of Bedford Park Boulevard and Grand Concourse, a short, but double-wide staircase going down to the north side of Bedford Park Boulevard below the Grand Concourse underpass; the fare control area at the north end of the station is unstaffed, containing just full height turnstiles, one staircase going up to the northeast corner of 203rd Street and Grand Concourse, another staircase going up to the west side of Grand Concourse near this intersection. South of this station, the center track splits into two and forms the local tracks of the line while the outer tracks pass under the two center tracks and merge into a single track between them; this center track is the express track of the line and is only used during rush hours in the peak direction.
The track layout allows for trains stopping on the outer tracks to remain on the local tracks for the rest of the line. North of the station, the center track widens to two tracks that lead to the Concourse Yard to the west; the outer tracks curve to the east to Norwood–205th Street, the last stop on this line. Nycsubway.org – IND Concourse: Bedford Park Boulevard Station Reporter — B Train Station Reporter — D Train The Subway Nut — Bedford Park Boulevard Pictures Bedford Park Boulevard entrance from Google Maps Street View 203rd Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Underpass entrance from Google Maps Street View Platform from Google Maps Street View
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori