California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Tony Gaudio, A. S. C. was an Italian American cinematographer and is sometimes cited as the first to have created a montage sequence for a film. Born Gaetano Antonio Gaudio in Cosenza, Italy, he began his career shooting short subjects for Italian film companies, he moved to New York City in 1906 and worked in Vitagraph's film laboratory until 1909, when he began shooting shorts for the company. His credits include Hell's Angels, Little Caesar, The Lady Who Dared, Tiger Shark, Anthony Adverse, The Story of Louis Pasteur, The Life of Emile Zola, God's Country and the Woman (Warner Brothers' first Three-strip Technicolor film, The Adventures of Robin Hood, The Letter, High Sierra, Corvette K-225, Days of Glory, A Song to Remember, The Red Pony. Gaudio was a favorite of Bette Davis and worked on eleven of her films, including Ex-Lady, Fog Over Frisco, Front Page Woman, The Sisters, The Letter, The Great Lie. Gaudio won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography for Anthony Adverse and was nominated five additional times, for Hell's Angels, The Letter, Corvette K-225, A Song to Remember.
He was among the founders of the American Society of Cinematographers. He is interred in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Hollywood, California, his brother Eugene Gaudio a cinematographer, died in 1920 at the age of 34. Tony Gaudio on IMDb Tony Gaudio at Find a Grave
Mount Whitney is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States and the Sierra Nevada—with an elevation of 14,505 feet. It is in Central California, on the boundary between California's Inyo and Tulare counties, 84.6 miles west-northwest of the lowest point in North America at Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park at 282 ft below sea level. The west slope of the mountain is in Sequoia National Park and the summit is the southern terminus of the John Muir Trail which runs 211.9 mi from Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley. The east slope is in the Inyo National Forest in Inyo County; the summit of Mount Whitney is on the Great Basin Divide. It lies near many of the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada; the peak rises above the Owens Valley, sitting 10,778 feet or just over two miles above the town of Lone Pine 15 miles to the east, in the Owens Valley. It rises more on the west side, lying only about 3,000 feet above the John Muir Trail at Guitar Lake.
The mountain is dome-shaped, with its famously jagged ridges extending to the sides. Mount Whitney has an alpine climate and ecology. Few plants grow near the summit: one example is the sky pilot, a cushion plant that grows low to the ground; the only animals are transient, such as the butterfly Parnassius phoebus and the gray-crowned rosy finch. The mountain is the highest point on the Great Basin Divide. Waterways on the west side of the peak flow into Whitney Creek; the Kern River terminates in the Tulare Basin. During wet years, water overflows from the Tulare Basin into the San Joaquin River which flows to the Pacific Ocean. From the east, water from Mount Whitney flows to Lone Pine Creek, which joins the Owens River, which in turn terminates at Owens Lake, an endorheic lake of the Great Basin; the estimated elevation of the summit of Mount Whitney has changed over the years. The technology of elevation measurement has become more refined and, more the vertical coordinate system has changed.
The peak was said to be at 14,494 ft and this is the elevation stamped on the USGS brass benchmark disk on the summit. An older plaque on the summit reads "elevation 14,496.811 feet" but this was estimated using the older vertical datum from 1929. Since the shape of the Earth has been estimated more accurately. Using a new vertical datum established in 1988 the benchmark is now estimated to be at 14,505 ft; the eastern slope of Whitney is far steeper than its western slope because the entire Sierra Nevada is the result of a fault-block, analogous to a cellar door: the door is hinged on the west and is rising on the east. The rise is caused by a normal fault system that runs along the eastern base of the Sierra, below Mount Whitney. Thus, the granite that forms Mount Whitney is the same as the granite that forms the Alabama Hills, thousands of feet lower down; the raising of Whitney is due to the same geological forces that cause the Basin and Range Province: the crust of much of the intermontane west is being stretched.
The granite that forms Mount Whitney is part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. In Cretaceous time, masses of molten rock that originated from subduction rose underneath what is now Whitney and solidified underground to form large expanses of granite. In the last 2 to 10 million years, the Sierra was pushed up which enabled glacial and river erosion to strip the upper layers of rock to reveal the resistant granite that makes up Mount Whitney today. In July 1864, the members of the California Geological Survey named the peak after Josiah Whitney, the State Geologist of California and benefactor of the survey. During the same expedition, geologist Clarence King attempted to climb Whitney from its west side, but stopped just short. In 1871, King returned to climb what he believed to be Whitney, but having taken a different approach, he summited nearby Mount Langley. Upon learning of his mistake in 1873, King completed his own first ascent of Whitney, but did so a month too late to claim the first recorded ascent.
Just a month earlier, on August 18, 1873, Charles Begole, A. H. Johnson, John Lucas, all of nearby Lone Pine, had become the first to reach the highest summit in the contiguous United States; as they climbed the mountain during a fishing trip to nearby Kern Canyon, they called the mountain Fisherman's Peak. In 1881 Samuel Pierpont Langley, founder of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory remained for some time on the summit, making daily observations on the solar heat. Accompanying Langley in 1881 was another party consisting of Judge William B. Wallace of Visalia, W. A. Wright and Reverend Frederick Wales. Wallace wrote in his memoirs that "The Pi Ute Indians called Mt. Whitney "Too-man-i-goo-yah," which means "the old man." They believe that the Great Spirit who presides over the destiny of their people once had his home in that mountain." The spelling Too-man-i-goo-yah is a transliteration from the indigenous Paiute Mono language. Other variations are Tumanguya. In 1891, the United States Geological Survey's Board on Geographic Names decided to recognize the earlier name Mount Whitney.
Despite losing out on their preferred name, residents of Lone Pine financed the first trail to the summit, engineered by Gustave Marsh, completed on July 22, 1904. Just four days the new trail enabled the first recorded death on Whitney. Having hiked the trail, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries employee Byrd Surby was struck and killed by lightning while eating lunch
Travers John Heagerty, known by the stage name Henry Travers, was an English film and stage character actor. His most famous role was the guardian angel Clarence Odbody in the 1946 film classic It's a Wonderful Life, he received an Academy Award nomination for his supporting role in Mrs. Miniver. Travers specialized in portraying bumbling but friendly and lovable old men. Travers was born in Prudhoe and was the son of Daniel Heagerty, a doctor from Ireland, Ellen Gillman Hornibrook Belcher, his mother was a native of County Cork and was married to William H. Belcher, a merchant seaman, he died in 1869. Travers had Samuel William Belcher, by his mother's previous marriage, he had another brother, Daniel George Belsaigne Heagerty, a sister, Mary Sophia Maude Heagerty. Travers grew up in Berwick-upon-Tweed, many biographies wrongly report him as being born there; the Travers family lived in Prudhoe for a couple of years before moving from Woodburn, on the A68 road near Corsenside, Northumberland, in about 1866, to Tweedmouth, Berwick-upon-Tweed, in about 1876.
He trained as an architect at Berwick, before taking to the stage under the name Henry Travers. Travers played character roles from the beginning of his acting career in 1894 figures who were much older than himself, he returned to England. Travers again went to the United States in 1917 after a long and successful theatre career in his homeland, he played from November 1917 until December 1938 on Broadway in over 30 plays. However, his last play on Broadway You Can't Take It with You was his most famous, where he acted in over 380 performances in two years. In the Oscar-winning movie You Can't Take It With You, Lionel Barrymore played the role which Travers had portrayed on Broadway. Like many other theatre actors, he made his first movie only with the advent of sound films, his first was Reunion in Vienna in 1933. In the same year, he played the father of Gloria Stuart in the horror classic The Invisible Man, he portrayed doctors and fathers of the main figures in supporting roles. Travers specialized on portraying wry and bumbling but friendly and lovable old men.
He appeared with Greer Garson and Ronald Colman in Random Harvest and with Bing Crosby and Ingrid Bergman in The Bells of St. Mary's. Alfred Hitchcock used Travers as a Comic relief in Shadow of a Doubt, where he played a bank clerk with a passion for criminal magazines; the character actor portrayed the Railway Station Master Mr. Ballard with a love for roses who wins the annual flower show in his village shortly before dying in a bombardment in Mrs. Miniver, he received an Academy Award-nomination as Best Supporting Actor for this appearance. Travers's most famous role was as James Stewart's somewhat befuddled but kind-hearted guardian angel Clarence Odbody in Frank Capra's 1946 film It's a Wonderful Life. Traver's character saves Stewart's from committing suicide, shows him how wonderful his life is. Though the film was a financial flop, it became a Christmas classic and one of the most beloved films in American cinema. However, despite his long life, Travers would never know that his performance as Clarence would become his most celebrated, as the film only became a Christmas television perennial in the 1970s and 1980s, long after the actor's death.
Travers retired in 1949 after his supporting role in The Girl From Jones Beach. Overall, he acted in 52 films, his first wife was actress Amy Forrest-Rhodes. They were married until Amy's death in 1954. Travers married for a second time to Ann G. Murphy, a nurse. After several years in retirement, Travers died as a result of arteriosclerosis in 1965, at the age of 91, he is buried with his second wife in Glendale. Henry Travers on IMDb Henry Travers on television Henry Travers at the Internet Broadway Database Henry Travers at Find a Grave
Jerome Palmer Cowan was an American stage and television actor. Jerome Cowan was born in New York City, the son of William Cowan, a confectioner of Scottish descent, Julia Cowan, née Palmer. At 18, Cowan joined a travelling stock company, shortly afterwards enlisting in the United States Navy during World War I. After the war he returned to the stage and became a vaudeville headliner gained success on the New York stage, his Broadway debut was. His other Broadway credits include Frankie and Johnnie, Just to Remind You, The Little Black Book, Both Your Houses, As Thousands Cheer, Ladies' Money, Paths of Glory, Boy Meets Girl, My Three Angels and Lovers, Say, Darling, he was given a film contract, his first film being Beloved Enemy. He appeared in more than one hundred films, but is best remembered for two roles in classic films: Miles Archer, the doomed private eye partner of Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon and Thomas Mara, the hapless district attorney who has to prosecute Santa Claus in Miracle on 34th Street.
Cowan played Dagwood Bumstead's boss Mr. Radcliffe in several installments of Columbia Pictures' Blondie series, he appeared in Deadline at Dawn, June Bride, High Sierra. In 1959 he played Horatio Styles in the episode "Winter Song" of The Alaskans, with Roger Moore; that same year, he made two guest appearances in Perry Mason. He played murdered playwright Royce in "The Case of the Lost Last Act" and Victor Latimore in "The Case of the Artful Dodger." He appeared in The Twilight Zone episode "The Sixteen-Millimeter Shrine" and guest-starred on Richard Diamond, Private Detective. In the 1960-1961 television season, Cowan starred as John Larsen, the owner of Comics, Inc. and the boss of Paul Morgan, a young cartoonist portrayed by Tab Hunter in The Tab Hunter Show. In 1962, he guest starred on Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, he appeared on Daniel Boone and Going My Way, starring Gene Kelly. In 1964 and 1965, Cowan appeared as the demanding Herbert Wilson in The Tycoon. Earlier in 1963, he appeared on The Real McCoys in its final season on CBS.
On January 24, 1972, Cowan died at Encino Hospital Medical Center in Encino, California at age 74. He was survived by two daughters. Cowan has a star at 6251 Hollywood Boulevard in the Television section of the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it was dedicated on February 8, 1960. Jerome Cowan on IMDb Jerome Cowan at the Internet Broadway Database Jerome Cowan at Find a Grave
Whitney Portal, California
Whitney Portal is the end of the Whitney Portal road in Inyo County, California, 13.7 miles west of Lone Pine at an elevation of 8,374 feet. Whitney Portal is the gateway to the highest point in the contiguous United States. Campgrounds, parking lots, bearproof food storage facilities, a store and a restaurant are located at Whitney Portal. A road reached Whitney Portal in 1936; the place was called Hunter Flat in honor of William L. Hunter, an Owens Valley pioneer; the road was used in scenes in at least two American feature films, High Sierra, with Humphrey Bogart and Ida Lupino, The Long, Long Trailer with Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. In July 2018, the Georges Fire caused the community to be evacuated due to fire threats
A taxi dancer is a paid dance partner in a partner dance. Taxi dancers are hired to dance with their customers on a dance-by-dance basis; when taxi dancing first appeared in taxi-dance halls during the early 20th century in the United States, male patrons would buy dance tickets for a small sum each. When a patron presented a ticket to a chosen taxi dancer, she would dance with him for the length of a single song; the taxi dancers would earn a commission on every dance ticket earned. Though taxi dancing has for the most part disappeared in the United States, it is still practiced in some other countries; the term "taxi dancer" comes from the fact that, as with a taxi-cab driver, the dancer's pay is proportional to the time he or she spends dancing with the customer. Patrons in a taxi-dance hall purchased dance tickets for ten cents each, which gave rise to the term "dime-a-dance girl". Other names for a taxi dancer are "dance hostess", "taxi", "nickel hopper" because out of that dime they earned five cents.
Taxi dancing traces its origins to the Barbary Coast district of San Francisco which evolved from the California Gold Rush of 1849. In its heyday the Barbary Coast was an economically thriving place of men, frequented by gold prospectors and sailors from all over the world; that district created a unique form of dance hall called the Barbary Coast dance hall known as the Forty-Nine dance hall. Within a Barbary Coast dance hall female employees danced with male patrons, earned their living from commissions paid for by the drinks they could encourage their male dance partners to buy. Still after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and during early days of jazz music, a new entertainment district developed in San Francisco and was nicknamed Terrific Street, and within that district an innovative dance hall, The So Different Club, implemented a system where customers could buy a token which entitled them to one dance with a female employee. Since dancing had become a popular pastime, many of The So Different Club's patrons would go there to see and learn the latest new dances.
However in 1913 San Francisco enacted new laws that would forbid dancing in any cafe or saloon where alcohol was served. The closure of the dance halls on Terrific Street fostered a new kind of pay-to-dance scheme, called a closed dance hall, which did not serve alcohol; that name was derived from the fact that female customers were not allowed — the only women permitted in these halls were the dancing female employees. The closed dance hall introduced the ticket-a-dance system which became the centerpiece of the taxi-dance hall business model. A taxi dancer would earn her income by the number of tickets she could collect in exchange for dances. Taxi dancing spread to Chicago where dance academies, which were struggling to survive, began to adopt the ticket-a-dance system for their students; the first instance of the ticket-a-dance system in Chicago occurred at Mader-Johnson Dance Studios. The dance studio's owner, Godfrey Johnson, describes his innovation: I was in New York during the summer of 1919, while there visited a new studio opened by Mr. W___ W___ of San Francisco, where he had introduced a ten-cent-ticket-a-dance plan.
When I got home I kept thinking of that plan as a way to get my advanced students to come back more and to have experience dancing with different instructors. So I decided to put a ten-cent-a-lesson system in the big hall on the third floor of my building... But I soon noticed that it wasn't my former pupils who were coming up to dance, but a rough hoodlum element from Clark Street... Things went from bad to worse; this system was so popular at dance academies that taxi-dancing system spread to an increasing number of non-instructional dance halls. Taxi dancers received half of the ticket price as wages and the other half paid for the orchestra, dance hall, operating expenses. Although they only worked a few hours a night, they made two to three times the salary of a woman working in a factory or a store. At that time, the taxi-dance hall surpassed the public ballroom in becoming the most popular place for urban dancing. Taxi-dance halls flourished in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s, as scores of taxi-dance halls opened in Chicago, New York, other major cities.
In 1931 there were over 100 taxi-dance halls in New York City alone, patronized by between 35,000 and 50,000 men every week. However, by the mid 1920s, in New York City and other towns and cities across the United States, taxi-dance halls were coming under increasing attack by reform movements who deemed some establishments dens of iniquity, populated by charity girls or outright prostitutes. Reform in the form of licensing and police supervision was insisted on, some dance halls were closed for lewd behavior. In San Francisco where it all started, the police commission ruled against the employment of women as taxi dancers in 1921, taxi dancing in San Francisco would forever become illegal. After World War II the popularity of taxi dancing in the United States began to diminish, most of its taxi-dance halls disappeared by the 1960s. In 1932, The University of Chicago Press published Paul G. Cressey's sociological study on taxi dancing. Published as The Taxi-Dance Hall: A Sociological Study in Commercialized Recreation and City Life, the study utilized vivid, firsthand interviews of taxi dancers and their patrons to expound on the history and social milieu of the taxi dance hall.
The book is now considered one of the classic urban ethnographies of the Chicago School. The typical taxi dancer in the 1920s and 30s was an attractive young woman between the age 15 and 28, single. Although some d