The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Feldspars are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight. Feldspars crystallize from magma as veins in both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks and are present in many types of metamorphic rock. Rock formed entirely of calcic plagioclase feldspar is known as anorthosite. Feldspars are found in many types of sedimentary rocks; the name feldspar derives from the German Feldspat, a compound of the words Feld, "field", Spat meaning "a rock that does not contain ore". The change from Spat to -spar was influenced by the English word spar, meaning a non-opaque mineral with good cleavage. Feldspathic refers to materials; the alternate spelling, has fallen out of use. This group of minerals consists of tectosilicates. Compositions of major elements in common feldspars can be expressed in terms of three endmembers: potassium feldspar endmember KAlSi3O8, albite endmember NaAlSi3O8, anorthite endmember CaAl2Si2O8. Solid solutions between K-feldspar and albite are called "alkali feldspar".
Solid solutions between albite and anorthite are called "plagioclase", or more properly "plagioclase feldspar". Only limited solid solution occurs between K-feldspar and anorthite, in the two other solid solutions, immiscibility occurs at temperatures common in the crust of the Earth. Albite is considered both alkali feldspar. Alkali feldspars are grouped into two types: those containing potassium in combination with sodium, aluminum, or silicon; the first of these include: orthoclase KAlSi3O8, sanidine AlSi3O8, microcline KAlSi3O8, anorthoclase AlSi3O8. Potassium and sodium feldspars are not miscible in the melt at low temperatures, therefore intermediate compositions of the alkali feldspars occur only in higher temperature environments. Sanidine is stable at the highest temperatures, microcline at the lowest. Perthite is a typical texture in alkali feldspar, due to exsolution of contrasting alkali feldspar compositions during cooling of an intermediate composition; the perthitic textures in the alkali feldspars of many granites can be seen with the naked eye.
Microperthitic textures in crystals are visible using a light microscope, whereas cryptoperthitic textures can be seen only with an electron microscope. Barium feldspars are considered alkali feldspars. Barium feldspars form as the result of the substitution of barium for potassium in the mineral structure; the barium feldspars are monoclinic and include the following: celsian BaAl2Si2O8, hyalophane 4O8. The plagioclase feldspars are triclinic; the plagioclase series follows: albite NaAlSi3O8, oligoclase AlSi2O8, andesine NaAlSi3O8—CaAl2Si2O8, labradorite AlSi2O8, bytownite AlSi2O8, anorthite CaAl2Si2O8. Intermediate compositions of plagioclase feldspar may exsolve to two feldspars of contrasting composition during cooling, but diffusion is much slower than in alkali feldspar, the resulting two-feldspar intergrowths are too fine-grained to be visible with optical microscopes; the immiscibility gaps in the plagioclase solid solutions are complex compared to the gap in the alkali feldspars. The play of colours visible in some feldspar of labradorite composition is due to fine-grained exsolution lamellae.
The specific gravity in the plagioclase series increases from albite to anorthite. Chemical weathering of feldspars results in the formation of clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite. About 20 million tonnes of feldspar were produced in 2010 by three countries: Italy and China. Feldspar is a common raw material used in glassmaking, to some extent as a filler and extender in paint and rubber. In glassmaking, alumina from feldspar improves product hardness and resistance to chemical corrosion. In ceramics, the alkalis in feldspar act as a flux. Fluxes melt at an early stage in the firing process, forming a glassy matrix that bonds the other components of the system together. In the US, about 66% of feldspar is consumed in glassmaking, including glass containers and glass fiber. Ceramics and other uses, such as fillers, accounted for the remainder. In earth sciences and archaeology, feldspars are used for K-Ar dating, argon-argon dating, luminescence dating. In October 2012, the Mars Curiosity rover analyzed a rock that turned out to have a high feldspar content.
List of minerals – A list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia List of countries by feldspar production This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document: "Feldspar and nepheline syenite". Bonewitz, Ronald Louis. Rock and Gem. New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-3342-4. Media related to Feldspar at Wikimedia Commons
Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England. Protected by National Park status as Dartmoor National Park, it covers 954 km2; the granite which forms the uplands dates from the Carboniferous Period of geological history. The moorland is capped with many exposed granite hilltops known as tors, providing habitats for Dartmoor wildlife; the highest point is 621 m above sea level. The entire area is rich in antiquities and archaeology. Dartmoor is managed by the Dartmoor National Park Authority, whose 22 members are drawn from Devon County Council, local district councils and Government. Parts of Dartmoor have been used as military firing ranges for over 200 years; the public is granted extensive land access rights on Dartmoor and it is a popular tourist destination. Dartmoor includes the largest area of granite in Britain, with about 625 km2 at the surface, though most of it is under superficial peat deposits; the granite was intruded at depth as a pluton into the surrounding sedimentary rocks during the Carboniferous period about 309 million years ago.
It is accepted that the present surface is not far below the original top of the pluton. A considerable gravity anomaly is associated with the Dartmoor pluton as with other such plutons. Measurement of the anomaly has helped to determine the shape and extent of the rock mass at depth. Dartmoor is known for its tors – hills topped with outcrops of bedrock, which in granite country such as this are rounded boulder-like formations. More than 160 of the hills of Dartmoor have the word tor in their name but quite a number do not. However, this does not appear to relate to whether or not there is an outcrop of rock on their summit; the tors are the focus of an annual event known as the Ten Tors Challenge, when around 2400 people aged between 14 and 19 walk for distances of 56, 72 or 88 km between ten tors on many differing routes. The highest points on Dartmoor are on the northern moor: High Willhays, 621 m, Yes Tor, 619 m, The highest points on the southern moor are Ryder's Hill, 515 m, Snowdon 495 m, an unnamed point, 493 m at, between Langcombe Hill and Shell Top.
The best-known tor on Dartmoor is Haytor, 457 m. For a more complete list see List of Dartmoor tors and hills; the high ground of Dartmoor forms the catchment area for many of Devon's rivers. As well as shaping the landscape, these have traditionally provided a source of power for moor industries such as tin mining and quarrying; the moor takes its name from the River Dart, which starts as the East Dart and West Dart and becomes a single river at Dartmeet. It leaves the moor at Buckfastleigh, flowing through Totnes below where it opens up into a long ria, reaching the sea at Dartmouth. For a full list, expand the Rivers of Dartmoor navigational box at the bottom of this page. Much more rain falls on Dartmoor than in the surrounding lowlands; as much of the national park is covered in thick layers of peat, the rain is absorbed and distributed so the moor is dry. In areas where water accumulates, dangerous bogs or mires can result; some of these, topped with bright green moss, are known to locals as "feather beds" or "quakers", because they can shift beneath a person's feet.
Quakers result from sphagnum moss growing over the water that accumulates in the hollows in the granite. The vegetation of the bogs depends on the location. Blanket bog, which forms on the highest land where the rainfall exceeds 2,000 millimetres a year, consists of cotton-grass, Bog Asphodel and Common Tormentil, with Sphagnum thriving in the wettest patches; the valley bogs have lush growth of rushes, with sphagnum, cross-leaved heath and several other species. Some of the bogs on Dartmoor have achieved notoriety. Fox Tor Mires was the inspiration for Great Grimpen Mire in Conan Doyle's novel The Hound of the Baskervilles, although there is a waymarked footpath across it. Sabine Baring-Gould, in his Book of Dartmoor related the story of a man, making his way through Aune Mire at the head of the River Avon when he came upon a top-hat brim down on the surface of the mire, he kicked it, whereupon a voice called out: "What be you a-doin' to my'at?" The man replied, "Be there now a chap under'n?"
"Ees, I reckon," was the reply, "and a hoss under me likewise." Along with the rest of South West England, Dartmoor has a temperate climate, wetter and milder than locations at similar height in the rest of England. At Princetown, near the centre of the moor at a height of 453 metres and February are the coldest months with mean minimum temperatures around 1 °C. July and August are the warmest months with mean daily maxima not reaching 18 °C. Compared with Teignmouth, on the coast about 22 miles to the east, the average maximum and minimum temperatures are 3.0 °C and 2.6 °C lower and frost is at least five times as frequent. On the highest ground, in the north of the moor, the growing season is less than 175 days – this contrasts with some 300 days along most of the south coast of the county. Rainfall tends to be associated with
Brown Willy is a hill in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The summit, at 1,378 feet above sea level, is the highest point of Bodmin Moor and of Cornwall as a whole, it is situated about 2.5 miles north-west of Bolventor and 4 miles south-east of Camelford. The hill has a variable appearance, it bears the conical appearance of a sugarloaf from the north but widens into a long multi-peaked crest from closer range. The first part of the hill's name is a common Brythonic element meaning "pap; the Cornish historian and language expert Henry Jenner suggested that the name came from a corruption of the Cornish words bronn ughella/ewhella meaning "highest hill", as it is the highest point of Bodmin Moor and of Cornwall. The highest hill in Devon has High Willhays which falls in line with this theory. More toponymist Craig Weatherhill has put forward the alternative suggestion that it could be from'Bronn Wennili' which translates as'Hill of Swallows'; the name has evolved through a variety of historical spellings as follows: Brunwenely c.1200, 1239.
It has been noted on lists of unusual place names. In 2012 a campaign was launched to have the hill's name restored to the original Bronn Wennili on the grounds that it would be "slightly more attractive to residents and tourists than Brown Willy". Cornish residents objected to the idea. One commented: "It's been Brown Willy for as far back as living memory goes and I suspect, as others have pointed out, that it will always be called that, whatever name we may formally give it." The Daily Telegraph ran an editorial supporting the existing name and called for campaigners to keep their "hands off Brown Willy". The summit of Brown Willy is 1,378 feet above sea level, the highest point on Bodmin Moor and in the county of Cornwall; the geography of the surrounding terrain is typical of Bodmin Moor – tors surrounded by desolate moorland. Streams and marshes are common surrounding the summit, the River Fowey rises nearby. There are occurring piles of granite boulders around the summit, one, known as the Cheesewring is composed of five separate rocks which get progressively higher towards the top.
The hill is part of a 1,221 acres estate includes a five-bedroom farm house. The property was put on the market in September 2016 for £2.8 million and sold to an undisclosed buyer the following April. The new owner has the grazing rights for the property and shooting rights for deer and woodcock. Under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, the public will continue to have the right to walk on the hill. There are two man-made cairns on the summit. Brown Willy Summit Cairn or Brown Willy North Cairn is a man made rock pile that sits alongside an Ordnance Survey triangulation station; the Cornish word for "cairn" is karn, it has been suggested that Cornwall's ancient name Kernow is related. William Copeland Borlase classified ridge-top cairns such as these in the most common category a "bowl"- or "cone"-shaped tumulus, he referred to them as "sepulchral mounds" but admitted that burials had not been found at many. Brown Willy Summit Cairn has never been excavated and folklore suggests an ancient Cornish king may lie entombed underneath.
Nicholas Johnson and Peter Rose dated nine of the cairns on Bodmin Moor, eight gave mean date ranges between 2162 and 1746 cal BC, suggesting the early bronze age was the main building period for cairns of this type. These are amongst the inaccessible location. Many rocks from similar cairns have been spoiled and removed over centuries of neglect to be re-used in dry stone walling and other local construction. Rodney Castleton has suggested that from the centre of Stannon stone circle, the autumn equinox sun rises over Brown Willy North Cairn. and Christopher Tilley refers to a "dramatic association with Rough Tor. These purported alignments have been taken as evidence of some astronomical purpose in cairn placement and construction. Brown Willy is a popular destination for walkers and is said to be one of "the UK's best-loved high points"; the hill features in an annual race held on New Year's Day that starts and finishes at Jamaica Inn, an old coaching inn made famous by Daphne du Maurier's 1936 novel of the same name.
The hill is regarded as a sacred mountain by members of the Aetherius Society, a UFO religion founded in 1954 by George King. They believe that Brown Willy was charged with "holy energy" on 23 November, which they celebrate each year as "Charging Day", gather at the hill on that day each year to celebrate the sun's alignment with "positive and negative rocks". Other Aetherian "holy mountains" include Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, a mountain in California, two in New South Wales in Australia and two in Devon; the hill is known for a meteorological phenomenon known as the Brown Willy effect, in which heavy rainfall develops over high ground and travels downwind for a long distance. The effect produces heavy localised rain which can cause disastrous flash flooding such as the Boscastle flood of 2004. In another case when the effect was manifested, a continuous line of showers developed on 27 March 2006 stretching 145 miles from Brown Willy to Oxfordshire. Brown Willy is unusual in that, unlike other hills on Bodmin Moor, there is little evidence of prehistoric settlem
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th
Kinder Scout is a moorland plateau and National Nature Reserve in the Dark Peak of the Derbyshire Peak District in England. Part of the moor, at 636 metres above sea level, is the highest point in the Peak District, the highest point in Derbyshire, the highest point in the East Midlands. In excellent weather conditions the city of Manchester and the Greater Manchester conurbation can be seen, as well as Winter Hill near Bolton, the mountains of Snowdonia in North Wales. To the north across the Snake Pass lie the high moors of Bleaklow and Black Hill, which are of similar elevation. Kinder Scout featured on the BBC television programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of the Midlands, though it is considered by many to be in Northern England, lying between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield; the history and meaning of the name have been studied by Broderick. In chronostratigraphy, the British sub-stage of the Carboniferous period, the'Kinderscoutian' derives its name from Kinder Scout.
Kinder Scout is accessible from the villages of Edale in the High Peak of Derbyshire. It is the moors to the north; this has resulted in the erosion of the underlying peat, prompting work by Derbyshire County Council and the Peak District National Park to repair it, in conjunction with the landowner, the National Trust. The plateau was the location of the mass trespass in 1932. From the National Park's inception, a large area of the high moorland north of Edale was designated as'Open Country'. In 2003, the "right to roam" on uncultivated land was enshrined into law, this area of open country has been extended. Parts of the Kinder Scout plateau are still closed for conservation, public safety, grouse shooting or fire prevention reasons, but prior notice is given on the Peak District National Park Authority's website. Kinder Downfall is the tallest waterfall in the Peak District, with a 30-metre fall, it lies on the River Kinder, where it flows west over one of the gritstone cliffs on the plateau edge.
The waterfall was known as Kinder Scut, it is from this that the plateau derives its name. Although little more than a trickle in summer, in spate conditions it is impressive. In certain wind conditions, the water is blown back on itself, the resulting cloud of spray can be seen from several miles away. Below the Downfall the River Kinder flows into Kinder Reservoir. In cold winters the waterfall freezes providing local mountaineers with an icy challenge that can be climbed with ice axes and crampons; some of Kinder's many gritstone cliffs were featured in the first rock-climbing guide to the Peak District, Some Gritstone Climbs, published in 1913 and written by John Laycock. Major English and Welsh peaks visible from Kinder Scout include Winter Hill, Pendle Hill, Whernside, Pen-y-ghent, Fountains Fell, Buckden Pike, Great Whernside, Margery Hill, the Weaver Hills, Axe Edge, The Roaches, Shining Tor, the Long Mynd, Corndon Hill, Cilfaesty Hill, Moel y Golfa, Cadair Berwyn, Beeston Castle, Alderley Edge, Arenig Fawr, Moel Famau, Glyder Fach, Tryfan, Y Garn, Carnedd Llewelyn and Foel-fras.
The Edale Cross lies south of Kinder Scout, under Kinder Low and on the former Hayfield to Edale road. It marks the former junction of the three wards of the Forest of Peak: Glossop and Longdendale and Campagna; the first cross on the site may have been set up by the Abbots of Basingwerk Abbey to mark the southern boundary of their land, granted in 1157. The date of the current cross is unknown. At some point it fell down, was re-erected in 1810, when the date and initials JG, WD, GH, JH and JS were carved into it; these stand for John Gee, William Drinkwater and Joseph Hadfield and John Shirt, local farmers of the day who raised the cross. The cross is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Mermaid's Pool, a small pool below Kinder Downfall, is said to be inhabited by a mermaid who will grant immortality upon whoever sees her on Easter Eve. Pennines Rambling Kinder Scout Computer-generated summit panoramas. Note: the panorama shown is not all visible from the summit. There is a large summit plateau. Douglas, Ed.
Kinder Scout: The People's Mountain. Vertebrate Publishing. ISBN 1911342509. Smith, Roly, ed.. Kinder Scout: Portrait of a Mountain. Derbyshire County Council Libraries and Heritage Department. ISBN 0903463687