Caroline Schermerhorn Astor
Caroline Webster Lina Schermerhorn was a prominent American socialite of the last quarter of the 19th century. Famous for being referred to in life as the Mrs. Astor or simply Mrs. Astor, she was the wife of businessman, racehorse breeder/owner and their son, Colonel John Jacob Astor IV, perished on the RMS Titanic. Through her marriage, she was a prominent member of the Astor family, Lina was born on September 21,1830 into New York Citys Dutch aristocracy, descendants of the citys original settlers. Her father, Abraham Schermerhorn, and the extended Schermerhorn family were engaged in shipping, at the time of Linas birth, Abraham was worth half a million dollars. Lina was the ninth child. Young Lina was educated at a run by Mrs. Bensee. There she learned to speak French fluently, on September 23,1853, she married William Backhouse Astor Jr. at Trinity Church. Her husband was the son of real estate businessman William Backhouse Astor Sr. His paternal grandfather was John Jacob Astor and his grandparents were Senator John Armstrong Jr.
and Alida Livingston. Despite the wealth of the Astor family, Lina had the superior pedigree as a member of an old Knickerbocker family. The Astors maintained a cottage in Newport, Rhode Island, a mansion called Beechwood. They were the champions of old money and tradition, mcAllister once stated that, amongst the vastly rich families of Gilded Age New York, there were only 400 people who could be counted as members of Fashionable Society. He did not, as is written, arrive at this number based on the limitations of Mrs. Astors New York City ballroom. Her husbands lack of interest in the social whirl did not stop but instead fueled her burgeoning social activities, Lina was the foremost authority on the Aristocracy of New York in the late nineteenth century. She held ornate and elaborate parties for herself and other members of the elite New York socialite crowd, none was permitted to attend these gatherings without an official calling card from her. Linas social groups were dominated by strong-willed aristocratic females and these social gatherings were dependent on overly conspicuous luxury and publicity.
More so than the gatherings themselves, importance was placed upon the group as the upper-crust of New Yorks elite. She and her ladies therefore represented the Aristocratic, or the Old Money, the Mrs. Astor found railroad money distasteful
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUPs chief executive, Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a printer of Bibles, prayer books. OUP took on the project became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, by contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year. OUP was first exempted from United States corporation tax in 1972, as a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products.
The OUP today transfers 30% of its surplus to the rest of the university. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 6,000 new books every year, the Oxford University Press Museum is located on Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. Visits must be booked in advance and are led by a member of the archive staff, displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, and the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary. The first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood, the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinuss Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer. Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as 1468, thus apparently pre-dating Caxton, roods printing included John Ankywylls Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century, the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxfords case.
Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, Oxfords chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the universitys printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute, Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, and benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers Company and the Kings Printer and these were brought together in Oxfords Great Charter in 1636, which gave the university the right to print all manner of books. Laud obtained the privilege from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford and this privilege created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although initially it was held in abeyance. The Stationers Company was deeply alarmed by the threat to its trade, under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes
A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion. A party will typically feature food and beverages, and often music, in many Western countries, parties for teens and adults are associated with drinking alcohol such as beer, wine or distilled spirits. Some parties are held in honor of a person, day, or event, such as a birthday party. Parties of this kind are often called celebrations, a party is not necessarily a private occasion. Public parties are held in restaurants, beer gardens, nightclubs or bars. Large parties in public streets may celebrate events such as Mardi Gras or the signing of a treaty ending a long war. A birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person who is being honored, the tradition started in the mid-nineteenth century but did not become popular until the mid-twentieth century. Birthday parties are now a feature of many cultures, in Western cultures, birthday parties include a number of common rituals.
The guests may be asked to bring a gift for the honored person, party locations are often decorated with colorful decorations, such as balloons and streamers. A birthday cake is served with lit candles that are to be blown out after a birthday wish has been made. The person being honored will be given the first piece of cake, while the birthday cake is being brought to the table, the song Happy Birthday to You or some other birthday song is sung by the guests. At parties for children, time is taken for the gift opening wherein the individual whose birthday is celebrated opens each of the gifts brought. It is common at childrens parties for the host to give parting gifts to the attendees in the form of goodie bags and even adults sometimes wear colorful cone-shaped party hats. Birthday parties are often larger and more extravagant if they celebrate someone who has reached what is regarded in the culture as a milestone age, examples of traditional coming of age celebrations include the North American sweet sixteen party and the Latin American quinceañera.
A surprise party is a party that is not made known beforehand to the person in whose honor it is being held, Birthday surprise parties are the most common kind of surprise party. At most such parties, the guests arrive a hour or so before the honored person arrives. Often, a friend in on the surprise will lead the honored person to the location of the party without letting on anything, the guests might even conceal themselves from view, and when the honored person enters the room, they leap from hiding and all shout, Surprise. For some surprise birthday parties, it is considered to be a tactic to shock the honored person
Samuel Ward McAllister was the self-appointed arbiter of New York society from the 1860s to the early 1890s. Born Samuel Ward McAllister to a socially prominent Savannah, Georgia judicial family and he used the earnings from his legal prowess to journey throughout Europes great cities and spas—Bath, Bad Nauheim, and the like—where he observed the mannerisms of the titled nobility. Upon his return to the United States, McAllister settled in New York City with his wife, heiress Sarah Taintor Gibbons, above all in McAllisters life was his desire for social recognition and what he termed Tong, the cream of society. In his glory, McAllister referred to his patroness, Mrs. Caroline Astor and his gift for party and picnic planning soon made him a society darling. Among the undesirables McAllister endeavored to exclude from the circle of the Four Hundred were the many nouveau riche Midwesterners who poured into New York seeking social recognition. The Chicago Journal replied, The mayor will not frappé his wine too much and he will frappé it just enough so the guests can blow the foam off the tops of the glasses without a vulgar exhibition of lung and lip power.
Pigs feet, will be triumphs of the gastronomic art, McAllisters downfall came when he published a book of memoirs entitled Society as I Have Found It in 1890. The book, and his hunger for attention, did little to endear him to the old guard. In disgrace, McAllister died while dining alone at New Yorks Union Club and his funeral, held on February 5,1895, was well attended by many society figures of the day, including Chauncey Depew and Cornelius Vanderbilt II. McAllister is interred at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, McAllister coined the phrase The Four Hundred. According to him, this was the number of people in New York who really mattered, the number was popularly supposed to be the capacity of Mrs William Backhouse Astor Jr. s ballroom. The Four Million, the title of a book by O. Henry, was a reaction to this phrase, social Crimes, by Jane Stanton Hitchcock. McCallister biography at Class and Leisure at Americas First Resort Biographical sketch at The History Box
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Scholars agree that the groups influence has waned since the end of World War II in 1945, with the growing influence of other ethnic groups. The term is used in Australia and Canada for similar elites. The term is used by sociologists to include all Americans of Northern European ancestry regardless of their class or power. People rarely call themselves WASPs, except humorously, the acronym is typically used by non-WASPs. Historically, Anglo-Saxon referred to the language of indigenous inhabitants of England before about 1150, since the 19th century it has been in common use in the English-speaking world, but not in Britain itself, to refer to Protestants of principally English descent. Anglo-Saxon carries Germanic connotations by its roots in the ancient territories of present-day Germany, the former of which England and English is ultimately derived. The W and P were added in the 1950s to form a witty epithet with an undertone of waspishness and that is, they are wealthy, they are Anglo-Saxon in origin, and they are Protestants.
To their Waspishness should be added the tendency to be located on the eastern seaboard or around San Francisco, to be school and Ivy League educated. The term was popularized by sociologist and University of Pennsylvania professor E. Digby Baltzell, himself a WASP, in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment and Caste in America. The concept of Anglo Saxon and especially Anglo Saxon Protestantism evolved in the late 19th century, historian Richard Kyle says, Protestantism had not yet split into two mutually hostile camps – the liberals and fundamentalists. Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene, American values bore the stamp of this Anglo-Saxon Protestant ascendancy. The political, cultural and intellectual leaders of the nation were largely of a Northern European Protestant stock, before WASP came into use in the 1960s the term Anglo Saxon filled some of the same purposes. Anglo-Saxons by 1900 was often used as a synonym for all people of English descent and sometimes more generally and it was often used in claims for the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, much to the annoyance of outsiders.
For example, Josiah Strong boasted in 1890, In 1700 this race numbered less than 6,000,000 souls. In 1800, Anglo-Saxons had increased to about 20,500,000, like the newer term WASP, the old term Anglo-Saxon was used derisively by writers hostile to an informal alliance between Britain and the U. S. The negative use was common among Irish Americans and writers in France. It remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, Irish-American humorist Finley Peter Dunne popularized the ridicule of Anglo Saxon, even calling President Theodore Roosevelt one. To be genuinely Irish is to challenge WASP dominance, argues California politician Tom Hayden, the depiction of the Irish in the films of John Ford was a counterpoint to WASP standards of rectitude
Leadville is the statutory city that is the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Lake County, United States. The city population was 2,602 at the 2010 United States Census, situated at an elevation of 10,152 feet, Leadville is the highest incorporated city and the second highest incorporated municipality in the United States. In the late 19th century, Leadville was the second most populous city in Colorado, the Leadville area was first settled in 1859 when placer gold was discovered in California Gulch during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. By 1860, a town, Oro City had sprung up, but the boom was brief because the placer-mined gold soon ran out and Oro City never became a major settlement. Prospectors traced the cerussite to its source, present day Leadville, Horace Tabor, who became known as the Leadville Silver King and his wife Augusta were among the first prospectors to arrive in Oro City. Tabor tried his luck at prospecting while his wife worked as a cook, banker. Leadville was founded in 1877 by mine owners Horace Tabor and August Meyer at the start of the Colorado Silver Boom, the town was built on desolate flat land below the tree line.
The first miners lived in a tented camp near the silver deposits in California Gulch. Initially the settlement was called Slabtown but when the residents petitioned for a post office the name Leadville was chosen. By 1880 Tabor and Meyers new town had gas lighting, water mains and 28 miles of streets, five churches, many business buildings were constructed with bricks hauled in by wagons. The first post office was in Tabors store at Oro, Augusta Tabor was the postmistress, carriers went down to Denver one week and tried to come back the next. Postage was fifty cents a letter, in early 1878, Harrison, Tabor established a post office in Leadville, with Henderson as postmaster. The post office and the telegraph office both prospered, the towns first newspaper was The Reveille, a Republican weekly in 1878. Three months later, a competing Democratic weekly, The Eclipse emerged, the Chronicle was the towns first daily and first newspaper in America to employ a full-time female reporter. Like the Rocky Mountain News, The Chronicle took the lead in outing criminals and thieves, despite violent threats, the Chronicle survived without major incident.
William Nye opened the first saloon early 1877 and it was followed by many others, the same year The Coliseum Novelty was the first theater to open. It offered sleeping rooms upstairs for a rate and provided a variety of entertainments, dancing girls, cockfighting and boxing matches. In June 1881, it burned to the ground, ben Wood who arrived in Leadville in 1878, opened the first legitimate theatre, Woods Opera House with a thousand seats
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
The cotillion is a social dance, popular in 18th-century Europe and America. Originally for four couples in square formation, it was a version of an English country dance, the forerunner of the quadrille and, in the United States. It was for fifty years regarded as an ideal finale to a ball but was eclipsed in the early 19th century by the quadrille. It became so elaborate that it was presented as a concert dance performed by trained and rehearsed dancers. The German cotillion included more couples as well as plays, each of these was designed to fit a tune of eight or occasionally sixteen measures of 2/4 time. Participants exchanged partners within the network of the dance. Changes included the Great Ring, a circle dance with which the dance often began, as well as smaller Ladies and Gentlemens rings and bottom and sides rings. Other changes included the allemande and moulinet, a complete dance composed of a prescribed order of these was called a set. The cotillion was introduced into England by 1766 and to America in about 1772, there is a reference in Robert Burnss 1790 poem Tam o Shanter to the cotillion brent-new frae France.
In reality many participants simply walked through the figure and changes, seeing these as the dance, on the other hand, some figures required high skill at social dancing and many performances took place at which the majority preferred to watch rather than dance. The quadrille gained fame a few years as a variety of cotillion that could be danced by two couples. However, while the cotillion kept all the dancers in almost perpetual motion, references to the English Cotillion dances persist here and there until the 1840s, but these were more games than fashionable dances, and were often danced to the waltz or the mazurka. The German cotillion was introduced to New York society at a ball with a Louis XV theme given by Mr. William Colford Schermerhorn in the early winter of 1854. Here, waltzes, fun and boisterous behaviour at private parties took on an important role. Finally the term cotillion was used to refer to the ball itself and the cotillion and quadrille became the square dance
It was built in 1884 and is considered to be one of Manhattans most prestigious and exclusive cooperative residential buildings. The Dakota is famous as the home of former Beatle John Lennon from 1973 to his death outside the building in 1980, the Dakota was constructed between October 25,1880, and October 27,1884. The architectural firm of Henry Janeway Hardenbergh was commissioned to create the design for Edward Clark, the firm designed the Plaza Hotel. According to Gray, it is likely that the building was named the Dakota because of Clarks fondness for the names of the new western states and territories. The Dakota was designated a New York City Landmark in 1969, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, and was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1976. Beginning in 2013, the Dakotas façade was being renovated, its layout and floor plan betray a strong influence of French architectural trends in housing design that had become known in New York in the 1870s.
High above the 72nd Street entrance, the figure of a Dakota Indian keeps watch, the Dakota is square, built around a central courtyard. The arched main entrance is a large enough for the horse-drawn carriages that once entered and allowed passengers to disembark sheltered from the weather. The Dakota Stables building was in operation as a garage until February 2007, since then, the large condominium building The Harrison occupies its spot. The principal rooms, such as parlors or the master bedroom, face the street, while the room, kitchen. Apartments thus are aired from two sides, which was a novelty in Manhattan at the time. Some of the rooms are 49 ft long, and many of the ceilings are 14 ft high, the floors are inlaid with mahogany, oak. Originally, the Dakota had 65 apartments with four to 20 rooms and these apartments are accessed by staircases and elevators placed in the four corners of the courtyard. Separate service stairs and elevators serving the kitchens are located in mid-block, built to cater for the well-to-do, the Dakota featured many amenities and a modern infrastructure that was exceptional for the time.
The building has a dining hall, meals could be sent up to the apartments by dumbwaiters. Electricity was generated by a power plant and the building has central heating. Beside servant quarters, there was a playroom and a gymnasium under the roof, in years, these spaces on the tenth floor were converted into apartments for economic reasons. The Dakota property contained a garden, private croquet lawns, all apartments were let before the building opened, but it was a long-term drain on the fortune of Clark, who died before it was completed, and his heirs
International Debutante Ball
The International Debutante Ball is an invitation-only, formal debutante ball to officially present young ladies, often from upper-class families, to high society. Founded in 1954, it occurs every two years at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City, the International Debutante Ball presents young ladies, often from upper-class families, to high society. It was founded in 1954 by Beatrice Joyce, with the first ball being held at the Plaza Hotel in New York City, the second ball saw it move to the Hotel Astor. With the Astor scheduled for demolition, the 1966 ball was held for the first time in the Waldorf Astoria Hotel, previously held annually, it is now held every two years. The ball donates money to charity, principally the Soldiers, Marines, Coast Guard and Airmens Club of New York, each ball is preceded by a number of events and parties for the debutantes, including the Bachelors Brunch. At the ball, each debutante is usually escorted by two men, one military cadet and one civilian, the ball is considered one of the most prestigious debutante balls in the world.
Metropolitan, an Oscar nominated film directed by Whit Stillman depicting the lives of the young, the International Debutante Ball is one of the balls in the movie. International Debutante Ball - Official Website