Stoke Golding is a village and civil parish in the Hinckley and Bosworth district of Leicestershire, close to the county border with Warwickshire. According to the 2001 census, the total population was 1,721 in just over 700 houses; the population at the 2011 census was 1,684 in 723 households. The village is 16 miles from the city of Leicester, about 3 miles northwest of Hinckley and 4 miles from Fenny Drayton; the village is bordered on one side by the Ashby Canal, well-used for recreational purposes. Stoke Golding's unique historical claim to fame is that in 1485 the people of the village witnessed the unofficial rural coronation of Henry VII, the first Tudor monarch, his defeat of King Richard III, last of the Plantagenets, at the Battle of Bosworth marked the end of the Wars of the Roses, heralded the accession to the throne of the Tudor dynasty of three Kings and two Queens. In so doing Stoke Golding claims to be the "Birthplace of the Tudor Dynasty". After Henry Tudor was victorious over Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth, which took place in the healthy marshland known as the Redemore between Stoke Golding, Dadlington and Sutton Cheney, Henry's entourage retired to hilly ground near the village of Stoke Golding.
Here the impromptu coronation of King Henry VII was performed with a circlet by tradition retrieved from a nearby thorn bush. This area became known as Crownhill Field. Historical local accounts of the Battle of Bosworth field tell of the villagers climbing on to the battlements of the church of St Margaret of Antioch to view the bloody battle on 22 August 1485; the window sills of the Church show grooves which legend has it were caused by the soldiers sharpening their swords and axes on the eve of the battle. After the fighting large pits were dug around Stoke Golding and the villages of Dadlington and Fenny Drayton, the nearest villages to the complete site of the battlefield, for the burial of the dead. King Henry VII rewarded some of his followers and knighted the more senior of his supporters. Stoke Golding has an impressive Grade I listed Saxon church, that of St Margaret of Antioch, a Church of England church in the Diocese of Leicester; the church is in the centre of the village and is a good example of the churches of that period.
There is a Methodist church in the village, first opened in 1857. Three pubs and The Stoke Golding Club have regular entertainment; the primary school children of Stoke Golding and nearby villages attend St Margaret's Church of England Primary School, located next to the church within the village. St Martin’s Catholic Voluntary Academy is a secondary school located in the village. Francis Brokesby Martine Croxall, news presenter on BBC News Sir William Edge, 1st Baronet Sir Henry Firebrace Link showing details of Scouting in the Village Stoke Golding village website The annotated "Stoke Golding Country Dance".
Walthamstow is a major district in North East London and is part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest. It is located 7.5 miles North East from Charing Cross. In the county of Essex, it increased in population as part of the suburban growth of London and was incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Walthamstow in 1929 before becoming part of Greater London in 1965. Walthamstow is situated between the North Circular Road to the north, the Lea Valley and Walthamstow Reservoirs to the west, Epping Forest to the east. Walthamstow is recorded c. 1075 in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Wilcumestou. In 1213 King John visited Shern Hall, the manor house in Hoe Street that survived until it was demolished in1896; until the 19th century Walthamstow was rural, with a small village centre and a number of large estates. The main route through the district was Hoe Street. There were various smaller lanes crossing the town; the road now known as Forest Road was called Clay Street. Further south, the High Street was named Marsh Street, led from the original settlement out to the marshes.
Shernhall Street is an ancient route, to the east. In the 1660s Sir William Batten, Surveyor of the Navy, his wife Elizabeth Woodcocke had a house in Wood Street where, according to Samuel Pepys, they lived "like princes" and cultivated a vineyard; the Vestry House, now the Vestry House Museum, was used as the first town hall. By 1870 the place had grown to the size of a small suburb and a new town hall was built in Orford Road from which affairs of the village were run. With the advent of the railways and the ensuing suburbanisation in the late 19th century, Walthamstow experienced a large growth in population and speculative building; the Lighthouse Methodist Church which dates from 1893, situated on Markhouse Road, on the corner of Downsfield Road. There is a lantern at the top of the tower, which contains a spiral staircase; the church was erected because of the generosity of Captain David King of the shipbuilding firm of Bullard King & Co which ran the Natal Direct Shipping Line, which ran ships direct from London to Durban without stopping at the Cape.
The LGOC X-type and B-type buses were built at Blackhorse Lane from October 1908 onwards. The B-type is considered one of the first mass-production buses; the manufacturing operation became AEC, famous as the manufacturer of many of London's buses. On 13 June 1909, A. V. Roe's aircraft took to the air from Walthamstow Marshes, it was the first all-British aircraft and was given the ominous nickname of the "Yellow Terror" but carried the name Avro1. Roe founded the Avro aircraft company, which built the acclaimed Avro Lancaster. From 1894 Walthamstow was an urban district and from 1929 a municipal borough in Essex. In 1931 the population of the borough, covering an area of 4,342 acres, peaked at 132,972. In 1965 the borough was abolished and its former area merged with that of the Municipal Borough of Chingford and the Municipal Borough of Leyton to form the London Borough of Waltham Forest in Greater London. Other places in east London of the county of Essex, such as Ilford and Romford were placed into London Boroughs along with Walthamstow.
None of the postal district names or codes was changed at this time. Since the 2012 Summer Olympics, the town has become popular as a result of gentrification. Local property prices have increased at a high rate of 22.3% from 2013-2014, compared to London's average of 17.8%. It has turned Walthamstow into a'trendy' town similar to Shoreditch; the leafy Walthamstow Village in particular has become sought-after by buyers. On 29 May 2015, a regular local unicyclist was hit and dragged under by a double decker route 212 bus in Hoe Street. Locals numbering up to 100 people helped to pull the bus off the unicyclist; the MP for Walthamstow, Stella Creasy said she was "proud" of the community for saving the unicyclist's life. Walthamstow elects councillors to Waltham Forest London Borough Council. Walthamstow is bordered to the north by Chingford, south by Leyton and Leytonstone, east by the southern reaches of Epping Forest at Woodford and west by Tottenham and the River Lea valley; the A112 passes south-north through Walthamstow and its neighbouring towns forming part of an ancient route from London to Waltham Abbey.
Walthamstow Central is the main transport hub. Walthamstow Village conservation area is a peaceful and attractive district to the east of what has become the commercial centre of Walthamstow; the area is defined as being south of Church Hill, west of Shernhall Street, north of Grove Road, east of Hoe Street. Orford Road is the main route through the district, though this is a quiet thoroughfare by the standards of London; the village has a small selection of specialist shops and restaurants, house prices tend to be higher in the streets of this neighbourhood. It was voted best urban village in London by Time Out magazine in 2004. Upper Walthamstow is to the east of Walthamstow Village; the area's main thoroughfare is Wood Street, which has a good selection of shops and local businesses, is served by the London Overground at Wood Street station on the Liverpool Street to Chingford line. One of the Great Trees of London, the Wood Street Horse Chestnut, is located next to the former Jones's Butchers Shop, a grade II listed, late 18th century weatherboarded building.
The tree is thought to be upwards of 175 years old. Wood Street is home to Wood Street Indoor Market; the market was the site of a cinema
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Rutland; the region has an area of 15,627 km2, with a population over 4.5 million in 2011. There are five main urban centres, Leicester, Lincoln and Nottingham. Others include Boston, Chesterfield, Grantham, Kettering, Mansfield, Newark-on-Trent and Wellingborough. Relative proximity to London and its position on the national motorway and trunk road networks help the East Midlands to thrive as an economic hub. Nottingham and Leicester are each classified as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the region is served by East Midlands Airport, which lies between Derby and Nottingham. The high point at 636 m is Kinder Scout, in the Peak District of the southern Pennines in northwest Derbyshire near Glossop. Other upland, hilly areas of 95 to 280 m in altitude, together with lakes and reservoirs, rise in and around the Charnwood Forest north of Leicester, in the Lincolnshire Wolds.
The region's major rivers, the Nene, the Soar, the Trent and the Welland, flow in a northeasterly direction towards the Humber and the Wash. The Derwent, rises in the High Peak before flowing south to join the Trent some 2 miles before its conflux with the Soar; the centre of the East Midlands area lies between Bingham and Bottesford, Leicestershire. The geographical centre of England lies in Higham on the Hill in west Leicestershire, close to the boundary between the Leicestershire and Warwickshire; some 88 per cent of the land is rural in character, although agriculture accounts for less than three per cent of the region's jobs. Lincolnshire is the only maritime county of the six, with a true North Sea coastline of about 30 miles due to the protection afforded by Spurn Head and the North Norfolk foreshore. Church Flatts Farm in Coton in the Elms, South Derbyshire, is the furthest place from the sea in the UK. In April 1936 the first Ordnance Survey trig point was sited at Cold Ashby in Northamptonshire.
The Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts and The Wildlife Trusts are based next to the River Trent and Newark Castle railway station. The National Centre for Earth Observation is at the University of Leicester; the region is home to large quantities of limestone, the East Midlands Oil Province. Charnwood Forest is noted for its abundant levels of volcanic rock, estimated to be 600 million years old. A quarter of the UK's cement is manufactured in the region, at three sites in Hope and Tunstead in Derbyshire, Ketton Cement Works in Rutland. Of the aggregates produced in the region, 25 per cent are from Derbyshire and four per cent from Leicestershire. Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire each produce around 30 per cent of the region's sand and gravel output. Barwell in Leicestershire was the site of Britain's largest meteorite on 24 December 1965; the 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake was 5.2 in magnitude. Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Conservation Areas include: Charnwood Forest Coversand Heaths Derbyshire Peak Fringe and Lower Derwent Humberhead Levels Leighland Forest The Lincolnshire Limewoods and Heaths The Lincolnshire coast The Peak District Rockingham Forest Sherwood Forest Rutland, SW Lincolnshire and N Northamptonshire The Wash Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Enhancement Areas include: The Coalfields The Daventry Grasslands The Fens The Lincolnshire Coastal Grazing Marshes The Lincolnshire Wolds The National Forest The Yardley-Whittlewood RidgeTwo of the nationally designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are: The Peak District The Lincolnshire Wolds Several towns in the southern part of the region, including Market Harborough, Rothwell, Kettering, Thrapston and Stamford, lie within the boundaries of what was once Rockingham Forest – designated a royal forest by William the Conqueror and was long hunted by English kings and queens.
The National Forest is an environmental project in central England run by The National Forest Company. Areas of north Leicestershire, south Derbyshire and south-east Staffordshire covering around 200 square miles are being planted in an attempt to blend ancient woodland with new plantings, it stretches from the western outskirts of Leicester in the east to Burton upon Trent in the west, is planned to link the ancient forests of Needwood and Charnwood. Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire attracts many visitors, is best known for its ties with the legend of Robin Hood. Regional financial funding decisions for the East Midlands are taken by East Midlands Councils, based in Melton Mowbray. East Midlands Councils is an unelected body made up of representatives of local government in the region; the defunct East Midlands Development Agency was headquartered next to the BBC's East Midlands office in Nottingham and made financial decisions regarding economic development in the region. Since the Conservative-Lib Dem coalition government launched its austerity programme after the 2010 general election, regional bodies such as those have been devolved to smaller groups now on a county level.
As a region today, there is no overriding body with significant financial or planning powers for the East Midlands. The East Midlands' largest settlements are Leicester, Derby, Chesterfield, Mansfield and Kettering. Leicester is the largest
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Hinckley is a market town in southwest Leicestershire, England. It is administered by Bosworth Borough Council. Hinckley is the second largest town in the administrative county of Leicestershire, after Loughborough. Hinckley is situated at the midpoint between the cities of Leicester and Coventry and is near to the larger town of Nuneaton in Warwickshire. Hinckley has a history going back to Anglo-Saxon times. By the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, Hinckley was quite a large village, grew over the following 200 years into a small market town—a market was first recorded there in 1311. There is evidence of an Anglo Saxon church – the remnants of an Anglo Saxon sun-dial being visible on the diagonal buttress on the south-east corner of the chancel. In 2000, archaeologists from Northampton Archaeology discovered evidence of Iron Age and Romano-British settlement on land near Coventry Road and Watling Street. In the 17th century, the town developed producing stockings and similar items. Hinckley played a prominent part in the English Civil War.
Its proximity to several rival strongholds—the royalist garrisons at Caldicote, Ashby de la Zouch and Leicester, those of the Parliamentarians at Tamworth and Coventry, the presence of parties of troops or brigands occupying several fortified houses in nearby Warwickshire—ensured frequent visits by the warring parties. The local townsfolk were forced to decide whether to declare their allegiances or attempt to remain neutral—with the risk of having to pay levies and fines to both sides. In March 1644, Hinckley was occupied by a group of Royalist troops, though they were soon driven out by a force of Parliamentarians, who took many prisoners; the Civil War years were a unsettled time for the clergy in and around Hinckley. Parsons with parliamentary leanings like Thomas Cleveland, the vicar of Hinckley, suffered sequestration by the Leicester County Committee, like some of his "malignant" neighbours accused of visiting royalist garrisons or preaching against Parliament; the town was visited by both parliamentary and royalists troops from the rival garrisons parliamentary troops from Tamworth and Astley Castle in Warwickshire.
Troops from Coventry garrison were active in the town, taking horses and "free quarter" and availing themselves of'dyett and Beere', taking some of the inhabitants hostage for ransom. Royalist troops raided the town to threaten those with parliamentary sympathies; the notorious Lord Hastings of Ashby de la Zouch is recorded to have "coursed about the country as far as Dunton and Lutterworth and took near upon a hundred of the clergymen and others, carried them prisoners … threatening to hang all them that should take the Parliament's Covenant". Parliamentary newssheets record that on the night of 4 March 1644, Hastings's men brought in "26 honest countrymen from several towns" intending to take them to Ashby de la Zouch, along with a huge herd of cattle and horses from the country people and a minister named Mr Warner; these prisoners were herded into Hinckley church and asked "in a jeering manner,'Where are the Round-heads your brethren at Leicester? Why come they not to redeem you?'" The Parliamentarians responded in a memorable "Skirmish or Great Victory for Parliament".
Colonel Grey with 120 foot-soldiers and 30 troopers from Bagworth House rushed to Hinckley and re-took the town, routed the Royalists, rescued the cattle and released their imprisoned countrymen. No doubt the inhabitants of the town were as relieved as any when Ashby surrendered, as Vicars records, "a great mercy and mighty preservation of the peace and tranquility of all those adjacent parts about it." At the time of the first national census in 1801, Hinckley had a population of 5,158: twenty years it had increased by about a thousand. The largest industry in the early 19th century was the making of hosiery and only Leicester had a larger output of stockings. In the district, it was estimated. Joseph Hansom built the first Hansom cab in Hinckley in 1835. In 1899 A Cottage Hospital was built to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria two years earlier. Money was raised by the local townspeople and factory owners notably John and Thomas Atkins who had a hand in building many of the key buildings of Hinckley.
The corner stone was laid by Sir John Fowke Lancelot Rolleston. This hospital was central to the people of Hinckley and supported by local workers who donated one penny a week for its upkeep until it was adopted by the NHS in 1948. Over the years it expanded to align with the town. Sadly now, this historic beautiful building, appears dilapidated in some areas and is threatened with closure and demolition by West Leicestershire Clinical Commissioning Group and NHS Properties LTD; the local community is facing a fight to save it for the town and petitions gave been signed both online and on paper. The area was subject to new housing developments in the 1960s and 1990s. Hinckley became an urban district under the Local Government Act 1894, covering the ancient parish of Hinckley. In 1934, under a County Review Order, Hinckley urban district expanded to include the ancient parishes of Barwell and Earl Shilton and most of Stoke Golding. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972 the Hinckley urban district was abolished, becoming an unparished area in the borough of Hinckley and Bosworth.
Since the civil parishes of Barwell, Earl Shilton and Stoke Golding have been re-established. The core urban area remained unparished. Hollycroft and Wykin are suburbs of Hinckley. Burbage is thought to be a suburb o
Robert Burton (scholar)
Robert Burton was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy. He was the incumbent of St Thomas the Martyr, of Seagrave in Leicestershire. Born at Lindley, Robert Burton was the son of Ralph and Dorothy Burton and the brother of William Burton the antiquary. Burton spent most of his life at Oxford, first as a pupil at Brasenose College, as a student of Christ Church, he studied a large number of diverse subjects, many of which informed the study of melancholia, for which he is chiefly famous. He was appointed vicar of St Thomas' Church in Oxford in 1616, in 1630 he was made the rector of Seagrave in Leicestershire. Burton was a dabbled in astrology; when not depressed he was an amusing companion, "very merry and juvenile", a person of "great honesty, plain dealing, charity". Merry, Burton had favourite sources for laughter. In 1728 Bishop Kennett wrote that: I have heard that nothing could make him laugh, but going down to the Bridge-foot in Oxford and hearing the Barge-men scold and storm and swear at one another, at which he would set his Hands to his Sides, laugh most profusely.
There was a rumour that Burton hanged himself in his chambers at Christ Church so that his death would match his prediction. Burton was buried at Christ Church Cathedral in Oxford. Burton's Melancholy focuses on the self, his enormous treatise is considered "delightful" by critics. Melancholy was responsible, according to Burton and others, for the wild passions and despairs of lovers, the agonies and ecstasies of religious devotees, the frenzies of madmen, the studious abstraction exemplified by scholars such as Shakespeare or Milton, he wrote The Anatomy of Melancholy to write himself out of being a lifelong sufferer from depression. As he described his condition in the preface "Democritus Junior to the Reader," for I had gravidum cor, foetum caput, a kind of imposthume in my head, which I was desirous to be unladen of. Therefore, the treatise itself was intended as treatment. Again, from the preface: I write of melancholy, by being busy to avoid melancholy. There is no greater cause of melancholy than no better cure than business.
However, this sentence may be interpreted as Burton is citing a well-known adage of the time. Indeed, the entire preface is quite satirical in nature—at one point Burton pretends to warn melancholics to avoid his book for fear of exacerbating their symptoms: Yet one caution let me give by the way to my present or future reader, melancholy, that he read not the symptoms or prognostics in the following tract, lest by applying that which he reads to himself, appropriating things spoken to his own person, he trouble or hurt himself, get in conclusion more harm than good; the parenthetical aside is meant to be tongue-in-cheek. The work, published under the pseudonym Democritus Junior in 1621, was quite popular. In the words of Thomas Warton: the author's variety of learning, his quotations from rare and curious books, his pedantry sparkling with rude wit and shapeless elegance... have rendered it a repertory of amusement and information. Many writers were influenced by the book's odd mix of pan-scholarship, linguistic skill, creative insights.
This influence was so strong that writers sometimes drew from the work without acknowledgment. Samuel Johnson considered it one of his favourite books, being "the only book that took him out of bed two hours sooner than he wished to rise"; the book has continued as a favourite among many twentieth and twenty-first-century authors, such as Anthony Burgess, William H. Gass, Llewelyn Powys. Apart from The Anatomy of Melancholy Burton's only other published work is Philosophaster, a satirical Latin comedy; the Anatomy of Melancholy, New York Review of Books, 2001. One-volume reprint of 1932 three-volume Everyman pocket edition, with a new introduction by William H. Gass The Anatomy of Melancholy, Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, 1989–2001. A scholarly edition in six volumes with commentary, edited by Thomas C. Faulkner, Nicolas K. Kiessling, Rhonda L. Blair and commented by J. B. Bamborough; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature.
London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Heusser, Martin; the Gilded Pill: The Reader-Writer Relationship in Robert Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy. Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 1987. Review and quotes at complete review Entry at the Columbia Encyclopedia The BBC's "In Our Time" discusses The Anatomy of Melancholy. Online texts Works written by or about Robert Burton at Wikisource Works by Robert Burton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Robert Burton at Internet Archive Works by Robert Burton at LibriVox