Holland Park is an area of Kensington, on the western edge of Central London, that contains a street and public park of the same name. It has no official boundaries but is bounded by Kensington High Street to the south, Holland Road to the west, Holland Park Avenue to the north, Kensington Church Street to the east. Adjacent districts are Notting Hill to the north, Earl's Court to the south, Shepherd's Bush to the northwest; the area is principally composed of tree-lined streets with large Victorian townhouses, contains many shops, cultural tourist attractions such as the Design Museum, luxury spas and restaurants, as well as the embassies of several countries. The street of Holland Park is formed from three linked roads constructed between 1860 and 1880 in projects of master builders William and Francis Radford, who were contracted to build and built over 200 houses in the area. Notable nineteenth-century residential developments in the area include the Royal Crescent and Aubrey House; the district was rural until the 19th century, most of the area now referred to by the name Holland Park was the grounds of a Jacobean mansion called Holland House.
In the decades of that century the owners of the house sold off the more outlying parts of its grounds for residential development, the district which evolved took its name from the house. It included some small areas around the fringes which had never been part of the grounds of Holland House, notably the Phillimore Estate and the Campden Hill Square area. In the late 19th century a number of notable artists and art collectors lived in the area, known as the Holland Park Circle; the park covers about 22 hectares, with a northern half of semi-wild woodland, central section of formal garden areas, southernmost section used for sport. Holland House is now a fragmentary ruin, having been devastated by incendiary bombing during the Second World War in 1940, but the ruins and the grounds were bought by London County Council in 1952 from the last private owner, the 6th Earl of Ilchester. Today the remains of the house form a backdrop for the open air Holland Park Theatre, the home of Opera Holland Park.
To the immediate south of the park is the former site of the Commonwealth Institute, now home to the Design Museum. The park contains a café, as well as the Belvedere Restaurant, attached to the orangery, a giant chess set, a cricket pitch, tennis courts, two Japanese gardens - the Kyoto Garden and Fukushima Memorial Garden, a youth hostel, a children's playground and peacocks. In 2010, the park set aside a section for pigs whose job was to reclaim the area from nettles etc. in order to create another meadow area for wild flowers and fauna. Cattle were used subsequently to similar effect; the Holland Park Ecology Centre, operated by the borough's Ecology Service, offers environmental education programs including nature walks, programs for schools and outdoor activity programs for children. Map of Holland Park - the word "Kensington" is printed across the middle of Holland Park. Kensington is a large district and Holland Park is a subsection of it; the heart of London is off the map to the right.
The local council's page on the park Friends of Holland Park Opera Holland Park Holland Park Chess
London Air Park
London Air Park known as Hanworth Air Park, was a grass airfield in the grounds of Hanworth Park House, operational 1917–1919 and 1929–1947. It was on the southeastern edge of Feltham, now part of the London Borough of Hounslow. In the 1930s, it was best known as a centre for private flying, society events, visits by the Graf Zeppelin airship, for aircraft manufacture by General Aircraft Limited 1934–1949. Hanworth Park House was built by the Duke of St Albans to replace Old Hanworth Park, burnt down in 1797. For remains of earlier house see remains listed in Tudor Court and Tudor Close, Ann Stanhope, it has a tall basement. Hanworth Park House has an impressive 11 French casement windows on both floors, opening on to balcony, a central open pediment and a hipped slate roof, sloping down on all sides. Both floors have cast iron trellis; the ground one has a central Portland stone, tetrastyle, fluted columned front porch, with a frieze end cornice. In front, 17 wide Portland stone steps lead to the house with plain balustrades and cast iron lanterns.
A rosette frieze is above the each level. The west side has a balcony on brackets to a veranda. Inside the style is Greek stone and plaster with some alteration; the staircase is with a square central glazed lantern above. At the end of 1915, the Whitehead Aircraft Co Ltd, headed by John Alexander Whitehead, manufactured six B. E. 2b aircraft at his small factory in Richmond, Surrey. That was followed by an order for one hundred Maurice Farman MF.11 Shorthorns. Whitehead purchased the whole of Hanworth Park, plus an area northwest of the park. Since 1915, Hanworth Park House, in the centre of the park, was occupied by the British Red Cross for recuperation of wounded servicemen; the Longford River, flowing northwest-southeast, was culverted and covered, to permit aircraft to taxy over it. Large factory buildings and assembly sheds were constructed on the separate northwest site, to accommodate production of an order from Sopwith Aviation Company of Kingston upon Thames for Sopwith Pups; the original company was taken over by Whitehead Aviation Construction Co Ltd, that became Whitehead Aircraft Ltd.
The first Pups built at Whitehead's Richmond works, were flown from Hanworth aerodrome in early 1917. In 1917, the aerodrome was designated an Aircraft Acceptance Park, a location where aircraft were assembled and tested before delivery to RFC squadrons; the factory employed 600 workers in 1916, by 1918 covered 325,000 sq ft. In 1917, the Whitehead Flying School was formed. Production of Pups ended in early 1918; the final aircraft production was of 500 Airco D. H.9s, ending in October 1919. Whitehead offered several projected aircraft designs. In 1920, diversification plans failed, Whitehead Aircraft was dissolved, 2,000 workers were dismissed, J. A. Whitehead went bankrupt. In January 1924, Feltham Garden Suburbs Ltd acquired Hanworth Park and other assets of Whitehead Aircraft. In 1925, the Union Construction Company leased the southwest section of the former Whitehead works, for subsequent production of underground trains,'Feltham' metal-framed trams, trolleybuses, closed in 1932. In 1926, Aston Martin purchased buildings at the northern end of the industrial site nearest to Feltham, for car production that continued until 1956.
In November 1928, National Flying Services Ltd was formed, under a proposal by the Hon Frederick Guest for a central organisation to co-ordinate a national network of flying clubs and aerodromes. In January 1929, the British government published a White Paper that set out the terms of an agreement with NFS. NFS developed Hanworth Park as a functional aerodrome, renamed London Air Park, with Hanworth Park House as a country club and the headquarters of NFS. Hangars were erected in four separate areas of the park. On 31 August 1929, Hanworth aerodrome was re-opened by Duchess of Bedford; the first training aircraft used by NFS were Simmonds Spartans, DH.60X Moths and DH.60M Moths, followed by Blackburn Bluebird IVs. During 1930, NFS started operating Desoutters for charter work. Following a financial loss in the first year, Sir Alan Cobham joined the board, Colonel the Master of Sempill became Chairman. London Air Park gained notoriety for garden party fly-ins, air pageants and air races, presence of celebrities such as Stanley Baldwin MP PM.
On 5 July 1930, Hanworth hosted the King's Cup Air Race. On 18 August 1931, the German airship'Graf Zeppelin' visited Hanworth. On 2 July 1932, it returned as part of a round-Britain tour, next day operated paid flights over London. In 1932, NFS financial losses continued, the British government withdrew its subsidy. In June 1933, NFS was in receivership, but continued to function until October 1934; the NFS flying club re-formed as the London Air Park Flying Club. In 1932, the Cierva Autogiro Company moved most of its UK final assembly and sales of its autogiros from the Avro facility at Hamble to Hanworth, it operated the Cierva autogiro flying school, it conducted flight testing of Weir W-2 and W-3 experimental autogiros on behalf of the Weir Group, who helped finance Cierva. Production and rebuilds included 66 Avro-built Cierva C.30s, until 1948
Finsbury Park is a public park in the London neighbourhood of Harringay. It is in the area covered by the historic parish of Hornsey, succeeded by the Municipal Borough of Hornsey, it was one of the first of the great London parks laid out in the Victorian era. The park borders the residential neighbourhoods of Harringay, Finsbury Park, Stroud Green, Manor House; the park has a mix of formal gardens, avenues of mature trees and an arboretum. There is a lake, a children's play area, a cafe and an art exhibition space. Sports facilities in the park include football pitches, a bowling green, a skatepark, an athletics stadium, tennis and basketball courts. Unusually for London, the park hosts two facilities for "American" sports: an American football field, home to the London Blitz, diamonds for softball and baseball, home to the London Mets. Parkland Walk, a linear park, provides a route that links the park with Crouch Hill Park, Crouch End, Highgate Underground station; the park was landscaped on the northeastern extremity of what was a woodland area in the Manor or Prebend of Brownswood.
It was part of a large expanse of woodland called Hornsey Wood, cut further and further back for use as grazing land during the Middle Ages. In the mid-18th century a tea room had opened on the knoll of land on which Finsbury Park is situated. Londoners would travel north to escape the smoke of the capital and enjoy the last remains of the old Hornsey Wood. Around 1800 the tea rooms were developed into a larger building which became known as the Hornsey Wood House/Tavern. A lake was created on the top of the knoll with water pumped up from the nearby New River. There was boating, a shooting and archery range, cock fighting and other blood sports; the Hornsey Wood Tavern was demolished in the process of making the area into a park, but the lake was enlarged. Once the park had opened, a pub across the road from its eastern entrance along Seven Sisters Road called itself the Hornsey Wood Tavern after the original; this pub was renamed the Alexandra Dining Room and closed for business in April 2007.
It was subsequently demolished. During the early part of the second quarter of the 19th century, following developments in Paris, Londoners began to demand the creation of open spaces as an antidote to the ever-increasing urbanisation of London. In 1841 the people of Finsbury on the northern perimeter of the City of London petitioned for a park to alleviate conditions of the poor; the present-day site of Finsbury Park was one of four suggestions for the location of a park. To be named Albert Park, the first plans were drawn up in 1850. Renamed Finsbury Park, plans for the park's creation were ratified by an Act of Parliament in 1857. Despite some local opposition, the park was opened in 1869. During the First World War the park was known as a location for pacifist meetings. During the Second World War, the park was used as military training grounds and hosted anti-aircraft guns. Through the late 20th Century the park began to fall into a state of disrepair with most of the original features gone by the 1980s.
This decline was worsened in 1986 when the owner, Greater London Council, was wound up and ownership was passed on Haringey Council but without sufficient funding or a statutory obligation for the park's upkeep. A £5 million Heritage Lottery Fund Award, made in 2003, enabled significant renovations including cleaning the lake, building a new cafe and children's playground and resurfacing and repairing the tennis courts; the park now contains tennis courts, a running track, a softball field and many open spaces for various leisure activities. The park has hosted several live music performances and music festivals. 1967: Jimi Hendrix, 1986: The Damned,1987: Acid Daze Festival, 1990: The Mission, 1990-2003: Fleadh Festival, 1992: Madstock!, 1992: A Gathering of the Tribes,| 1993: Bob Dylan, 1993: Great Xpectations Festival. 1996: Sex Pistols, as part of the Filthy Lucre Tour, 1997: KISS, 1998:Pulp, 2002: Oasis, New Order, 2003: Limp Bizkit, 2006-2010: Rise Festival, 2010: Rage Against the Machine, 2011: Feis festival, 2013:The Stone Roses, 2014: Arctic Monkeys, 2014-2017: Wireless Festival, 2016: Hospitality in the Park festival, 2017: Community Music Festival, 2018: Liam Gallagher, Queens of the Stone Age and Iggy Pop.
In 2007 Groove Armada filmed their music video for Song 4 Mutya at the park. In 2009, Rachid Bouchareb filmed London River in Finsbury Park
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, in London, United Kingdom, is a sporting complex spanning Stratford, Bow and Leyton. It was built for the 2012 Summer Olympics and the Paralympics, situated to the east of the city adjacent to the Stratford City development, it contains the athletes' Olympic Village and several of the sporting venues including the London Stadium and London Aquatics Centre, besides the London Olympics Media Centre. The park is overlooked by the ArcelorMittal Orbit, an observation tower and Britain's largest piece of public art, it was called Olympic Park during the Games but was renamed to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. The park occupies an area straddling four east London boroughs. Part of the park reopened in July 2013, while a large majority of the rest reopened in April 2014; the site covers parts of Stratford, Bow and Hackney Wick in east London, overlooking the A12 road. The site was a mixture of greenfield and brownfield land, including parts of Hackney Marshes.
The Royal Mail gave the park and Stratford City the postcode E20, which had only appeared in the television soap opera EastEnders for the fictional suburb of Walford. On 2 August 2011, it was announced the five neighbourhoods of housing and amenities are: Chobham Manor in the London Borough of Newham East Wick in the London Borough of Hackney Sweetwater in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets Pudding Mill in the London Borough of Newham Marshgate Wharf in the London Borough of NewhamThese names have relevant history in the area. All four of the East London boroughs covering the park as such have a neighbourhood except for Waltham Forest; the park was designed by the EDAW Consortium, working with WS Atkins. Detailed landscape architecture was by LDA Design in conjunction with Hargreaves Associates. LDA design contracted Wallace Whittle to carry out various aspects of the M+E Building services design; the NHBC carried out the Sustainability assessments. The park was illuminated with a lighting scheme designed by Sutton Vane Associates.
London's Olympic and Paralympic bid proposed that there would be four indoor arenas in the park in addition to the main venues, but the revised master plan published in 2006 reduced this to three, with the volleyball events moved to the Earls Court Exhibition Centre. The fencing arena was cancelled, with the fencing events taking place at ExCeL London; the remaining indoor arenas are the Basketball Arena and the Copper Box, in addition to the Water Polo Arena, the Aquatics Centre, the Velopark. The final design of the park was approved by the Olympic Delivery Authority and its planning-decisions committee; the Legacy List is the independent charity for Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, set up in 2011 to support the legacy of the Games. Their mission is to make creative connections between people and the Park by developing and supporting high quality art and skill building initiatives, to engage and inspire current and future generations. During its construction over 80,000 workers were engaged on the project.
The construction of the Olympic Park was managed by CLM Delivery Partner, comprising CH2M Hill, Laing O'Rourke and Mace. CLM managed the "white" space between the venue construction zones, including managing the internal road network. To enable the major phase of construction to begin, the 52 electricity pylons, up to 65 metres high, that dominated the landscape in and around the park were removed and the power transferred through new underground tunnels constructed by Murphy, known as the PLUG project – Powerlines Undergrounding. Following site clearance, the soil across the Park site was cleaned down to a human health layer, by soil washing. London Aquatics Centre Copper Box Arena Lee Valley Hockey and Tennis Centre Lee Valley VeloPark London Stadium ArcelorMittal Orbit East Village, London London Olympics Media Centre International Quarter London Northern ParklandsIn addition, at the time of the Olympic and Paralympic games: Eton Manor Riverbank Arena Water Polo Arena Basketball Arena Park Live Rowan Moore, writing in The Guardian when the QE Park opened, commented that: "There is a frenzy of wacky light fittings, of playground installations, of seats, tree species, sculptural lumps of granite, kiosks and coloured surfaces...
It suffers from an Olympic syndrome, where everyone wants to be a Mo or a Jessica and make their mark. No one, except the admirable Oudolf, wants to do the quiet stuff. Not the student housing developers Unite, who have built an astoundingly ugly block of 1,001 units between the Athletes' Village and Westfield shopping centre that looms aggressively in every vista. Great care was taken to make the Athletes' Village aesthetically orderly, to the point where it began to resemble Ceausescu's Bucharest: this eruption makes such efforts futile." Robert Holden and Tom Turner, in a review of the Olympic Park's landscape architecture state that'Our fundamental point is that "the landscape planning is much better than the landscape design". The landscape planning includes the opening up of the River Lea in the northern section of the park, the habitat-creation strategy and the park's excellent links with its hinterland; the landscape design is dominated by vast pedestrian concourses which will be busy during events but will resemble unused airport runways on every other occasion.
There is some good garden-type planting but it has not been used to make "gardens": it is used more like strips of planti
Richmond Park, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, was created by Charles I in the 17th century as a deer park. The largest of London's Royal Parks, it is of national and international importance for wildlife conservation; the park is a national nature reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation and is included, at Grade I, on Historic England's Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England. Its landscapes have inspired many famous artists and it has been a location for several films and TV series. Richmond Park includes many buildings of historic interest; the Grade I-listed White Lodge was a royal residence and is now home to the Royal Ballet School. The park's boundary walls and ten other buildings are listed at Grade II, including Pembroke Lodge, the home of 19th-century British Prime Minister Lord John Russell and his grandson, the philosopher Bertrand Russell; the preserve of the monarch, the park is now open for all to use and includes a golf course and other facilities for sport and recreation.
It played an important role in the 1948 and 2012 Olympics. Richmond Park is the largest of London's Royal Parks, it is the second-largest park in London and is Britain's second-largest urban walled park after Sutton Park, Birmingham. Measuring 3.69 square miles, it is comparable in size to Paris's Bois de Vincennes and Bois de Boulogne. It is half the size of Casa de Campo and around three times the size of Central Park in New York. Of national and international importance for wildlife conservation, most of Richmond Park is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a National Nature Reserve and Special Area of Conservation; the largest Site of Special Scientific Interest in London, it was designated as an SSSI in 1992, excluding the area of the golf course, Pembroke Lodge Gardens and the Gate Gardens. In its citation, Natural England said: "Richmond Park has been managed as a royal deer park since the seventeenth century, producing a range of habitats of value to wildlife. In particular, Richmond Park is of importance for its diverse deadwood beetle fauna associated with the ancient trees found throughout the parkland.
In addition the park supports the most extensive area of dry acid grassland in Greater London."The park was designated as an SAC in April 2005 on account of its having "a large number of ancient trees with decaying timber. It is at the heart of the south London centre of distribution for stag beetle Lucanus cervus, is a site of national importance for the conservation of the fauna of invertebrates associated with the decaying timber of ancient trees". Since October 1987 the park has been included, at Grade I, on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England, being described in Historic England's listing as "A royal deer park with pre C15 origins, imparked by Charles I and improved by subsequent monarchs. A public open space since the mid C19". Richmond Park is located in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, it is close to Richmond, Petersham, Kingston upon Thames, Wimbledon and East Sheen. The Secretary of State for Culture and Sport manages Richmond Park and the other Royal Parks of London under powers set out in the Crown Lands Act 1851, which transferred management of the parks from the monarch to the government.
Day-to-day management of the Royal Parks has been delegated to The Royal Parks, an executive agency of the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport. The Royal Parks' Board sets the strategic direction for the agency. Appointments to the Board are made by the Mayor of London; the Friends of Richmond Park and the Friends of Bushy Park co-chair the Richmond and Bushy Parks Forum, comprising 38 local groups of local stakeholder organisations. The forum was formed in September 2010 to consider proposals to bring Richmond Park and Bushy Park – and London's other royal parks – under the control of the Mayor of London through a new Royal Parks Board and to make a joint response. Although welcoming the principles of the new governance arrangements, the forum and the Friends of Richmond Park have expressed concerns about the composition of the new board. Richmond Park is the most visited royal park outside central London, with 4.4 million visits in 2014. The park is enclosed by a high wall with several gates.
The gates either allow pedestrian and bicycle access only, or allow bicycle and other vehicle access. The gates for motor vehicle access are open only during daylight hours, the speed limit is 20 mph; the gates for pedestrians and cyclists are open 24 hours a day apart from during the deer cull in February and November when the park is closed in the evenings. Apart from taxis, no commercial vehicles are allowed unless they are being used to transact business with residents of the park. From March to October, a free bus service runs on Wednesdays, stopping at the main car parks and the gate at Isabella Plantation nearest Peg's Pond; the gates open to motor traffic are: Sheen Gate, Richmond Gate, Ham Gate, Kingston Gate, Roehampton Gate and Chohole Gate. There is pedestrian and bicycle access to the park 24 hours a day except during the deer cull in February and November when the pedestrian gates are closed between 8:00 pm and 7:30 am; the Beverley Brook Walk runs through the park between Robin Hood Gate.
The Capital Ring walking route passes through the park from Robin Hood
Kensington Gardens, once the private gardens of Kensington Palace, are among the Royal Parks of London. The gardens are shared by the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and sit to the west of Hyde Park, in western central London; the gardens cover an area of 270 acres. The open spaces of Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Green Park, St. James's Park together form an continuous "green lung" in the heart of London. Kensington Gardens are Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Kensington Gardens are regarded as being the western extent of the neighbouring Hyde Park from which they were taken, with West Carriage Drive and the Serpentine Bridge forming the boundary between them; the Gardens are more formal than Hyde Park. Kensington Gardens are open only during the hours of daylight, whereas Hyde Park is open from 5 am until midnight all year round. Kensington Gardens has been long regarded as "smart" because of its more private character around Kensington Palace.
However, in the late 1800s, Hyde Park was considered more "fashionable," because of its location nearer to Park Lane and Knightsbridge. Kensington Gardens was the western section of Hyde Park, created by Henry VIII in 1536 to use as a hunting ground, it was separated from the remainder of Hyde Park in 1728 at the request of Queen Caroline and designed by Henry Wise and Charles Bridgeman in order to form a landscape garden, with fashionable features including the Round Pond, formal avenues and a sunken Dutch garden. Bridgeman created the Serpentine between 1726 and 1731 by damming the eastern outflow of the River Westbourne from Hyde Park; the part of the Serpentine that lies within Kensington Gardens is known as "The Long Water". At its north-western end in an area known as "The Italian Garden", there are four fountains and a number of classical sculptures. At the foot of the Italian Gardens is a parish boundary marker, delineating the boundary between Paddington and St George Hanover Square parishes, on the exact centre of the Westbourne river.
The land surrounding Kensington Gardens was predominantly rural and remained undeveloped until the Great Exhibition in 1851. Many of the original features survive along with the Palace, now there are other public buildings such as the Albert Memorial, the Serpentine Gallery, Speke's monument; the park contains the Elfin Oak, an elaborately carved 900-year-old tree stump. The park is the setting of J. M. Barrie's book Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, a prelude to the character's famous adventures in Neverland; the fairies of the gardens are first described in Thomas Tickell's 1722 poem Kensington Gardens. Both the book and the character are honoured with the Peter Pan statue by George Frampton located in the park. Rodrigo Fresán's novel Kensington Gardens concerns in part the life of J. M. Barrie and of his creation Peter Pan, their relationship with the park, as well as the narrator's own; the Infocom interactive fiction game Trinity begins in the Kensington Gardens. The player can walk around many sections of the gardens.
List of public art in Kensington Gardens Citations Bibliography Official website The Garden a poem by Ezra Pound set in Kensington Gardens
Parks and open spaces in London
There are many parks and open spaces in Greater London, England. Green space in central London consists of five of the capital's eight Royal Parks, supplemented by a number of small garden squares scattered throughout the city centre. Open space in the rest of the region is dominated by the remaining three Royal Parks and many other parks and open spaces of a range of sizes, run by the local London boroughs, although other owners include the National Trust and the City of London Corporation. London is totaling 35,000 acres; the centrepieces of Greater London's park system are the eight Royal Parks of London. Covering 1976 hectares, they are former royal hunting grounds. Richmond Park 955 ha Bushy Park 450 ha Regent's Park 197 ha Hyde Park 140 ha Kensington Gardens 111 ha Greenwich Park 73 ha St. James's Park 34 ha Green Park 16 ha Many of the smaller green spaces in central London are garden squares, which were built for the private use of the residents of the fashionable districts, but in some cases are now open to the public.
Notable examples open to the public are Russell Square in Bloomsbury, Lincoln's Inn Fields in Holborn and Soho Square in Soho. The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea contains over a hundred garden squares whose use is restricted to residents; the upkeep of many of these spaces is paid for through a levy on top of residents' council tax. In addition to these spaces, a large number of council-owned parks were developed between the mid 19th century and the Second World War. Victoria Park 86.18 ha, Battersea Park 83 ha. Crystal Palace Park, South London 80 ha Alexandra Park 80 ha Brockwell Park 51 hectares Other major open spaces in the suburbs include: Thames Chase 9,842 hectares Epping Forest, 2,476 hectares Wildspace Conservation Park 645 hectares Wimbledon Common, about 460 hectares Hampstead Heath, 320 hectares Walthamstow Wetlands 211 hectares Mitcham Common 182 hectares Trent Park 169 hectares Hainault Forest Country Park 136 hectares Clapham Common, 89 hectares Wormwood Scrubs, 80 hectares Wandsworth Common, 73 hectares South Norwood Country Park 47 hectares They have a more informal and semi-natural character, having been countryside areas protected against surrounding urbanisation.
Some cemeteries provide extensive green land within the city — notably Highgate Cemetery, burial place of Karl Marx and Michael Faraday amongst others. Completing London's array of green spaces are two paid entrance gardens — the leader is the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, whilst the royal residence of Hampton Court Palace has a celebrated garden. All Outer London boroughs contain sections of the metropolitan green belt. There are over a hundred registered commons in London, ranging in size from small fragments of land to large expanses. There are two historic lavender fields in the London Borough of Sutton. One, at Oaks Way, Carshalton Beeches is three acres in size and is run as a not-for-profit community project; the other, a 25-acre commercial site in Croydon Lane called Mayfield, is popular with tourists. Situated on the North Downs of Surrey, the locality is ideal for lavender cultivation, owing to the chalky free-draining nature of the soil, it was known as the "Lavender Capital of the World" from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, with global production of the plant centred here and blue fields dotting the area.
There are several types of London greenways including the Thames Path. List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London List of Local Nature Reserves in Greater London Walking in London London Parks and Gardens Trust London Landscape Architecture Visitors Guide Green-Spaces Guide to London Green Spaces Near You in London