Viburnum edule, the squashberry, pembina, highbush cranberry, lowbush cranberry or moosomin in Cree language, is a small shrub species. It is native to Canada and the northern parts of the US. "Viburnum edule". Plants for a Future
Viburnum opulus is a species of flowering plant in the family Adoxaceae native to Europe, northern Africa and central Asia. The common name'guelder rose' relates to the Dutch province of Gelderland, where a popular cultivar, the snowball tree originated. Other common names include water elder, cramp bark, snowball tree and European cranberrybush, though this plant is not related to the cranberry; some botanists include the North American species Viburnum trilobum as V. opulus var. americanum Ait. or as V. opulus subsp. Trilobum Clausen. Viburnum opulus is a deciduous shrub growing to 4–5 m tall; the leaves are opposite, three-lobed, 5–10 cm long and broad, with a rounded base and coarsely serrated margins. The leaf buds are green, with valvate bud scales; the hermaphrodite flowers are white, produced in corymbs 4–11 cm in diameter at the top of the stems. The fruit is a globose bright red drupe 7–10 mm diameter, containing a single seed; the seeds are dispersed by birds. Viburnum opulus is grown as an ornamental plant for its flowers and berries, growing best on moist, moderately alkaline soils, though tolerating most soil types well.
Several cultivars have been selected, including'Roseum', in which all the flowers are only of the larger sterile type, with globular flower heads. There is some confusion, as there are a few other plants, including other members of the genus Viburnum referred to as "snowball bush"; the shrub is cultivated as a component of hedgerows, cover plantings, as part of other naturalistic plantings in its native regions. It is naturalised in North America, where it is called "European cranberrybush"; the cultivars'Notcutt’s Variety','Roseum' and'Xanthocarpum' have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The fruit is edible in small quantities, with a acidic taste, it is however mildly toxic, may cause vomiting or diarrhea if eaten in large amounts. The term cramp bark is related to the properties of the bark's ability to reduce smooth muscle tightness, it is called cramp bark as relieving this type of muscle tightness is most associated with relieving women's menstrual cramps. However, this can be used during pregnancy for cramps or pain and general muscle cramping.
Mentions of the viburnum can be found throughout Ukrainian folklore such as songs, decorative art, Ukrainian embroidery, poetry. Its symbolic roots can be traced to the Slavic paganism of millennia ago. According to a legend, kalyna was associated with the birth of the Universe, the so-called Fire Trinity: the Sun, the Moon, the Star, its berries symbolize one's home and native land and family roots. Kalyna is depicted on Ukrainian embroidery: towels and shirts. In Slavic paganism kalyna represents the beauty of a young lady, which rhymes well in the Ukrainian language: ka-ly-na — div-chy-na; the song Chervona Kalyna was the anthem of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, a berry cluster is today an insignia of the Ukrainian Army. Viburnum opulus is one of the national symbols of Russia. In Russia the Viburnum fruit is considered a national symbol. Kalina derived in Russian language from kalit' or raskalyat', which means "to make red-hot"; the red fiery color of the berries represents beauty in Russian culture and together with sweet rapsberries it symbolise the passionate love of a beautiful maiden, since berries were always an erotic symbol in Russia.
The name of the Russian song Kalinka is a diminutive of Kalina. Viburnum opulus is an important symbol of Russian national ornamental wood painting handicraft style called Khokhloma. Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C.. Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton. Huxley, A. ed.. New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. Flora Europaea: Viburnum opulus Plants for a Future: Viburnum opulus
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the lect used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. It is distinguished from national, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area, it is native spoken informally rather than written and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It can be regional dialect, sociolect or an independent language. In the context of language standardization, the term "vernacular" is used to refer to nonstandard dialects of a certain language, as opposed to its prestige normative forms. Usage of the word "vernacular" is not recent. In 1688, James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country. Here, mother language and dialect are in use in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster, "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from the Latin vernaculus, in figurative use in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad.
The figurative meaning was broadened from vernacula. Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, "termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular; the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin. In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the vernacular in Christian Europe, the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages with such works as the Bible in Dutch: published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.
In Catholicism, vernacular bibles were provided, but Latin was used at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass. In Eastern Orthodox Church, four Gospels translated to vernacular Ukrainian language in 1561 are known as Peresopnytsia Gospel. In India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be used in certain fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to the military power of Louis XIV of France. Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language.
In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese. The vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. For example, until the 1960s, Roman Rite Catholics held Masses in Latin rather than in vernaculars. In Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada and many others. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; these circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers
Viburnum trilobum is a species of Viburnum native to northern North America, from Newfoundland west to British Columbia, south to Washington state and east to northern Virginia. It is closely related to the European and Asian Viburnum opulus, is treated as a variety of it, as Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Ait. or as a subspecies, Viburnum opulus subsp. Trilobum Clausen, it is a deciduous shrub growing to 4 m tall. The bark has a scaly texture; the stems arch and are dense, the twigs are a reddish-brown color. The leaves are opposite, three-lobed, 6–12 cm long and 5–10 cm broad, with a rounded base and serrated margins; the leaf buds are green. The bud scales are valvate; the flowers are white. The fruit is an oblong red drupe 12 mm broad, containing a single flat, white seed. Plants begin to produce fruit at five years of age. Although called "highbush cranberry", it is not a cranberry; the name comes from the red fruits which look superficially like cranberries, have a similar flavor and ripen at the same time of year.
The fruits and rich in vitamin C, can be eaten raw or cooked into a sauce to serve with meat or game. The Inupiat mix boil them into a syrup; the larvae and adults of the Viburnum leaf beetle feed on the leaves and may defoliate the plant, repeated damage can kill it. This is a used berry in western Canadian cultures. Peoples of various origins both Native and European have used the berries for many years; the Canadian French name for the berries is pembina. The name pembina was applied to three rivers, one in Manitoba and North Dakota, one in Ontario, one in Alberta; the Ukrainians call the berry kalyna, now the name of an ecomusem in Alberta, Kalyna Country associated with Ukrainian Canadians. In Ukraine, Viburnum opulus is seen as a national symbol, an emblem for both the Koliada festivities and the concept of young girl’s love and tenderness, it is the key element of the Ukrainian traditional wreath. Missouri Plants UConn Plant Database: Viburnum trilobum